Stimulates the immune system to produce antibodies and cellular immune responses that protect against infectious agents. Antibodies are produced in the person's body.
After exposure to antigen/vaccine, elicits a heightened response.
Provides temporary protection through administration of a specific antibody/serum to provide protection against a pathogen. Antibodies from another organism enter the person's body.
Occurs naturally in trans-placental transmission of antibodies to a fetus.
Achieving Passive Immunity
Preformed antibodies are transferred to a recipient resulting in transient protection or alleviation of an existing condition.
Naturally acquired passive immunity occurs during pregnancy, in which certain antibodies are passed from the maternal into the fetal bloodstream.
Artificially acquired passive immunity is short-term immunization by the injection of preformed antibodies such as gamma globulin into a recipient
Maternal naturally acquired passive immunity refers to antibody-mediated immunity transferred from the mother to the developing fetus during pregnancy.
Achieving Active Immunity
Active immunity is the development of antibodies in response to stimulation by an antigen.
Naturally acquired active immunity occurs when a person is exposed to a live pathogen (i.e. chickenpox as a child), develops the disease, and becomes immune as a result of the primary immune response.
Artificially acquired active immunity can be induced by a vaccine, a substance that contains the antigen.
Created by covalently attaching a poor antigen to a strong antigen thereby eliciting a stronger immunological response to the poor antigen.
Most commonly, the poor antigen is a polysaccharide that is attached to strong protein antigen.
Slow antigen release for a more sustained immune stimulation, bind toll-like receptors on macrophages and dendritic cells to stimulate production of inflammatory cytokines, and activate APC to express B7.