Pope Gregory: began to regulate chant, established schools for music education. Chants used to prostalize. Before Gregory chants learned through oral tradition. Standardized all the basic chants. Official music of Catholic Church in Middle ages Gregorian Chant (plainchant=plain song) - Monophonic (one line) - No rhythm -antiphon: plainchant usually showing a simple melodic style with few melismas (single syllable) Hildegard of Bingen: argued against Pope regarding music. Said music was an extension of God. Soul has a living voice. ?Breath of God? music is an expression of one?s body. 1st composer to have name known. 1151-1158 collected songs. 1st woman to receive permission form Pope to write. Arranged and wrote own music. 1st woman to discuss genealogy from women?s perspective. Created a reformation, pushed against limits of acceptable social behaviors of her time. Female mystic Her style -sequence: in a melody, a series of fragments identical except for their placement at successively higher or lower pitch levels. In the middle ages, it?s a type of plainchant in which successive phrases of text receive nearly identical melodic treatment. *used more elaborate melody in a sequence. -Used AA? BB? CC??. -melodic, monophony (1 melodic line) -wide ranges -large intervals -WORD PAINTING: use music to create a scene -repeats basic sounds and embellishes it. Josquin: (1500) Used music to get what he wanted from King Louis XII, from N. France Earliest composer to be recognized as a genius, musically talented. Wrote in polyphony: notes moved in blocks. Same rhythm, multiple melodies/lines on top of one another. Two or more melodic lines played simultaneously. Used imitative polyphony, used multiple points of imitation (short passage of imitative polyphony based on a single theme). Different textures at each moment. Used homophonic texture. Reformation Martin Luther: questioned Catholic Church. He was exiled and the church became stricter. He began reformation. -Catholic response: counter reformation-Council of Trent (1545-1563): music criticized, wanted nothing noisy, lascivious, and secular, music must be LOVELY! *preferred Palestrina over Lassus *criticized dissonance, b/c un-restful, suspenseful. Lassus used dissonance, Palestrina was smooth. Monteverdi: (1600) 1st great composer to have music attacked publicly for being too radical. Last madrigalist and first great opera composer. -operas -Madrigals!!! -Baroque -seconda pratica: stylistic revolution in music. Dissonance @ end of song Baroque: elaborate art. Passionate. Rise of opera and theater! Rise of Kings. -Virtuosity-highly skilled. Bursts of fire. Continuous melody, rise of instrumental music. 3 contrasting movements (fast, slow, fast( all in diff. keys) -terraced dynamics, rise of soloist, improv, repeated rhythmic music (fugal=repeats) -precise written notation -scientific revolution -ex. Bach: wrote Brandenburg concertos. -concerto: solo piece, from word contrast. Fight between 2 group players. Instrumental solo that shows off voice of singer. (Concerto solo: large composition for orchestra and solo instruments ( Concerto grosso: main early Baroque type of concerto, for a groups of solo instruments and a small orchestra. *( Ritornello Form: name of orchestra music that starts movement. At beginning of a concerto grosso. Always returns later in the piece. Based on contrast of 2 musical ideas. A,B,A,C,A,D (the ritornello is the A, because it?s repeated) Henry Purcell: greatest English composer during Baroque era. Wrote sacred music. -Sonata -DIDO and AENEAS ( Dido?s Lament: conveyed emotional message -aria: solo for a singer (emotional), usually in opera, cantata, or oratorio. Solomon Linda: -Mbube: recorded 160 times, 3 versions, 14 movies, 6 tv commercials. -Pete Seager, ?the Weavers? made it popular in U.S.A -appropriation: did not receive enough money for his work. Others profited before he did. Family suffered for a long time, recently justice served. Blues and Laments: abandonment Blues: (1900), focused on love relations, escape. Desire to find a new life. 1920s African Ma Rainy: 1st blues singer to draw big crowds. Performed in Vaudeville. Angela Davis: (1970s) civil rights activist, Black panthers. 1st woman on FBI?s ?Most Wanted?, said blues was a way to communicate when they?re denied a voice. Bessie Smith: Blues star. Ideal! Blues Form: A makes a statement B repeats C completes Harmonic pattern in all blues. Basso continuo: set of chords continuously underlying the melody in a piece of Baroque music. The instruments playing the continuo, usually cello plus harpsichord or organ. Clarifies the harmony and makes texture bind or jell. Basso ostinato: ?persistent? or ?obstinate? bass. Refer to any short musical gesture repeater over and over in the base line. Recitative: half singing, half-reciting style of presenting words in opera, cantata, oratorio. Following speech accents and speech rhythms closely. Secco recitative is accompanied only by continuo. Harpsichord v. Piano: Harpsichord-no resonance, plucks string, chords are momentary. Piano- strikes the string, duration of notes). Artusi: dissonance and counter point. Cadence: musical punctuation. Resting place. Marilyn Manson- Censorship- Moral Panic (article) Rhythm: duration of notes in time. Humanism Tempo: speed of music. Titian: ?Sacred and Profane Love? (gaze was unacceptable ?Venus & the Musician? ( music can be dangerous, music and love are both dangerous
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