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The process of transforming energy in the environment into electrical energy in the neurons is called ______
In the steps of the perceptual process, the sequence of steps are ____, and _____, _____
Dynamic & Continually Changing
Kimmy is casting shadows on the wall and watching whether her cat Tiger jumps at the shadows or not, she uses different hand motions (stimulus) to see if Tiger jumps or not (perception), Kimmy is informally studying the ___ ____ relationship
Minimum stimulus intensity that can just be detected
When using the method of limits, the absolute threshold is determined by calculating the ____ of the ___ ____ points
The difference between the method of limits and the method of adjustment is that in the method of adjustment stimulus intensity is changed in a ____ manner.
Of the three classical psychophysical methods, the method of ________ is most accurate but takes the most amount of time.
Using Weber's Law, if the DL for a 100 g weight standard is 2g, then the DL when using a 200 g standard would be ___ g.
If the just noticeable difference(DL) for lifting a 200 g weight is 10 g, the just noticeable difference for lifting a 4000 g weight would be ___ g
The Weber fraction for electric shock is ____ and ___ for light intensity .
The first step in the procedure for magnitude estimation is to present the participant with a ___ ____ and assign a ___ ____ to that stimulus
Response ___ occurs in a magnitude estimation experiment when doubling the stimulus intensity, less than doubles the subjective magnitude of the stimulus.
The exponent of a power function is less than 1, this means that ___ ____ is occurring.
Holly is riding in a car and notices that stationary objects closer to her move faster than stationary objects that are further away, holly is using which method of perception? The _____.
According to signal detection theory, our response to a stimulus depends both on our ____ to the stimulus in the presence of _____ and on our ______ ______.
What inputs do not arouse sense impressions?
Perception determined by stimulus information which hasn't entered consciousness in the form of sensations.
Organs of perception are not always ___ in consciousness.
A constant perception depends on the ability of the individual to detect ____.
Perceptual systems are:
A. Mutually exclusive
B. Not mutually exclusive
In the process of perception, the external pattern that is temporarily occupied by excited receptors as the eyes roam over the world or as the skin moves over an object is used to determine the ___ to be picked up.
When a nerve fiber is at rest there is a difference in charge of___.
How often can a neuron fire per second?
At the beginning of the action potential ___ ____ ions flow from outside the nerve fiber, into the nerve fiber.
The flow of ions that create the action potential are caused by changes in the ____ of the nerve fiber.
Synaptic vesicles contain chemicals called _____, that are released across the synapse to the next neuron.
The ___ and ____ analogy is used to describe the relationship between of NT with receptor sites.
Rods and cones synapse with ____ cells which then synapse with _____ cells
if we compare how the rod and cones converge onto other retinal neurons we find that rods
converge _______ than foveal cones
Convergence results in _______ sensitivity and _________ acuity
Converging circuits with excitation and inhibition are associated with most closely with which
step of the perceptual process
A receptor array in the limulus is connected by the:
Receptor A is located by receptors to the left of receptor B. what stimulation will result in the greatest firing rate recorded from receptor A?
Where does the LGN receive the most input from?
An area involved in controlling eye movements and other visual behaviours
What type of receptive field do neurons of the LGN have?
The rate of firing of the post synaptic neuron depends on the amount of both __________ and
________ input it recieves from the presynaptic neuron
excitation and inhibition
Both _________ and __________ are necessary for the neural transmition and processing
Inhibition and excitation
The flow of info from the ___ to the ___ is the greatest amount of information flow
CORTEX to the LGN
The Nobel Prize winners who conducted the research on the physiology of striate cortex neurons were
Graphing the response of a simple cortical cell results in the
A stimulus that contains alternating black and white bars is called a
The difference in intensity between the light bars and the dark bars is called?
To measure the contrast threshold the experimenter decreases the intensity difference between the light bars and the dark bars until an observer can just barely detect the difference between the dark bars and the light bars
The results of experiment of selective adaption to gratings with specific orientation can be related
to the ________.
When you are extracting tuning curves from simple cortical cells is a ________ experiment
_________ ________refers to the fact that the response properties of neurons can be shaped by
an animals or persons perceptual experience
______________ ___________ refers to the raising an organism in an environment that only
contains certain types of stimuli
When a kitten is exposed to an environment of just horizontal lines that kitten would have cortical cells that
The kitten would have cortical cells that respond to horizontal lines but NONE
to vertical lines
Lateral inhibition can be used to explain? (3)
The gray intersections in the Hermann grid
In mach bands the darker area sends ____ lateral inhibition to the lighter area than the lighter area
sends to the darker area
You can create a version of the ________ _______ by illuminating a light colored surface with a
desk lamp and casting a shadow with a piece of paper
______ _______ cells fire to moving lines of a specific length or to moving corners or angles
Neurons in the _______ respond to complex stimuli, but not simple stimuli such as straight lines
Quioroga studied sensory coding by
Using implanted electrodes in the temporal lobe of epileptic patients
Finding the neural correlate of consciousness is related to the
What lobe does object discrimination go with
Landmark discrimination goes with
The highest sound intensity level allowed for previews in a movie theatre is now?
A complex tone can be created by starting with a pure tone called the ____________
_________________ and adding frequencies that are multiples of this first frequency.
A frequency spectrum shows a tone that is composed of a frequency of X hertz – 2 X hertz and 3
X hertz – the 2 X hertz and the 3 X hertz, those frequencies are called
Any time you add harmonics or the fundamental in this 2 X situation you are going to get a?
______ _______ is the property of increasing pitch that accompanies increases in the tones
Our range of hearing is from ______________., a dog can hear over 400000 Hz., a cat can hear
frequencies above 50000 Hz., and a dolphin can hear over 1500000 Hz. (and bats too).
A piano tone played backwards will sound more like an organ than a piano because
The tones original decay has become the attack and vice versa
The outer ear contains?
The pina, the auditory canal and the tympanic membrane
The function of the auditory canal is to increase frequency/ intensity of sounds by means of _________
The role of the middle ear is?
Amplify the vibrations between the air in the outer ear and the liquid in the inner ear
Which of the following does not need an outer or middle ear to hear effectively?
The function of the muscles of the middle ear is to?
Dampen the ossicles’ vibrations at high intensities
The bending of the cilia of the ______ _______ ________ causes a release of small bursts of
Bekesy discovered the travelling wave motion of the basilar membrane by stimulating the
Ear of human cadavers
Bekesy placed theory of hearing purposes that the frequency of a sound is?
Based on the place along the organ of Corte along which the nerve firing is highest
Where ever the peak is highest the nerve firing from the organ of corti and that region on the
basilar membrane is going to be the _________.
The base of the basilar membrane near the oval window is _________ than at the end of the basilar membrane at the apex of the cochlea
Frequency can be coded by the firing rate at or near the peak of the sine wave stimulus this is
The motion of the basilar membrane results in ________________.
Movement of both the organ of Corti and the Tectorial membrane
According to Milner and Goodale, the dorsal stream is a ______ pathway.
An area called the PPA (Para hippocampal place - located in temporal lobe) in the responds to
representation of furnished room pictures, and responds to empty rooms. Does it respond better
to pictures with furnished rooms or empty rooms
Patient HM had his __________ removed.
The cochlear implant makes use of _________________________.
The tonotopic map of frequencies on the cochlea
A ______ ________ is composed of a 440 hertz tone (fundamental) an 880 hertz tone and a
1,320 hertz tone.
Which part of the basilar membrane will respond…
The three different areas characteristic of each individual component
When presenting a complex tone with 182 hertz fundamental frequency to a marmoset found a
neuron that responded to a 182 hertz tone when presented alone but not when any of the
harmonics were presented alone is the example of a __________ neuron.
Hearing loss that occurs as a function of age is called ______________; lose high frequency
At their highest settings MP3 players can reach_______ decibels, which is ______ decibels
higher than OSHA recommended maximum
The audibility curve of a six month old infant is ________ to the audibility curve for an adult (a
curve is a graph of all the frequencies on the X axis and the number of db that is required for a
person to just here that frequency; it is a threshold curve at different frequencies)
DeCasper and Feifer used pattern of ____________ to identify the sound of the mothers voice
Research supports that an infants ability to recognize a mothers voice is due to ____________ ?
Inter-orals level difference (ILD). High frequency sounds do not reach the other side because of
the head (you will hear the difference based on the fact that the head is in the way for High
ILD is for HIGH frequency sounds
The Inter-oral time difference (ITD) is dominant cue for locating ______________ along the
Low frequency sounds
Coincidence detectors fire when the ITD equal ___.
Inter oral time difference detectors have been found in the monkey auditory cortex that responds
best to __________ _________
The _________ effect is the listener perceives the fused sound from two speakers to be
originating from the lead speaker.
In the precedence effect, the sound from the far speaker contributes to the richness of the sound.
In the precedence effect, the indirect sound, in small rooms reach our ears with delays of about
________. In larger rooms however, the delay is much _______.
The major factors affecting indirect sounds are?
Another factor affecting indirect sound is?
In concert halls there is something that contributes to the richness of the music called
the_________ ________. It is the time that it takes a sound to decrease to _____ or ____ of it’s
reverberation time, 1/1000 or 60 dB
Intimacy time the time between when sound arrives directly from the stage and when the first reflection arrives
Base ratio the ration of low frequencies to middle frequencies that are reflected from the walls
and other surfaces
High base ratios are ideal
High spaciousness factors are ideal
They found that in the opera house, ___ was better to enable people to hear the singers voices.
The ideal reverberation time for a small classroom is about __ to ___ seconds.
The senses of ________ and __________ are referred to as the gate keepers.
The lifespan of olfactory receptors in humans is _____ because they’re being constantly stimulated by chemicals
The _________ effect occurs because humans have more cortical neurons that respond to
horizontal and vertical orientations than to slanted orientations
After training participants on the recognition of Greeble stimuli Gauthier et al found that the
neurons in the FFA responded ____________.
As well to greebles as to human faces
Which one is false?
The pathways rely on information from the SAME type of ganglion cells
Person A cant name the object but can tell you where the object is. (temporal lobe damage).
Person B can name the object but cant determine where the object (parietal lobe damage)
Cant prove double dissociation with one person, you NEED two
A researcher finds that damage to area A of the brain results in the loss of function A but NOT function B.
Simple cells, complex cells, hyper complex cells in visual cortex are all ________.
_____________ Is the difficulty recognizing familiar faces.
The __________ is activated by pictures of body parts
How can we explain how we can hear frequencies between 20 and 2000t per second given that
any given cell in the auditory system can only respond 800 times per second?
Sound, Relative amplitude, decibels
Simple sound which has only 1 sine wave, otherwise known as a __________.
Areas on the tongue cover primarily with filiform papillae are similar to ______________ in
Taste signals from the thalamus project to the ________ and the frontal operculum
Across fibre patterns Is another name for ____________.
Eliminating the receptor for bitter tastes results in no effect on responses to the other tastes
Mueller created a strain of mice that lacked the receptor that normally responds to a bitter
substance called Cyx. The mice that did not have this receptor did not avoid Cyx.
The substance ______ blocks the flow of sodium to taste receptors.
Humans are classified as tasters or non tasters based on their sensitivity to PTC which tastes
The difference between tasters and non-tasters in the ability to taste another substance PROP is
Both high taste bud density and specialized receptors for tasters
Odorant of natural gas is less than _________ for us to smell (important for our survival)
Even though humans are unaware of smells compared to animals, our olfactory receptors are as
sensitive as any animals
We just have less olfactory receptors than they do
Humans only have __________ receptors compared to 1 billion olfactory receptors for dogs.
If they are the same, what do we have to do?
Odorants can contact the olfactory receptors by ______________.
a) one way is flowing directly in the stream of
b) by attaching to olfactory binding proteins that are in the receptors
as the length of the carbon chain increases the area of activation moves to the
Two dioxiglucose technique involves injecting a radioactivity two dioxiglugose molecule into an animal and exposes it to different animals. This contains _______ which is brought up by active neurons.
which of the following compounds have the same flavor the person nose was clamped to prevent oflaction
The orbitofrontol cortex receives input from ______ _____, ______ ______, the _____ _____ _____ and from the _____ ______ areas for taste and olfaction? (4)
Platform cortex, visual pathways, the primary somatosensory cortex and from the primary cortical areas for taste and olfaction
the smell of the food depends on?
When an 8 hour old newborn is given a concentrated shrimp odour to smell, the newborn responds with a facial expression that displays ________
The differences in the pleasantness ratings of odors has been related to different activities in the ________.
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