Mass Publics Individuals are actors Represent the third level of analysis *LIBERALS- LEADERS DO MAKE A DIFFERENCE General belief that individual leaders and their personal characteristics do make a difference in foreign policy *INDIVIDUALS IMPORTANT TO CONSTRUCTIVIST THINKING AS WELL *REALISTS- INDIVIDUALS ARE OF LITTLE IMPORTANCE States are not differentiated by their government type or personalities or styles of leaders in office but by the relative power they hold in the international system Morgenthau: ?The concept of national interest defines as power imposes intellectual discipline upon the observer, infuses rational order into subject matter of politics, and thus makes the theoretical understanding of politics possible. On the side of the actor, it provides for rational discipline in action and creates the astounding continuity in foreign policy which makes American, British, or Russian foreign policy appear as an intelligible, rational continuum, by and large consistent with itself, regardless of the different motives, preferences, and intellectual and moral qualities of successive statesmen? Foreign Policy is not always the same Two questions to determining the role of individuals in international relations When are the actions of individuals likely to have a greater or lesser effect on the course of events? Under what circumstances do different actors (in terms of their personal characteristics) behave differently? The Impact of Elites: External Conditions An individual?s actions affect the course of events when at least one of several factors is present Leaders are able to provide powerful influences When political institutions are unstable, young, in crisis, or collapsed Individuals also affect the course of events when they have few institutional constraints Specifics of a situation also determine the extent to which individuals matter Decision-makers? personal characteristics have more influence on outcomes When the issue is peripheral rather than central When the issue is not routine ? standard operating procedures are not available When the situation is ambiguous and information unclear Crisis situations Create scenarios in which a decision-maker?s personal characteristics count most Individual leaders affect the course of events When Political When institutional When the issue Institutions are constraints are limited or situations is -unstable -peripheral -young -unusual -in crisis -ambiguous -collapsed The Impact of Elites: The Personality Factor Two orientations emerge from the personality traits Leaders with high levels of nationalism, a strong belief in their own ability to control events, a strong need for power, low levels of conceptual complexity, and to foreign affairs Leaders with low levels of nationalism, little belief in their ability to control events, a high need for affiliation, high levels of conceptual complexity, and low levels of distrust of others, tended toward a participatory orientation in foreign affairs Thus, even in democracies, where institutional constraints are high, individual personality characteristics influence foreign-policy orientation and behavior PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF LEADER Nationalism: strong emotional ties to nation; emphasis on national honor and dignity Perception of control: belief in ability to control events: high degree of control over situations; governments can influence state and nation Need for power: need to establish, maintain, and project power or influence over others Need for affiliation: concern for establishing and maintaining friendly relationships with others Conceptual complexity: ability to discuss with other people places, policies, ideas in a discerning way Distrust of others: feelings of doubt, uneasiness about others; doubt motives and actions of others FOREIGN POLICY ORIENTATIONS Independent leader??????????. high in nationalism high in perception of control high in need for power low in conceptual complexity high in distrust of others Participatory leader??????????. low in nationalism low in perception of control high in need for affiliation high in conceptual complexity low in distrust of others Personality characteristics affect the leadership of dictators more than that of democratic leaders because of the absence of effective institutional checks Individual Decision-making Individuals are not perfectly rational decision-makers The decision-maker selects, organizes, and evaluates incoming information about the surrounding world Information-Processing Mechanisms Cognitively consistency- tendency to accept information that is compatible with what has previously been accepted, often ignoring inconsistent information. Desire to be consistent in attitude Evoked set- Tendency to look for details in a present situation that are similar to information gleaned from past situations. Leads one to conclusions that are similar to those of the past Groupthink- Tendency for small groups to form a consensus and resist criticism of that core position, often disregarding contradictory information Satisficing- Tendency for groups to search for a ?good enough? solution, rather than an optimal one PRIVATE INDIVIDUALS Private individuals, independent of any official role, may be virtue of circumstances, skills, or resources carry out independent actions in international relations Track-two diplomacy- utilizes individuals outside of governments to carry out the task of conflict resolution High-level: series of negotiations Are not always well received Others involve a more length process, sustained dialogue Other private individuals have played linkage roles between different countries Sometimes individuals are propelled into the international arena by virtue of their actions Individuals, acting alone, can make a difference; they can significantly influence international relations Foreign-Policy Elites: Individuals Who Matter Chapter 6 Think and act the same as elites: share common psychology, share biological characteristics Mass Publics Can express opinion, and cause elites to adjust Act without constraints of formal institutions Have the same psychological tendencies as elite individuals and small groups Think in terms of perceptions and images They see mirror images Use similar information-processing strategies Elites and Masses: Common Traits Individuals are said to have an innate drive to gain, protect, and defend territory ?territorial imperative? Individuals and societies also share the frustration-aggression syndrome Not all leaders and all peoples act on these predispositions General predispositions of all societies or similarities in predispositions between elites and masses cannot explain the extreme variation found in individual behavior Share common traits differentiated by gender Male elites and masses possess characteristics common to each other, while female elites and masses share traits different from the males? Males are power seeking Women are consensus builders, more collaborative, and more inclined toward compromise Public-opinion polling provides information about public attitudes Evidence suggests that elites do care about the preferences of the public, although they do not always directly incorporate those attitudes into policy decisions Mass Actions by a Leaderless Public At times, the masses, essentially leaderless, take collective actions that have significant effects on the course of world politics Individuals act to improve their own political and economic welfare Contending Perspectives on the Individual Liberalism/ Neoliberal Institutionalism Realism/ Neorealism Radicalism/ Dependency Theory Foreign-policy elites Significant impact on international relations through choices made and personality factors Constrained by anarchic international system and national interests Constrained by international capitalist system Private individuals Secondary role, but may be involved in two-track diplomacy and may fund important initiatives Actions of private individuals only have effect in aggregate, as reflected in national interest Individual capitalists may be influential Mass publics May affect international relations through mass actions that pressure state decision-makers Actions may be reflected in national interest Agents of potential change
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