THEORIES ?IR?= Common abbreviation for International Relations, relations between (?inter?) nations ?IPE? = Common abbreviation for International Political Economy ?State?= Country, nation (France, Japan, Egypt, U.S.A.) ?Units? = Some types of IR theories refer to states as ?units? ?Globalization?= complex phenomenon defined differently; often refers to aspects of economic, social, cultural integration across the globe ?Transnational?= Operating across nations; organizations and social movements often work across country borders ?Governmental?= Of a government; funded or operated by a state or multiple states? governments; typically used to describe IGOs (international governmental organizations) like the International Monetary Fund ?Non-governmental?= Independent of state governments; typically used to describe NGOs (non-governmental organizations) like Greenpeace ?IR Theory?= As you will see, political scientists have tried to develop theories (frameworks) for understanding and explaining world politics ?Theoretical Approach?= Way the political world, its processes, and its actors are perceived/explained according to an IR theory ?Actor?= If you think of the political happenings around us as a play, its ?actors? are states, individuals, governmental organizations, non-governmental organizations, etc. ?Intl. System? = Consistent with this metaphor, the stage on which the actors act and political processes take place is the international ?system? IR Terms Plato? Greek political philosopher who argued that the life force in man is intelligent. Only a few people can have the insight into what is good; society should submit to the authority of these philosopher-kings. Aristotle- Greek political philosopher who addressed the problem of order in the individual Greek city-state. The first to use the comparative method of research, observing multiple points in time and suggesting explanations for the patterns found St. Thomas Aquinas- Italian theorist who wrote during the height of feudal Europe. Developed the framework of natural law- a fusion of classical philosophy, Christian theology, and Roman law. Natural law is followed by man instinctively and releases man?s good tendencies Thomas Hobbes- English political philosopher who in Leviathan described life in a state of nature as solitary, selfish, and brutish. Individuals and society can escape from the state of nature through a unitary state, a Leviathan Jean-Jacques Rousseau- French political philosopher whose seminal ideas were tested by the French Revolution. Described the state of nature in both national and international society. Argued that the solution to the state of nature is the social contract, whereby individuals gather in small communities where the ?general will? is realized Immanuel Kant- German political philosopher key to the idealist or utopian school of thought. Advocated a world federation of republics bound by the rule of law PHILOSPHER CONTRIBUTIONS TO IR THEORY LIBERALISM- equality (not ?liberals?) REALISM- every society for itself; don?t want to share Human nature Social Beings vs. Competitors Diagrams in Cooperation vs. Anarchy book ?RADICAL THEORY? (MARXIST THEORY) Class Behavior/Interactions ?Working?/?Ruling? Capitalism=Player (Actor) ?viewed as BAD System=Class Hierarchy Rich states/poor states Developed/Underdeveloped ?third world? Power, Domination of Capitalism ?CRITICAL THEORY? ? THERE IS NO ONE REALITY Theories not generalizable Content Dependent ?Objective reality? to analyze based on time What really happens/fact & culture ?There?s no difference between what really happens & what you perceive (subjective)? Realities = different experiences to a society Time, culture, ideology dependent ?POST-MODERN THEORY? ?States?? No patterns, just perceptions Storytelling & WHO Deconstruction of concepts (power, security) Scientific language/theory of BEHAVIORALISM The ?Behavioralist? Turn: 1950s/1960s (history/philosophy) Groups ? observable, patterned HYPOTHESES ? ?if, then? Ex: IF a state is democratic, THEN it will not go to war with another democratic state (democratic peace theory) Test w/ data (case studies, quantitative studies) CRITIQUES OF BEHAVIORALISM 1980s/1990s : What gets left out? Quantification? Correlation vs. Causation Reification of ?the state?, ?rationality?, ?interest??.(uses not fixed) Vs. language, perception & identity vis-à-vis Constructivism Constructivism Intersubjective- System not purely MATERIAL (guns, $$$) shared view/perception Reality is INTERSUBJECTIVE & SOCIALLY CONSTRUCTED Objective ?interests? of states? Perceptions Interests & IDs In flux, role of language TWO CONTENDING THEORIES: LIBERALISM VS. REALISM Ancient Empires ?Westphalia- WW2 The Development of IR: Eurocentric? EUROPEAN HISTORICAL EXPERIENCE IR Useful for non_European realities? Islamic caliphate, Chinese Empire Mediterranean & European state systems Ancient Greece: 400 BC Thucydides? Hist. of Peloponnesian War Athens vs. Sparta Causes: ?Power of Athens? OUTCOMES: Most powerful city-state replaced TREATIES, ALLIANCES, IDENTITY Explaining Rise & Fall (Roman Empire) Vast Territory sphere of influence Tribes, kingdoms, people, etc.) IVs (independent variables): Roman citizens, local autonomy & ID COLLAPSE 476 AD IVs: Overextension, mercenaries, barbarians, Persian empire, plunder economy, epidemics? No ?REAL? economy Post-Collapse Decentralization of power cultures, languages, commerce Byzantine Empire (S&E Europe, ME) Rise of Caliphate (M.E. ? Iberia): Arabic lit, math & tech. advancement Rise of feudal system (W Europe) LATE MIDDLE AGE TRANSITIONS Feudalism Lords & ?fiefdoms? = legal authority Holy Roman Church=sole religious authority Inherited estates Overlapping systems of authority/no sovereign authority (til 1648) Personal bonds, private political authority ?Rule over people? vs. ?Rule over land? feudalism Post-1000 AD, secular movements HR Empire & feudal decay Commercial activity, tech, comm.. ?Transnational business class? Secular v. religious/Protestant v. Catholic Peace of Westphalia: 1648 Thirty Years War (1618-1648) Nation of SOVEREIGNTY Territorial integrity & borders Authority w/ ?commonwealth? Leaders limited by ?divine law?, treaties, contracts, regime type Treaty small states sovereign (no HRE) Permanent national militaries Centralization taxes, military control Advantage = larger territories ?GREAT POWERS?: Austria, Russia, Prussia (modern-day Germany), England, France, UP (modern-day Netherlands) Separated church & state The Enlightenment and its Revolutions American v. British (1776) French v. absolute monarchy (1789) Nationalism, citizenship, inalienable rights REASON = legitimacy (v. birth/divine right) Commoners self-governance Govt. protect rights Concert of Europe Rel. peace in the US (1815-1854) Conferences & ad hoc meetings ?Club? w/ similar thinking INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY Legitimize new states & colonialism of Africa Domestic uprising Colonialism 19th Century Balancing (keeping an eye on one another) Alliances hegemon (one country more powerful than the rest) Holy Alliance of 1815 (APR v. France) Entrenched & competitive Franz Ferdinand, 1914 WWI US 1917 ? Lucitania 1915 Wilson?s 14 Points: ?Mutual guarantees? Stable laxing peace Self-determination for nations We stand together against imperialism Interwar-WWII Treaty of Versailles, League of Nations NATIONALISMS Germany resurges (Poland, 1939) Declared war on US 2 days after Pearl Habor Neutrality -Japan-Germany ?Allies? (Soviets, US, GB?.) v. Axis Allies redistribution of power THE COLD WAR, 9/11 & IR TODAY The Cold War 2 superpowers Domino ?threat? (U.S. afraid if one nation became communist, one nation would follow after another, and so on) TRUMAN DOCTRINE (1947) mil/econ (MIS)PEREPTIONS Decolonization German, Japanese empires self-det. if you hit us Indigenous movements with nuclear Britain ? India (1947) weapons, we?ll More states competition hit you back. DIRECT military conflict ? MAD (Mutually Assured Destruction) Cold War Dynamics NATO- 1949 v. Warsaw Pact allies Proxy Wars/battle zones: North-South Korea, North-South Vietnam, East-West Germany, Cuban Missile Crisis, Six Day War ?Friendly dictators? Rather have a dictator in power who?s anti-communist than a democracy that?s pro-communist The End of An Area Berlin Wall, 1989 (SYMBOLIC) Glasnost & Perestroika within Soviet Union Collapse 1992-1993 IR search for answers: Alliances/military preparations? Domestic policies? Or IDEAS?..failure of ideology Post-Cold War Post-9/11 American hegemony 1991 Gulf War UN peacekeeping missions Globalization ? World Trade Organization, protests in Seattle, WA Non-State Actors Looking Ahead IR IN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE Realism Actor Behavior Interests Intl. System PG 74 Chart Mingst Balancing, det. Reader PG 9 Chart Key actor/issue IR outcome? Varieties within Realism Defensive v. Offensive Defensive- states should exercise political and economic restraint, can?t just invade. Offensive- if you?re a state and see an opportunity, you should do it. Maximize your interests when you see an opportunity REALISM IS MORE CHARACTERIZED BY THE DEFENSIVE ONES Classical v. Neo-realism (more dominant type of realists today) Overtime, move away from human nature States don?t trust other states because we have anarchy in the international system, there?s no enforcement mechanism (neo-realism) STRUCTURE OF THE INT?L SYSTEM Relative gains (over absolute gains) States care and are constantly comparing their military and economic abilities to other states in the international system It needs to be relative, not necessarily the strongest or biggest Cheating Other states won?t stick to what they promise Liberal IR Theory Actors (capable of working together, NOT anarchy) Causes of war/injustice We have not developed institutions that are effective enough Dem. & free-market capitalism Collective security States working together to ensure all states get their basic security needs met WWII: Classical vs. Neo States work together because its in the state?s interest Neoliberal Institutionalism Cooperation interests Interactions Over time, interactions will produce cooperation IR Outcome? Cooperation and collective action Some states will get the short end of the stick, but a lot of states will get their interests met by joining these int?l organizations Institutions Crucial for providing security in the world (vs. realism?s anarchy view) Regime type Democratic Peace Constructivism IR Theory? Look at processes on a reduced level, don?t explain international system distribution of power, etc. Determinants of state behavior Shaped by ideas and interests Directly related to ideas-practices/ideational-material IDs + Norms Interests What do we really mean by ?interest?? Where do these ideas come from? Key variables Language Identity Ideas Norms EXAM 1 REVIEW POLITICAL Historical shifts in political actors/org. PHILOSOPHERS City-states empire feudal multipolarity Some historical detail Romans, 1648, Concert, Enlightenment, decolonization, Cold War? ARTICLE READINGS (Wilson, Kennan, Fukuyama?) IR theories (Realism, Liberalism, Constructivism, Radical) How do they differ? What?s the international system like? What?s the role of states and how do they behave? Variation (Classical ? Neo) Post-Modern Theory vs. Behavioralism Levels of Analysis Name factors that we?ll look at Sovereignty, Nationalism, Balancing, etc. IGO vs. NGO STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES Mil. Strength, conflict, unrestrained hegemon Dem. Peace, trade, IOs Movements, changing norms, ideas Non-State, ?balancing,? legitimacy Dem. transition, violence Strategic, institution context
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