Morphological Rules - 11/2/09 Lecture
- University of Wisconsin - Madison
- Linguistics 301
- Morphological Rules - 11/2/09 Lecture
Last Modified: 2011-07-03
Related Textbooks:Contemporary Linguistics: An Introduction
- plurals can attatch to any noun -s or -es [besides commonly known irregulars, i.e. man/men]
- yield semantically transparent forms. do not need to be stored seperately in the lexicon and do not have idiosyncratic meanings
- doesn't always mean the same thing as the two words unattatched [i.e. "greenhouse" ≠ "green house"
- can remain two seperate words, and yet be a compound ["palm pilot", "red hot"]
- stress generally on the first word, rather than the second
- inflectional affexes can't be attatched to the first word ["dropped kick" ≠ "drop kicked"]
- an adverb can't modify an adjective ["very black board" ≠ "very blackboard"]
- trees- make 2 seperate word trees and connect. the total word takes on the category of the right-most word
- "head of compound" - most important word (Generally on the right in English) [greenhouse is a house]
- Morphemes are attatched one at a time in a specific order
- Label the result of each step with the correct lexical category
- Each addition must result in a real word
- Ambiguous case- unlockable
- nominative case - subject
- accusative - direct object
- dative - indirect object
- locative - location
- genitive - possessor
- Structure tree - root is labeled with lexical category [verb, noun, adj., etc.] and affixes are labeled "Af."
- Compounding - 2 free words put together
- Derivational Rules: sometimes (but not always) change the part of speech [i.e. verb → noun]
- Inflectional affixes: highly productive
- Derivational rules come before inflectional affixes (closer to the root word) [i.e. neighbor(root) -hood(der.) -s(inf.)]
- Gramatical info is stored in the inflection
- Words created through derivational morphology are stored in the lexicon
- Able to be unlocked = [(un+lock)+able]
- Not able to be locked = [un+(lock+able)]
- nouns-number (quantity), gender (subclass) and case (see below)
- verbs-agreement (who does the action), tense (when it occurs), and aspect (ongoing action, completed, or habitual)
- case is the grammatical role of a noun (subject, object, etc.)
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