Intellectual Development in Adulthood, Moral Development Revisited pp. 472-485, see also p. 328 of Chapter 9 Lecture 14 - "Intellectual development in adulthood" I. Cognitive Development: how in young adult hood our ideas changes and moral reasoning changes A. "Post-formal" reasoning Jean Piaget: Thought children gathered information from gathering data—ground up thinking however, Adolescences thought they drew from the deductive world (future predictions) there is a difference between adult and adolescences which is called post formal (after formal reasoning) Post Formal: the recognition that there may be more than one solution and inevitably the solution that you solve will create another problem A qualitatively different way of thinking, with these elements: problem-finding, rather than problem-solving : figure out the underlying problem not just the problem at the time shifting gears : thinking in one abstract way and applying it to a practical situation – can jump back and forth multiple causality, multiple solutions: both are changing at the same time- more than one right solution and we may use different solutions for different situations understanding that knowledge and reality are only temporary : knowledge and reality may change in the future renewed integration of emotion and logic : deal with problems closer to your heart- dialectical thinking - awareness of paradox: there may be no dialectical thinking and there will be another problem and you cannot fix everything _________________________________________________ B. How could we measure post-formal reasoning? Think about this little vignette: Michael has a reputation for flirting with women, especially when he's at a party. Claire, his wife gets very upset when he flirts. In fact, she warns him that if he does it one more time, she will leave him. Tonight, Michael and Clare are at a party and he begins to flirt. What does Claire do? (We will be discussing how an individual's response to this might reveal a certain level of cognitive development) - Most adults feel like they need more information and we can’t tell if she will leave or not C. Perry's scheme: Stage 1: Seeing the world in terms of polarities; dualistic thinking : black and white view of the world- there is only one right answer and solution Stage 2: Accepting your own uncertainty; multiplicity: there are other way of thinking about situations and you start to accept others beliefs and views and start to adapt those views of people who are close to you: Relative subordinate thinking Stage 3: Full relativistic thinking: begin to see students become more relativistic and that other people have different views that may be equally correct to theirs and often like to debate the issues—you perspective is no more valid that anyone else is Stage 4: Commitment within relativism: students freely chose their beliefs/values within an understanding of relativism D. The general developmental trend: absolutist -----> relativist integrating emotion and logic II. Intelligence revisited "What do you conceive of intelligence to be, and by what means can it be measured?" -Journal of Educational Psychology, 1921 (four answers- which do you like best?) -- The ability to carry on abstract thinking (formal reasoning) -- The ability to give true or factual responses -- The capacity to adjust oneself to the environment -- The capacity to acquire abilities (to learn) Sternberg's three elements of intelligence: Basis of IQ 1. Componential element: moving around components of information- able to solve problems and can plan/think/ store information and remember things quickly – do well on IQ tests—school achievement 2. Experiential element: much more linked to creativity and can generate novel solution to things – efficiency and incite and creativity (hardest of the 3 to think about and not easily measured) 3. Contextual element: untaught- practical intelligence, always managed to avoid getting in trouble and know what to do and how to deal with the world – important for work @ a job – measured B. How can we measure "tacit" or contextual knowledge in real work situations? By taking an exam and rating it 1-10 what you would do first to last and to see how you prioritize your job and things that have to get done C. Are there "Eastern" and "Western" modes of thought? Americans: detach objects from their context and notice big and bright objects— will accept incorrect logical syllogism—tend to squelch arguments that run counter to their point of view Far- Easterners: view think more wholisically, together with the context—less focused on the logic process, more on accuracy—more tolerance for contradiction III. Moral reasoning revisited :process by which we figure out how to apply a general moral code- Heinz dilemma A. A follow-up on our discussion of Kohlberg's stages Cross-cultural findings Kohlberg's stages are rooted in "fairness" and "justice" orientation. Is this universal? Carol Gilligan's study of the moral voice of women – difference between women and men B. Gilligan's Levels of Moral Development in Women (see your text for a description of these): Level 1: Orientation of individual survival Transition 1: (from selfishness to responsibility) Level 2: Goodness as self-sacrifice Transition 2: (From goodness to truth) Level 3: Morality of nonviolence C. Weighing "fairness" vs "responsibility": The "Ben and the wedding ring" dilemma: ___________________________________________________________________________ Ben planned to travel to San Francisco in order to attend his best friend's wedding. Ben was carrying the special wedding ring, which he was supposed to deliver at the ceremony. In order to get there on time, Ben needed to catch the very next train - however, while he was waiting at the train station, his wallet was stolen. (This contained his train ticket, and all his money.) Ben approached several railroad officials, as well as other passengers, and asked them if he could borrow enough money to buy another ticket to get there in time for the wedding. But, because he was a stranger, no one was willing to lend him the money. Yet he absolutely needed to get to San Francisco in time, or his friend's wedding would be ruined. While Ben was trying to decide what to do next, a well-dressed man who was sitting next to him got up and walked away for a minute, leaving his coat unattended. Ben could see that there was a train ticket to San Francisco sticking out of the coat pocket, as well as lots of money. Ben could see that there was more than enough money for the man to buy another train ticket. What should Ben do? ___________________________________________________________________________ (Think about how you might answer this dilemma, which forces a choice between the "fairness and justice" orientation, and the "caring and responsibility" orientation.). Americans said 60% would leave the ticket however Middle easterners 80% said to take the ticket D. What the brain is doing... personal dilemma and if you are taking a personal action or not IV. Moral behavior: what people believe is "right" or "wrong" is not necessarily what people actually DO A. Some rather amazing findings from Patterson and Kim's (1991) poll of 2000 American adults: -very personal along with personal behaviors -90% say they lire regularly - 20% couldn’t get though a single say without lying -20% of women reported being raped by their dates- 4% said it could have happened - 1 in 3 AIDs carries didn’t tell their spouses that they had the virus Lying: moral behavior is situation- dependent "Would you do any of the following for "$10 million?" - Abandon your entire family 25 % - Become a prostitute for a week 23 % - Give up American citizenship 16 % - Leave your spouse 10 % - Kill a stranger 7% B. Why moral behavior may not follow moral reasoning: Moral reasoning and moral behavior are two different concepts. Moral behavior is situation-dependent, requiring sensitivity, judgment, motivation, and character Four processes help guide moral behavior: Moral sensitivity- interpreting situations and being aware of how our actions affect other people Moral judgment- making decisions about which actions are “right” and which are “wrong” Moral motivation- prioritizing moral values over other personal values such as pleasure Moral character- having the strength of your convictions in the face of distractions, temptations and obstacles People can Disengage their actions from their moral code( When called to act by duty and for economic necessity -- This ability to disengage has been useful throughout human history, as it allows for survival in extreme circumstances Just for fun: The following question once appeared on the Graduate Record Exam: Old Mother Hubbard went to the cupboard To get her poor dog a bone But when she got there, her cupboard was bare And so the poor dog got none. If the above is an accuragte report of an event, which of the following headline versions gives an account that does NOT add to the given facts? A. Mother H. Refuses Bone to Hungry Dog B. Mealtime Brings Only Bare Cupboard for Mrs. Hubbard and Dog C. Mother Hubbard Seeks Bone for Dog, Finds Empty Cupboard D. Dog Lover Unable to Continue Support of Pet E. Bone Missing from Hubbard Cupboard - Mystery Unsolved (By the way, this kind of problem would be an example of which of Sternberg's elements of intelligence? ) Questions for review: Describe "post-formal" reasoning. How is it different from the kind of thinking typical of adolescence. What are the three kinds of intelligence, according to Sternberg? Which kind is measured by intelligence tests? Which kind is measured by the sample test item shown in class concerning a building contractor? When Perry studied college undergraduates at Harvard and Radcliff, he described the upper classmen as showing "full relativistic" thinking. What does this mean? Carol Gilligan proposed that moral reasoning in women was guided by the standards of _______________ than on the standards of ____________ proposed by Kohlberg. How was the way that she studied moral reasoning different from the way that Kohlberg studied it? Does moral reasoning develop in the same way for all people around the world? What did the little dilemma "Ben and the Wedding Ring" test? What difference was seen between people in India and people in the US? What did the Patterson and Kim study show about Americans and lying? About people's willingness to violate laws, or give up relationships for a large sum of money? How is moral behavior different from moral reasoning? In addition to our ability to reason, what are some of the other factors that influence moral behavior? Career Exploration and the Transition to Work pp. 485-489 Lec 15 - Emergent Adulthood, Work and Career Planning Today we'll be continuing our look at "young adulthood", with attention to how young adults make the transition from school to work. Part 1: Emergent Adulthood: Guest Pearl Wu Do you feel as though you're an adult? What is "Emerging Adulthood"? a life period which is typically characterized by an ongoing exploration of, and experimentation with possible life directions (ideas from Dr. Jeffrey Arnett, 2000) Young people have left the dependency of childhood and adolescence, but have not entered the enduring responsibilities of adulthood. When is emerging adulthood? in Western cultures, could last from about 18 until the mid 20's (even late 20s) In the past - criteria that have been used to mark entry into adulthood include: Events such as, marriage child-bearing Important responsibilities to provide, protect, and procreate - duties towards others. Current criteria for adulthood - in the United States: accept one's responsibility make independent decisions become financially independent Emerging adulthood is unique for demographic distinctions subjective distinctions identity distinctions behavioral distinctions Demographic distinctions - median age of marriage is now 25 for women, 27 for men. In the past, it used to be much earlier - 20 for women and 25 for men. In addition, more young people are going to college before starting work. (From 16% in the past, to over 60% today in the US go to some education beyond high school.) Subjective distinctions - people feel ambivalent - not quite adults, but not adolescents either Identity distinctions - emerging adulthood provides opportunities for identity explorations in the areas of love, work, and world view (Arnett, 2000) Behavioral distinctions - this is a peak period for individuals to engage in RISKY behaviors such as substance abuse, risky driving, and unprotected sex. In the United States, emergent adulthood is characterized by: subjective qualities identity exploration risk behaviors In Western cultures, young people no longer consider marriage and other events (such as finishing school, getting a job, etc.) as criteria for adulthood. They emphasize the capacity of the individual to stand alone as a SELF-SUFFICIENT person as the criterion for adulthood. Religious Sub-cultures within the United States (African-Americans, Latinos, Asian-Americans) combine this individualistic view with a greater emphasis on obligation toward others drawn from values of their own sub-cultures. Religious cultures in Western countries may have practices that lead to a shortened period of "emerging adulthood" than in the culture as a whole. Example - the LDS (Mormans) - marry younger than average. In CHINA - there are several cultural differences that may affect emerging adulthood: Collectivism, especially the central role of the family Confucian doctrine - self-control and obligations to others Limited opportunities of identity explorations Pearl Wu described a study that she conducted in China: Purposes to look at the types of criteria that Chinese young people deem necessary for becoming adult to look at the types of BEHAVIOR that Chinese emerging adults are engaging in to look at identity-related issues in this population Method 207 students from Beijing Normal University mean age 20.5 90% of the Han ethnicity 91% are full-time students majority had parents with a high-school education or LESS (Measure) Used a 143-item questionnaire developed by Arnett and translated Results: How many Chinese college students considered they had reached adulthood? 59% said "yes", compared to only 28% of American samples 6% said "no", which was the same as the 6% of American sample 36% said "in some way, yes, in some way no" (Ambivalent) - compared to 66% of the American sample Chinese young people generally do NOT engage in norm-violating or risky behavior: 83.6% don't drink (there is no drinking "age", but alcohol is expensive) (40% US) 92.3% don't use illegal drugs (penalty for selling can be DEATH) 85.5% don't drive drunk (but fewer people have access to cars in China) "How certain are you about your religious/spiritual beliefs?" 6% "very certain" (75%) 19% quite certain 36% somewhat certain 37% very uncertain This is different from the American sample. Note that religion is not promoted in China The four criteria most often used by Chinese young people to mark adulthood are: Accept responsibility for the consequences of your actions (like the United States) Have good control over your emotions (Note influence from the Confucian philosophy in China) Financial independent from parents Be less self-oriented, develop greater consideration for others The majority of Chinese young people (59%) in this sample believed they had reached adulthood. Far fewer 18-25 year olds in America believe this (27%, 36% & 24% in studies) Discussion of why Chinese young people are more likely to consider themselves adult: Influence of the Confucian doctrine Influence of collectivism Filial piety – responsibility of parents when older Proper personal conduct and compliance with social norms is stressed Chinese law is harsher There are limited opportunities for exploration. Changing majors is difficult, religion is not emphases, exploration etc. Fewer Chinese young people are in college, which is where much exploration takes place. (only about 14%) Key idea: "Emerging Adulthood" as a period is affected by CULTURE. The Criteria for Adulthood: (Arnett) Independence: accepting responsibility Interdependence: becoming less self-oriented Role Transition: marriage, parenthood Norm Compliance: refraining from driving while intoxicated Biological transitions: bearing children Chronological Transitions: reaching age 18 Family Capacities: Providing a family or caring for children Part 2: Early experiences with WORK When and where do we get our ideas about work, and career? The importance of "vicarious learning" in childhood (where we get ideas about work and professions in childhood Our parents? perception of their own self- efficacy and their aspirations: if their successful we as more likely to be successful From verbal messages we get from other people in our lives- encouragement and discouragement From our own performance accomplishments in jobs early in our work life Is working developmentally helpful for children and teenagers? Most early adolescents do chores, especially caring for younger siblings> often reflects gender stereotypes- are developmentally helpful not supported by research—part-time jobs In the US, we have a popular idea that work is "good" for children, although there is little research evidence that doing menial chores does much to foster development. (It may help the family, though.) About 2/3 of high school juniors and seniors hold jobs at any given time -Over half of these teens work more than 20 hours per week. What kinds of jobs do teens typically hold outside the home? Research by Greenberger & Steinberg in Orange County California sample found: most are retail sector jobs/ some food related jobs mostly menial, monotonous jobs (25% of the time spent cleaning or carrying things!) rarely supervised by a "mentor" figure rarely, if ever related to something the youth was learning in school Ways in which work MAY be helpful: may teach a teen about time and money management may build good workplace skills may help guide teens in choosing a career or, may teach the teen that he or she isn't yet prepared for the kind of work that is desired, and should stay in school Learning new skills tend to be the biggest improvement- psychological well-being and self esteem Ways in which work may be harmful to high school students during the academic year: gradepoint and # of hours worked : 1-10 hrs higher—lowers homework completion and # of hours worked: similar above cutting classes and # of hours worked : rapid increase at above 15+ self-reported drug use and # of hours worked : drug substances higher Roggiero, Greenberger & Steinberg (1982) study of job behaviors Cynicism about work, and willingness to tolerate bad behavior (such as stealing little things on the job, or giving away freebees to your friends) was actually greater among those who were working. This suggested that working wasn't necessarily improving the "work ethic" at all, and might be doing the opposite for low-level jobs that lacked good supervising and mentoring. A study of St. Paul, Minnesota teens finds that they perceive some BENEFITS of working: responsibility, money management, and social skills. But, few said that their current job was shaping their future work plans. In sum: - Teen employment has complex influences on development - Long hours are detrimental - Many teens perceive work as developmentally helpful - Few teens report that their high-school jobs play a major role in chaping their future work goals Vocational Choice in Early Adulthood Guest Amber Pyne Developmental approach ongoing and continuous - across the lifespan different tasks: Developmental Approach: - Development is ongoing and continuous—lifespan (Donald Supers- developmental approach) -Different tasks -Fantasy Period (Early and middle childhood- backup singer) - Tentative Period (early and middle adolescence- teacher) - Realistic Period (Late teens and early adulthood) -Work Periods: initial (mc Donald’s), stable (PA), retirement Fantasy period in early and middle childhood Tentative period - in early and middle adolescence Realistic period - in late teens and early adulthood work periods across the lifespan initial period stable period retirement Lifespan career tasks include: growth (childhood) exploration (adolescence) establishment (young adulthood)—internships/ volunteering: figuring out what you want to do for the rest of your life maintenance (middle adulthood) – the main working period Decline (late adulthood)—thinking about retirement and ending your role as a worker Donald Super's theory One's occupation is consistent with self-concept who you are: appearance, abilities, personality, gender, vbalues, societal stance The influence of roles Nine major roles in life: child, student, leisure, citizen, worker, spouse, homemaker, parent, retiree These roles may be played alone or simultaneously – influence each other! The time spent in the different roles increase and decrease according to life stage and task. -Form new, drop old, and modify current Influence of values Values = purpose of your career qualities or goals sought when people know what they value most, they can refine their career choice more effectively career matches your values Influence of family Parenting practices shape work-related values: if you have to do chores- makes you a hard worker -- advice and modeling (shows what their life is like) jobs of your parents correlate with the jobs you'll have Higher SES parents have more information and better "connections" to get their children placed in high-status jobs Influence of teachers - many college students list a HIGH SCHOOL TEACHER as the person most influential toward their career choice. John Holland offered some other ideas about "matches" between the person and the job select a career that matches up with personality type this is more likely to result in enjoyment of work, and longevity at the job if you match up your personality with the career A. The Holland "Types": Realistic- Doing/things- real world problems working with objects: construction worker Investigative-thinking/ideas: engineer or scientific Artistic- Creating/ideas, things: feel like they need to express individual expression - painter Social- Helping/people – human services Enterprising- Managing/people- managing people and strong leaders; boss, supervisor Conventional-Conforming/data: well structured tasks, value money; accounting and business Skills employers want: oral communication : presentations/ talking to people computer skills : software and internet leadership skills and experience : lead and have determinations along with experience involvement in campus organizations and extra-curricula’s : organizations and volunteer work relevant experiences in internships, part time work, or co-ops : summer jobs that will relate to your career good grades Tips for finding your career: - Have several careers in mind - Develop skills that are important in a variety of jobs and careers -See a career counselor -Personal networking - Exploration Ending comments: Which is more important to you? "To be well-off financially", or "to develop a meaningful philosophy of life" ? (Look at a chart that tracks the answer given to this question by American college freshmen over the past 30 years!). For those who are interested: Here on campus, you may contact Counseling and Consultation Services, where you can use certain CAREER ASSESSMENT TOOLS: Self-Directed Search The Self-Directed Search is a career assessment instrument which was designed by Holland to help people with career exploration tasks. The instrument is intended to be self-administered, and has five different sections. The first, Occupational Daydreams, encourages you to think about a variety of career choices. The other sections ask you about different Activities, Competencies, Occupations and Self-Estimates. Your answers to all of the questions are then used to generate a Holland Code which can be used to help you direct your career exploration activities. Strong Interest Inventory The Strong Interest Inventory has 317 questions about occupations, school subjects, activities, leisure activities, and types of people. The Holland Typology is used to help organize the answers. In addition, the results indicate more specific interest areas such as athletics, science, social service, etc. Your likes and dislikes are then compared to the responses of people in a variety of occupations in order to provide information about which occupations might provide you with a "good fit." Campbell Interest and Skill Survey The Campbell Interest and Skills Survey is designed to help you organize information about your attraction to an occupation and your confidence in your ability to perform the necessary tasks. The test is based on self-report, has 320 questions, and can be completed in about 30-40 minutes. In the results section, your likes, dislikes, interests, and skills are organized along seven themes or "Orientations": Organizing, Helping, Creating, Analyzing, Producing, and Adventuring. In addition, your responses are compared to people who are currently employed in a variety of occupations. Myers Briggs Type Indicator The Myers Briggs Type Indicator is a short personality questionnaire. The 94-item test is designed to force you to make choices which will ultimately indicate your preferences. It is important to note that there are no right or wrong answers and that most of us can function in many different ways. With this is mind, the results of the test can help you review your strengths and weaknesses, understand your interpersonal patterns, access your managerial style, and explore how you relate to the world around you. Personality Development in Adulthood Chapter 14 - pp. 490-500 Module 16 - "Personality development in young adulthood" Today: Psycho-social development : psychological and social Something to think about at the start of this lecture" What words would your friends use to describe your personality? (What words would your friends have used to describe you when you were back in 7th or 8th grade? How has this changed?) _____________________________________________________________________________________ Today we're talking about what we mean by personality, and considering how it develops in adulthood. _____________________________________________________________________________________ What is "personality"? There are a number of ways of thinking about this concept. We'll look at several of them today- a person’s unique and relatively consistent way of feeling, reacting and behaving -Changing sense of ourselves/identity- changing personal concerns and life structures with age: Normative Crisis Approach- Timing of events model “off-time” and non-normative events may shape our development Trait models of personality: A trait is a characteristic was of responding across many different situations—how people differ from one another and if it changes as we get older 1. Dispositional trait models (One that is well-known and well-studied): Costa and McCrae's 5-factor model : NOCAE- facets that are surrounding it—blending of many traits ( tent to clump together / the building blocks Neuroticism: tendency to show/feel negative emotions – angry and anxiety Extroversion: people who like social interaction- express their opinions/ busy people—warmth, assertiveness, gregariousness, positive emotions Openness to experience: vivid imagination, openness to new things- fantasy, ascetic, try new things Agreeableness: work with others, caring not antagonistic—dependant on others and self critical- straightforwardness Conscientiousness: energetic, persevering in the face of obstacles -- These traits show stability after adolescence 2. Three personality "types" – clumping together a group of traits ego-resilient: can handle stress well, are focused over-controlled: withdraw from conflict, keep to themselves under-controlled: active, energetic, need to find a niche These types may begin to be evident in childhood Identity development continues: expanding cognitive abilities give us the means to consider who we COULD be II. Is there a predictable "ground plan" adult development? (In other words, can we expect to find 'predictable' stages/changes in personality as we get older?) Following are some normative crisis models of development that examine changes in personal concerns over the adult lifespan, and suggest that there are some kinds of changes that are predictable. Carl Jung's theories: follower of Sigmund Freud -Personality is organized in such a way that there are two basic orientations of the ego: extroversion= Orientation toward the external world introversion age-related trend = orientation toward the inner world -In young adulthood, we’re over balance on the “extravert” side: better to be looking outward rather than inward masculinity element= (anima) femininity age-related trend =(animas)—doesn’t matter if you a male or female: BOTH! -In childhood and young adulthood, we tend to act more in accordance with same-sex stereotypes Helson’s study of undergraduate women at Mills College showed about changes on a "femininity" measure: -Sympathy/Compassion/Sense of vulnerability/self-criticism/ lack of confidence - After 27, women gained more self-dicipline, independence - Struggle independent identity (until age 30) ( Different cohort of women experiencing rapid social change Video pick of the week: Mona Lisa Smile Erikson sixth stage: Intimacy vs. Isolation – without losing your identity intimacy vs. isolation (for Erikson) = the ability to commit oneself to a shared identity Intimacy- the ability to commit oneself to a shared identity The “virtue” that emerges from successful resolution of the task: LOVE Personality development for MEN has often been framed in terms of adjustment to the world of WORK: 1. The 1938 "Grant Study" of Harvard undergraduates (Vaillant) - what this suggested about early adult development : Longitudinal study -The typical developmental pattern seen in this atypical sample of men: careered consolidation> bland men, colorless, hardworking 2. What Levinson's studies showed: interviewed men already through college Levinson's "Life Structures" approach a life structure = an underlying pattern to a person's life – shifts with age entry phase begins around age 17-22 second phase continues to late 20's two important tasks in young adulthood: His life structure focuses on work, where two important tasks involve Forming a DREAM and finding a MENTOR > career focused age-30 transition - a period of re-evaluation : refining goals "culminating phase" of young adulthood in the 30's (end phase of young adulthood) – cast of the mentor maybe mentor someone else Are there differences in personality development for men and women? Normative stage models describe what happens to most people? - Females have more complex dreams and difficulty finding mentors Most of the research we've been looking at so far has focused on Americans and Europeans. Some interesting cross-cultural contrasts to consider as we look at whether there are predictable patterns for adult personal development: Zimmer's (1956) study of Hindi men: -Obedient pupil - Householder - Departure to the forest: cast off social roles withdrawal from material concerns—pass on business to son - Wandering holy beggar : strip away person self and enter into bliss the Masai of Kenya and Tanzania -Group circumcision ceremony: tied to each other - Warrior -Married Men -Elder the eastern vs western notion of "self" Eastern: Stresses Connectedness Western: Stresses independent identity III . The "Timing of events" model - a different approach. If we look people's responses to questions about things like "When is the ideal time to marry?", we can see a changing "social clock" in America: what people consider is 'ideal' changes from cohort to cohort Some Factors -The “social clock” may change over time, and vary across culture- how old we feel verses how old we are – shifted: age of marriage -One factor that may influence development is a person’s prevention of CONTROL over events (this perception may alter how events affect them) -Internal verses External locus of control: little control (their fault when snowboarding) vs. assume it’s their fault (the hill when falling on a snowboard) (This is material we didn't get to in Lecture 16 this semester, but we'll be coming it back to it later in the semester): How a particular event will affect our development depends on many factors. Two of these factors are: (1) personal control = the degree to which we believe that our performance in a situation depends on what we do One aspect of this is called "locus of control". This means whether or not we feel we have some control over the things that happen to us in life. If our "locus of control" is " internal" , it means that we feel we have personal control. If our "locus of control" is "external", it means that we tend to think events are caused by forces outside ourseves, such as "fate" or the actions of others. For example: If I fall down while skiing, and attribute this to being a klutzy skier choosing to go down a hill that was too hard for my ability, this reflects an internal locus of control. If I fall down while skiing and attribute it to bad grooming of the hill, this reflects an external locus of control - because I am looking for explanations that I don't have any control over. (2) "Situational optimism" - example: a study of first-year law students. Those who were more optimistic about their chances of success in the fall, ended up having an improvement in immune-cell functioning halfway through the semester. Those who were less optimistic had a drop in immune-cell functioning, which can lead to illness. Some review questions following today's class: What do we mean by "dispositional trait models" of personality. Give one example of such a model or theory. What are Costa and McCrae's 5 building blocks of personality? Do these tend to change much as we reach adulthood? Carl Jung predicted that people would grow more ______ as they approached middle age. What is the major developmental issue of "crisis" for young adults, according to Erikson? How might this be different for males and females? Daniel Levenson's study of 40 privileged men was attempting to find what? What are two major tasks during the novice or entry phase of young adulthood, according to Levinson? How might the results of Levinson's research be specific to the cohort of young men that he was studying. What about women: do you think they experience the same work-dominated psycho-social development as men do in young adulthood? How is the current cohort of young adult women different from those who went to college in the 1950's? Zimmer's 1956 study of Hindi men suggested that the "ideal" behavior for men in the later part of middle age was to do what? How is the eastern notion of "self" different from the western notion of self? What is the "social clock? How have expectations for the proper time to marry changed over the last 50 years. Have you experienced social pressure to marry? To have children? To finish school and get a job?