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- Ms. Goshorn's AP Physics B formula flashcards

Anne G.

Δx = area under v-t graph

Δv = area under a-t graphdisplacement is a change in position; velocity is the rate of change of displacement, acceleration is the rate of change of velocity

Kinematics

F_{net} = ma

the sum of all forces causes a mass to accelerate

Net Force

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F_{f} = μF_{N}

the friction force is caused by an object pressing on another object

Friction Force

centripetal acceleration

τ = rF

a torque is generated when a force acts a perpendicular distance from a pivot point

torque

p = mv

momentum comes from a mass moving at a velocity

momentum

J =FΔt (when the force is constant)

J =area (when the force changes)

impulse is a force acting during a time period

impulse

FΔt = mΔv (when force is constant)

impulse is equal to the change in momentum

impulse momentum

m_{1}v_{01}+ m_{2}v_{02}= m_{1}v_{1}+ m_{2}v_{2}

the total momentum before a collision/explosion is equal to the total momentum after

collision-explosion

K = * 1/2 mv ^{2} *

*kinetic energy is the energy of a mass with a velocity ^{}*

kinetic energy

U_{g} = mgh

gravitational potential energy is the energy of a mass in a gravitational field with height

gravitational potential energy

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W = FΔx

work is the energy done by an external force moving through a displacement

mechanical work

power (general definition)

P = Fv

power is the rate at which an external force moves through a displacement

power (in terms of velocity)

F_{s} = kΔx

the force in a spring is generated when a spring with a constant k is stretched a distance of Δx

spring force

U_{s} = * 1/2 kΔx ^{2}*

*the energy stored in a spring when it is displaced*

spring potential energy

period of a spring

period of a pendulum

relationship between frequency and period

gravitational force between any 2 masses

gravitational potential energy between any 2 masses

abosulte pressure in a fluid

gauge pressure

buoyant force

fluid flow continuity

volume flow rate

Bernoulli's principle

pressure (general definition)

ideal gas law

internal energy in a gas

velocity of a gas molecule

thermal work

efficiency (general)

ideal (Carnot) efficiency

electrostatic force between 2 charges

electrostatic force on a charge in a field

electrostatic field created by one charge

electrostatic field in terms of force

electrostatic field created by a potential separated a distance

electrostatic potential energy of two charges

electrostatic potential energy of a charge in a potential

electrostatic potential created by one charge

Q=VC

The charge stored on a capacitor depends on voltage and capacitance.

charge stored on a capacitor

capacitance

energy stored on a capacitor

current (definition)

resistance of a wire

V=IR

Voltage is proportional to current times resistance.

Ohm's Law

Power in a circuit

Equivalent resistance for resistors in series

Equivalent resistance for resistors in parallel

Equivalent capacitance for capacitors in series

Equivalent capacitance for capacitors in parallel

magnetic force on a charge moving in a magnetic field

magnetic force on a current carrying wire in a magnetic field

magnetic field around a current carrying wire

magnetic flux

emf generated by a changing magnetic field

emf generated by a rectangular loop moving through a magnetic field

velocity of a wave

index of refraction

frequency of a pipe that is open at both ends

frequency of a pipe that is open at only one end

Snell's law

critical angle

mirror & lens equation

magnification

relationship between focal length and radius of curvature

diffraction pattern path difference

diffraction pattern spacing

minimum thickness for thin film constructive interference (bubble)

minimum thickness for thin film destructive interference (bubble)

minimum thickness for thin film constructive interference (glass)

minimum thickness for thin film destructive interference (glass)

Energy of a photon

maximum kinetic energy of an emitted electron

deBroglie wavelength

rest energy of a mass

alpha decay

beta decay

gamma decay

An excited nucleus is bombarded by a neutron, causing the nucleus to split into 2 daughter nuclei and more neutrons.

fission

hf = φ

The minimum frequency of a photon that can ejecta photoelectron.

The minimum frequency of a photon that can ejecta photoelectron.

cutoff frequency for emitting photoelectrons

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