learning that certain events occur together. The events may be two stimuli (as in classical conditioning) or a response and its consequences (as in operant conditioning).
behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus
a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher.
behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences.
law of effect
Thorndike's principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely.
in operant conditioning research, a chamber containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer; attached devices record the animal's rate of bar pressing or key pecking.
a relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience.
an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior.
in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows.
increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli, such as food. A positive reinforcer is any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response.
increasing behavior by stopping or reducing negative stimuli. a negative reinforcer is any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response. Negative reinforcement is not punishment
an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need.
a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer;also known as secondary reinforcer.
the reinforcement of a desired response every time it occurs
partial (intermittent) reinforcement
reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses.
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed.
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals.
an event that decreases the behavior that it follows.
a mental representation of the layout of one's environment. For example, after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have learned a cognitive map of it.
learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it.
a desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake
a desire to perform a behavior to receive promised rewards or avoid threatened punishment
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