Children of mothers who drink heavily during pregnancy are born with?
fetal alcohol syndrome
In infants, anesthetic drugs can increase:
In development, neurotrophins ____. During adulthood, they ____.
preserve neurons, increase neuronal branching
The final stage of neurodevelopment is called:
As a rule, all vertebrate neurons develop during an embryological stage. Among the few types of neurons that can develop in adulthood are:
Which of the following would most likely interfere with migration of neurons during development?
altering the chemical paths
An iodine deficiency in the diet can lead to an inadequate production of thyroid hormones. What is the result if this occurs in an infant or developing fetus?
Children of mothers who use cocaine during pregnancy:
have a slightly lower IQ score.
In humans, myelination first occurs in the:
How much alcohol, if any, can a pregnant woman drink without worrying about the negative effects on her child?
unknown, and therefore abstention is recommended
What modern day practice helps prevent an inadequate production of thyroid hormones?
What is the production of new neurons called?
Cell adhesion molecules (related to the immunoglobulins) and chemokines play an important role in neural:
Early in development, the nervous system begins as a:
tube surrounding a fluid-filled cavity.
In response to nervous system injury, neurotrophins:
increase regrowth of damaged axons.
When do the ventricles and the central canal of the spinal cord form?
early in embryonic development
Which statement most accurately describes embryonic development of the nervous system in humans?
Far more neurons are produced than will ultimately survive.
What condition would be suspected if a young child shows decreased alertness, hyperactivity, mental retardation, motor problems, a heart defect, and abnormal facial features?
fetal alcohol syndrome
Massive cell death in the brain during prenatal development is:
The most likely explanation for the excess proliferation of neurons in early development is that it:
compensates for connection errors.
Focal hand dystonia, sometimes called "musician's cramp", is caused by:
extreme overlap of cortical representation of the fingers.
The fluid-filled cavity of the developing neural tube becomes the:
Whether or not a transplanted immature neuron adopts the properties of neurons in the new location or retains at least some properties of neurons from where it was taken from depends largely on how much the transplanted neuron has:
Nerve Growth Factor (NGF):
promotes the survival and growth of the axon
The areas of the cortex used by expert video game players are most likely to ____ than the same cortical areas of those who don’t play video games.
Children of mothers who smoke cigarettes during pregnancy are at an increased risk of:
Which of the following factors seems to be particularly important for branching of neurons during brain development?
is a programmed mechanism of cell death.
Brain studies of blind people suggest that they have greater attention to touch and auditory stimulation because:
their visual cortex is used for touch and verbal tasks
Which of the following best characterizes how axons arrive at the correct target cells?
they follow chemical gradients from the target cell
New neurons have been found to grow in all of the following cases, except:
spinal cord of mammals.
If you cut the optic nerve of a newt, what happens?
The fibers grow back and attach to their original targets, resulting in normal vision.
The stages of neurogenesis that occur for the longest duration are:
myelination and synaptogenesis.
Competition of neurons for postsynaptic sites results in survival of only the most successful axons. This general principle is called:
Research in people over age 60 who were randomly assigned to experience 6 months of aerobic exercise showed:
that they developed greater thickness of the cortex.
What is signaled by nerve growth factor (NGF)?
that a target cell has "accepted" an axon
The function of neurotrophins is to:
promote survival of axons.
As the neural tube sinks under the surface of the skin, the forward end enlarges and differentiates into the:
hindbrain, midbrain, and forebrain.
is cell death caused by an injury or a toxic substance
Brain cells that are neither neurons nor glia, but which are capable of dividing and then differentiating into neurons or glia are called:
The mechanism of fetal alcohol syndrome probably relates to:
After maturity, the apoptotic mechanisms become:
Some neurons die during development because:
they fail to receive enough NGF.
Stem cells are important for which of the following developmental processes?
Myelination in the human brain:
continues well into the adult years.
The ability of the brain to change its anatomy over time, within limits, is known as:
Which of the following, if any, would be more damaging to an adult brain than to the brain of an infant or fetus?
exposure to alcohol
infections like German measles
iodine deficiency in the diet
All of these are more damaging to an infant brain.
Varied environment with stimulation increases animals:
branching of dendrites.
After cells have differentiated as neurons or glia, they:
The human central nervous system:
begins to form when the embryo is about two weeks old.
Which cells and/or cellular structures exhibit selectivity as axons form synapses with target cells?
both axons and target cells
The formation of a neuron’s distinctive shape occurs during the ____ stage of neurogenesis.
around the ventricles.
Why is it that all neurons in a healthy adult brain have made appropriate connections?
If an axon does not make the appropriate connections by a certain age, it dies.
Alcohol suppresses the release of ____, the brain’s main excitatory transmitter.
What happened when Weiss grafted an extra leg onto a salamander adjacent to one of the hindlegs?
Branches of axons from the old leg attached to corresponding muscles in the new
Myelination is a process common to:
some vertebrate axons.
Chemicals in the amphibian tectum guide the growth of axons from the retina to their correct location in the tectum by:
using a chemical gradient.
The formation of new synapses is called:
Differentiation is the:
formation of dendrites and an axon.
Developing neurons need ____ for survival.
neurotrophins and synaptic input
After the migrating neuron reaches its destination, ____ begin to form.
Which of the following aspects of brain and neural functioning can be most clearly altered by experience?
structure of dendrites and axons
What is different about rats raised in an enriched environment in comparison to rats raised in an impoverished environment?
improved learning performance
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