Social and Personality Development in the Preschool Years Module 3.3 Psychosocial Development Changes in the understanding of yourself and other people?s behavior 3-6 is Erikson?s initiative vs. guilt stage Conflict is between desire to be independent from parents, but feeling guilty if they do not succeed Self-Concept A set of beliefs about what you are like as an individual Preschoolers overestimate their skills because they do not yet compare their behavior to others Culture can impact a person?s self-concept In collectivistic cultures will include more group details In individualistic cultures will describe self as more unique from others Views of own race or ethnicity can be impacted by attitudes of others in environment Gender Identity Sense of being male or female is well developed by preschool years Gender expectations are often very strict, with preschoolers sticking more to stereotypes than others Gender expectations affect the way preschoolers view and interpret their world and how they behave Gender Identity Biological Influences Prenatal hormones Brain characteristics Social Learning Influences Suggested children learn gender-related behavior by observing others Media may have an influence Sometimes directly told how to behave like a lady or be a man Gender Identity Cognitive Factors Develop gender schemas to organize and understand what is appropriate for males and females By 4-5, gender consistancy develops Social Development - Friendships Begin to develop real friendship around 3 Based on companionship, play, and fun Social Development - Play 2 main categories of play Functional play: engage in simple repetitive activities Constructive play: manipulate objects to produce something Play influences social development as well as physical and cognitive Social Development ? Play How much children interact during play varies with development Parallel play: children play with similar toys near each other but don?t interact Onlooker play: watch other kids play Associative play: interaction occurs through sharing or borrowing toys Cooperative play: genuinely play together, talking, taking turns, etc. Family Factors for Preschoolers ? Parenting Styles Authoritarian: controlling, punitive, cold. Value strict, unquestioning obedience Children end up withdrawn, girls dependent, boys hostile Permissive: lax and inconsistent rules. Few requirements. Feel they have little impact over how kids turn out Children end up dependent, moody, low self-control Family Factors for Preschoolers ? Parenting Styles Authoritative: set clear and consistent limits, loving and emotionally supportive, explain why behaviors are expected and punishments are given, encourage independence Children end up independent, friendly, assertive, motivated to succeed, good self-discipline Uninvolved: show almost no interest, are indifferent to their child or rejecting, emotionally detached. Just feed, clothe, and shelter kids. Children end up with disturbed emotional development, feel unloved, may have physical and cognitive development delays Family Factors for Preschoolers ? Abuse 5 children a day are killed by caretakers 3 million abused or neglected Most prevalent in stressful environments, by step-parents, and in homes with domestic violence 3-4 and 15-17 year olds experience more abuse than average Sometimes abuse is not intended at first but spanking in anger can get out of hand Cycle of Violence: people who were abused are more likely to become abusers Family Factors for Preschoolers ? Maltreatment Behavioral, cognitive, emotional, or physical harm is caused by caretakers May be active or overt like neglect Associated with lower self-esteem, poor behavior, underachievement, lying, criminal behavior, depression Permanent brain changes can result from maltreatment and abuse Resilience The ability to overcome high-risk circumstances Resilient kids tend to be easy-going and affectionate, easily soothed as infants, can draw out caring behavior from others, good communication skills, intelligent, independent, feel that they control their fate Moral Development in Preschool Changes in a person?s sense of justice and of what is right and wrong Piaget?s View of Moral Development Suggested it occurs in stages beginning with very rigid adherence to rules and later developing into understanding that rules can change if everyone agrees Moral Development in Preschool Social Learning View of Moral Development The environment produces pro-social behavior either by reinforcement of good behavior and punishment of bad or just by observing others behavior From observing others and learning from the environment they eventually can use abstract modeling Moral Development in Preschool To develop some moral values children need to develop ________ Aggression in Preschoolers - Basics Intentional injury or harm to others Most preschoolers display at least some aggression May decrease with the increase of emotion regulation skills 2 types ______________: occurs to obtain a goal, is often physical and done more by boys __________: nonphysical aggression intended to hurt others feelings and done more by girls Aggression in Preschoolers - Theories Some suggest that aggression is a biological instinctual drive that exists because is allows survival Minimal research support Social learning theorists suggest aggressive behavior is learned from watching others and prior reinforcement or punishment Providing positive models and reinforcement of appropriate behavior may reduce aggression Cognitive approaches suggest how a child interprets things in the environment impacts aggressive behavior Teaching to better examine situational variables may help reduce aggression Aggression in Preschoolers - Media Children?s TV shows contain more aggression than adult shows What impact would this have if social learning theory is correct about aggression? Research shows that watching aggressive tv shows at 8 is related to criminal behavior at 30 Research shows that playing violent video games is also related to aggressive behavior Teaching children that what they see on tv is not appropriate to imitate and modeling appropriate behavior may decrease the impact of media violence
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