Last Modified: 2014-07-28
DNA Helicase, Topoisomerase (gyrase), Primase, DNA Polymerase, DNA Ligase
Okazaki Fragments, RNA primer, single-strand binding proteins, ATP, dNTPs
Step 1: Helicase unwinds double helix
Step 2: Single-strand binding proteins stabilize unwound DNA
Step 3: The leading strand is synthesized.
Step 4: The lagging strand is synthesized discontinuously.
Step 5: RNA primer replaced with DNA, ligase joins Okazaki fragments
- Telomeres: Repetitive nucleotide sequence at the end of a chromosome. Buffer to prevent the loss of genetic information due to loss of RNA primers on the lagging strand.
2. Endonuclease removes the damaged DNA
3. Gap closed by DNA Polymerase and Ligase
Without an inducer (lactose), the gene is repressed, and lactase is not transcribed
With an inducer, genes can now be transcribed.
Without a repressor, gene is transcribed.
With a repressor (tryptophan), repressor is active and stops transcription.
- TATA box (specific to eukaryotic transcription)
- Sigma Factor (specific to prokaryotic transcription)
Helicase (Specific to eukaryotic transcription)
- Hairpin, Rho factor (Specific to prokaryotic transcription)
1) 5' Cap Formation
2) Poly - A Tail Formation
UAA = U Are Annoying
UGA = U Go Away
UAG = U Are Gone
- amino acids and start/ stop codons
- 20 amino acids represented by 64 codons
- Reduce lethality due to mutations
There is no codon that can code for more than one amino acid.
- Acidic/ Basic
- Hydrophilic/ Hydrophobic
- tRNA (anticodon)
In the cytoplasm
- Amino Acid residues
- Primary structure still stays intact
- Can be irreversible
- Tossing it in a different environment (e.g., Water)
- Hydrophobic bonds found in the non aqueous, interior environment of a protein
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