1 Introduction to Intelligence WOW O “Regardless of the difficulties we may face, the old adage is still true - you can make excuses or you can make progress, but you cannot make both.” – Mia Love What exactly is intelligence? O It’s difficult to define. O Intelligence tests (e.g., WAIS-IV) O They measure “whatever intelligence tests measure” O What about the ACT? Myers’ Definition O Intelligence the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations Sara Sticky Note intelligence is a constructnullconstruct- not something you can physically lay your hands on; more of a concept that people agree upon Sara Sticky Note not IQ test but claims predictive validity as to how well you will do in college 2 Single or Multiple Intelligence(s)? O Is intelligence one general ability or several specific abilities? 1. Spearman’s g O Charles Spearman O Performed a factor analysis of different skills and found that people who did well in one area also did well in others O Spearman concluded that there was one general intelligence, “g” 2. Thurstone’s Seven Clusters of Abilities O Louis Thurstone O Disagreed that there was one general intelligence O Developed 7 clusters of abilities 1. Verbal comprehension 2. Inductive reasoning 3. Word fluency 4. Spatial ability 5. Memory 6. Perceptual speed 7. Numerical ability g 3. Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences O Howard Gardner noted that different people have intelligence/ability in different areas O Savant syndrome O Stephen Wiltshire O Research and factor analysis suggests that there may be a correlation among these intelligences Sara Sticky Note savant- perform well in one area but poorly in all other areas 3 Gardner’s Eight Intelligences 4. Sternberg’s Intelligence Triarchy O Robert Sternberg proposed that “success” in life is related to three types of ability: Creativity O Creativity the ability to produce ideas that are novel and valuable O Creative intelligence using creative ideas to adapt to novel situations 4 Robert Sternberg’s Five Components of Creativity 1. Expertise possessing a well-developed base of knowledge 2. Imaginative thinking having the ability to see new perspectives, combinations, and connections 3. Venturesome personality tending to seek out new experiences despite risk, ambiguity, and obstacles 4. Intrinsic motivation enjoying the pursuit of interests and challenge without needing external direction or rewards 5. Creative environment having support, feedback, encouragement, and time and space to think Social and Emotional Intelligence O Emotional intelligence is an aspect of social intelligence 4 Components of Emotional Intelligence 1. Perceiving emotions O Recognizing emotions in facial expressions, stories, music 2. Understanding emotions O Being able to see blended emotions and to predict emotional states and changes in self and others 3. Managing emotions O Modulating and expressing emotions in various situations 4. Using emotions O Using emotions as fuel and motivation for creative, adaptive thinking Intelligence and Brain Anatomy O “Genius” seems to correlate with: O overall brain size. O the size of some brain regions such as the parietal lobe. O high brain activity in the frontal and parietal lobes. O extra gray matter (brain cell bodies, seen as more brain surface area/convolutions). O extra white matter (axons) leading to high connectivity among different regions. 5 Intelligence and Processing Speed O Verbal and general intelligence test scores correlate with the: O speed of retrieving information from memory. O speed of receiving and processing sensory and perceptual information.