þÿ 1 Memory Storage and Retrieval WOW “When you believe in a thing, believe in it all the way, implicitly and unquestionable.” –Walt Disney What Is Memory? Persistence of learning over time through the encoding, storage, and retrieval of information Storing Memories Modified Atkinson-Shiffrin Model 2 Retrieving Memories Recall Recognition Relearning Relearning Hermann Ebbinghaus THB YOX KVU EHM Retrieval Web of associations Conceptual Contextual Emotional Priming Priming experiments conducted by John Bargh Scrambled sentence task old-age themed test walked more slowly down a hall than subjects receiving test with embedded upbeat words Scrambled sentence task aggressive/bold test vs. polite/patient test New Yorkers (aggressive condition) interrupted after five minutes vs. (polite condition) 82% never interrupted Primed individuals to be cooperative before completing a game task that required cooperation for successful completion; responses when asked after the task how strongly they cooperated had zero correlation with their actual cooperative behaviors – they were unaware of the effect that priming had on them Effect disappears once individuals become consciously aware of it Priming is not brainwashing; it can make individuals more receptive to certain states or actions, but cannot make them do anything they normally would not do 3 Priming Triggers a thread of associations that bring us to a concept Define the word “bark.” Now what is the definition of “bark”? Study: people primed with a missing child poster then misinterpreted ambiguous adult-child interactions as kidnapping. The Power of Priming Priming has been called “invisible memory” because it affects us unconsciously. In the case of tree “bark” vs. dog “bark,” the path we follow in our thoughts can be channeled by priming. Study: People primed with money-related words were less likely to then help another person. Study: Priming with an image of Santa Claus led kids to share more candy. Context and Memory • Context-dependent memory • State-dependent memory • Mood-congruent memory An Example of Context-Dependent Words learned underwater are better retrieved underwater. 4 The Serial Position Effect Priming and context cues are not the only factors that make memory retrieval selective.