Module 3 Chapter 9 Modern Use Of Intelligence Testing Trasnscript.pdf
1 Video Transcript: Lecture 4 (Week 3) “Modern Use of Intelligence Testing” (12:14) Now that you know a bit about the history of intelligence testing, let’s take a look at how intelligence testing is done today. In modern intelligence testing, there are two set of tests that are commonly used. The first is the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale. This scale became very popular in clinical psychology and educational counselling. The test has been revised many times since Terman first developed the scale and it now includes age appropriate subsections and is capable of assessing very young children and very gifted adults. The second set of tests is called the Wechsler Intelligence Scales and these scales combine verbal sub-tests with non-verbal and performance sub-tests. Wechsler developed two tests: There is the WAIS, which is the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, and the WISC, which is used with children, Wechsler’s Intelligence Scale for Children. All of these scales have to be administered by psychologists who have received extensive training in test administration. Now, why do you think that it is important that the person giving the test has received training? Standardization: The first reason that a person giving the test has needs training is to make sure that the test sessions are standardized, that is, that the test is administered in exactly same way and under the exact same conditions every time. The researcher has to give the test taker the exact same instructions and exactly the same amount of time to complete the test in order for the test scores to be reliable. Inter-rater reliability: The other reason why the person giving the test needs training is to ensure that when they score the test that they’ve given that they give highly similar ratings to other test administrators. What about internet IQ tests? Well, what about internet IQ tests? It would probably surprise you to know that the Stanford- Binet Intelligence Scale and Wechsler Intelligence Scales take hours to complete and it requires that there is psychologists present who is trained in giving the test and in scoring the test. So instead of praising very complicated and expensive tests with subtests and non-verbal components why don’t I just encourage you to jump on your laptop, find the internet IQ test and complete it in three minutes and see if you can beat the high score? Well, internet tests are 2 not necessarily reliable. So, if you take two or more internet IQ tests, you may end up with very different scores and how do you know which score is correct? We have no reason to believe that internet IQ tests are valid. That is, we don’t know if they truly measure what they say they measure because unlike a traditional IQ test there’s no empirical evidence to suggest the validity of these kinds of tests. And even if internet IQ tests were both reliable and valid, we still can’t trust the scores because we have no control over the setting that people are in when they take the test. Some may be watching TV or doing laundry at the same time, some may get their moms to help them, we don’t know, but we do know that extraneous variables like that, can really muddle up the results. Reliability: Internet tests do not give consistent scores; therefore, they are not reliable. Tests that are not reliable also cannot be valid, because if they measured what they were supposed to measure we would get the same score every time. For instance, let’s say I wanted to measure psychopathy in our class. Psycopathy is a personality trait and is very, very stable over time. Let’s say I test each of you three times. The first time you do the test you get a score of 20, the second time you take the test you get a score of 35 and the third time you take the test you get a score of 5. Are we really measuring psycopathy or are we measuring something else? So validity on a test is extremely important and the validity refers to the extent to which an assessment instrument measures what it is supposed to measure. An illustrative test (slide) Now how many of you have ever taken an IQ test or even seen one? They are intimidating little creatures so I wanted to show you guys what items on an IQ test look like. Now of course I cannot get a copy of the Stanford-Binet or Wechsler because I’m not trained to administer it so I went with one of those highly unreliable internet IQ tests that I just told you not to take. Now this is just for fun and your actual score won’t mean anything, unless you get it perfect, in which case, I probably want to keep you for experimentation. So, get out a piece of paper, write down the numbers one to five on the left-hand side. For each question that follows try to answer the question in the time allowed. You will have 20 seconds to figure out the answer to each question. If you miss a question, just move onto the next one. Don’t pause or rewind the power point – that’s cheating. I’ll give you a minute now to find a piece of paper and pen and to write down the numbers 1 to 5. Okay, now hopefully you have a piece of paper and pencil and are ready to get started so I will show you the first question and I’ll give you 20 seconds before I move onto the next question. Here we go: 1. Which of the five is lease like the other four? BEAR – SNAKE – COW – DOG – TIGER 3 2. If you rearrange the letters BARBIT, you have the name of a: OCEAN – COUNTRY – STATE – CITY – ANIMAL 3. John, twelve years old, is three times as old as his brother. How old will John be when he is twice as old as his brother? 15 – 16 – 18 – 20 – 21 4. If some Smaugs or Thors and some Thors or Thrains, then some Smaugs are definitely Thrains. TRUE – FALSE – NEITHER 5. Choose the word that is most nearly opposite in meaning to SUBSEQUENT PRIMARY – RECENT – PRIOR – SIMULTANEOUS Answers (slide) Ok, that concludes our test. Let’s see how you did. Semantic processing (slide) So the first item measures Semantic processing and you had to answer which of the five is least like the others and the answer is SNAKE. Letter manipulation (slide) The second question measures letter manipulation in which you had to rearrange some letters to get the name of an animal. In this case, the word is RABBIT. Arithmetic (slide) The third item measures arithmetic in which case you have to do some math. Logical inference (slide) The fourth item measures logical inference. Vocabulary (slide) And the fifth item measures your vocabulary. So now that you have seen what items on an IQ test might look like, let’s talk about what we use intelligence testing for today. Modern use of intelligence tests In the modern use of intelligence tests, we can use IQ in a variety of areas. For instance, we can use IQ to diagnose and quantify the extant of mental retardation or learning disabilities 4 by characterising specific deficits. A person may receive a diagnosis of mental retardation if their IQ is below 70 to 75 and the age of onset is under the age of 18. But a low IQ is not enough for a diagnosis of retardation. The person also has to show significant impairment in adaptive skill areas such as communication, their abilities to maintain their health and safety, self-care and functional academics. If we see a large gap between a person’s IQ score and their scholarly achievements this may indicate a learning disorder. It used to be that people with mental disabilities were side-lined into special education programs; however, it has since been found that they benefit more from being in a regular classroom and it also minimizes the stigma associated with mental disabilities. We can also use IQ to assess giftedness. Usually gifted children, not only have a high IQ, usually above 130, they may also have very high levels of creativity. Their skills may be confined to specific area, so, say math and not languages. We may also use intelligence test to assess intellectual impairments following acute events such as a car accident or disease processes such as in the case of Alzheimer’s or dementia. And finally, we use IQ tests to test peoples’ suitability for certain professions or educational opportunities. For instance, anyone who wants to get into grade school will have to face one of these. In psychology we have to take the GRE which stands for the Graduate Record Examination. If you want to go to medical school, you will have to take the MCAT, in law school it’s called the LSAT and if you want to get into a graduate program in math – although I don’t know why you’d want to get into a graduate program in math – you’d have to do the GMAT. Extraneous influences (familiarity, motivation, distraction, anxiety, sensory problems) (slide) Finally we also have to consider the extraneous influences that might influence how people do on an IQ test. For instance, we know that people who are familiar with the type of questions that you’d see on an IQ test, as you all are now, tend to do better on intelligence tests than people who are not familiar with the material. It also goes without saying that people who are highly motivated to do well on an IQ test tend to do better than people who are not motivated. Likewise, people who are distracted while taking the test, say for instance, there’s loud construction work going on right outside the room that you are sitting in, also tend to underperform. People who feel very anxious in the test taking situation may also not perform as well they would if they weren’t anxious. And finally, people who suffer from sensory problems, such as visual impairment or hearing difficulties taking the test and therefore not perform the best.