3. A social science researcher is conducting a study to determine which demographic variables best predicted voting patterns in a recent statewide election. The researcher would most likely use inductive reasoning to:
formulate a hypothesis that ranks demographic variables in order of importance in determining how people in the state voted.
identify sources such as state census reports and vote counts at the precinct level that would provide data needed to test hypotheses.
organize available data so that the relationship of each demographic variable to voting patterns can be examined independently.
evaluate voting patterns to construct a research design that assigns each pattern an appropriate relative weighting.
A. (Objective 0001) Inductive and deductive reasoning are both used in hypothesis formation and testing. Inductive reasoning makes broad generalizations from specific observations (i.e., "bottom up" reasoning), while deductive reasoning begins with a general statement and examines specific observations to support or reject that statement (i.e., "top down" reasoning). In general, inductive reasoning is used to pose problems, ask questions, or formulate hypotheses.
7. Which of the following phrases best describes a major aim of historical works based on modernization theory?
to examine the intellectual sources of major political doctrines
to explore the consequences of social conflict in societies
to identify factors that contribute to economic and social development
to analyze the causes and consequences of major population movements
Correct Response: C. (Objective 0003) As a form of analysis that attempts to explain how societies advance from one level of development to another through an examination of various social variables, modernization theory has provided the conceptual basis for numerous works seeking to identify factors that contribute to economic and social development
A historian would likely find the examination of artifacts most useful for which of the following research projects?
a study of household production in seventeenth-century Maryland
a study of religious life in seventeenth-century Massachusetts
a study of legal procedures in eighteenth-century New York
a study of political campaigns in eighteenth-century Virginia
Answer to question 8
A. (Objective 0003) Examining artifacts such as the devices used to spin yarn, weave cloth, churn butter, and perform other tasks would likely prove extremely useful for a study of household production in seventeenth-century Maryland.
A high school U.S. history class is reading an article on the events surrounding President Truman's decision to drop two atomic bombs on Japanese cities during World War II. In helping students assess the credibility of the historian's interpretation of these events, the teacher should have students undertake which of the following activities?
determine whether or not the historian is a U.S. citizen
evaluate the historian's educational background
determine whether or not the historian interviewed Truman personally
evaluate the sources on which the historian drew
D. (Objective 0004) One of the best ways to assess the credibility of a historical work is to evaluate the sources on which the account is based. For example, an article that drew on government documents and the correspondence of major historical figures would be much more credible than an essay based on contemporary newspaper accounts written by journalists with limited access to the meetings at which President Truman and his advisors discussed important events and developments.
A social studies teacher is concerned that students seem to be reading texts primarily at the surface, or literal, level. The teacher would like to use questioning to prompt students to think more deeply about a text. Which of the following questions would be most appropriate to use to promote students' thinking at the analysis level?
How would you define the term _____blank as it is used in this text?
What information in this text is most important for you to remember?
What concept or principle do you think the author wants to convey in this text?
How does the information in this text relate to information you read in _____blank?
D. (Objective 0004) Relating the information in one text to that in another text requires higher-order thinking, such as comparing and contrasting the authors' ideas or perspectives, distinguishing between different concepts or principles, or evaluating the types of evidence each author presents or the logic of the authors' respective arguments.
Which of the following developments caused the greatest increase in the incidence of disease in the earliest human communities?
the diffusion of metalworking and other technologies
the domestication of animals
the increase of contact with other human groups
the storing of grain and other foods
B. (Objective 0005) According to biologists and medical researchers, animals were the original source of about 80 percent of all human diseases. When animals were first domesticated, therefore, and brought into close contact with people, they contributed to an increase in the incidence of disease in early human communities.