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Development results from biologically programmed changes called __________ and from specific environmental experiences called .
Urie Bronfenbrenner’s bioecological approach to development contends that
According to the bioecological approach to development, a person’s most immediate environment is the
The goals of developmental psychology are BEST described by: DEVELOPMENTAL
One of the assumptions of the life-span perspective is that development is multidirectional. This means that
Another assumption of the life-span perspective is that there is plasticity in development. This means that
Ensuring that all subjects have an equal chance of participating in any of the experimental treatments is accomplished
Which of the following is an example of using naturalistic observation to collect data:
One group of children role play, another group doesn’t. observe levels of empathy.
A positive correlation between viewing televised violence and aggressive behavior would indicated that
The major disadvantage of correlational studies is that:
A LONGITUDINAL DESIGN.
Cross-sectional designs provide information about age _________; longitudinal designs provide information about age ________.
Cross sectional designs confound age effects with ________; longitudinal designs confound age effects with ______________.
Theorist believes humans progress through developmental stages likely believes in
ARE COMMON TO EVERYONE OR DIFFERENT FROM PERSON TO PERSON.
According to Freud’s theory, the ____ must find ways to realistically satisfying the demands of the __.
Regression occurs when
Erikson’s position on the nature-nurture issue is BEST characterized by the statement that
According to Erikson, the main task facing adolescents is
You turn on the can opener to open the dog’s food and the dog comes running into the room. In this example, food is the ____________; the sound of the can opener is the _______; and running into the room in response to the sound is the ______.
A stimulus can serve as reinforcement or as punishment depend on whether it
Which of the following is an example of negative reinforcement:
Which of the following is necessary in order to learn through observation:
Which of the following explanations for developmental change would a social learning theorist be most likely to give:
Piaget would be most likely to make which of the following statements:
A child in Piaget’s preoperational stage is able to solve problems
Of the following, Piaget has been MOST criticized for his belief that
Which of the following theoretical perspectives places the greatest emphasis on the interaction of biological and environmental forces:
All children tend to walk and talk at about 12 months of age. This universal pattern of development results from
A person’s phenotype is most accurately described as
Suppose two people are carriers for thin lips, which is a recessive trait. Each of the their children would have a ____ chance of expressing this trait in their phenotype.
Incomplete dominance results when
A person in a carrier for a genetic disorder if she/he
In X-linked traits
Down syndrome occurs when
The goals of genetic counseling does not include
Heritability refers to
Some people have criticized the logic of twin studies because
The following statement is FALSE regarding genetics and intellectual ability:
With regards to individual differences in intellectual ability, research suggests that
The concept of an evocative genotype/environment correlation suggests that
Research shows that
Research on reproductive technologies shows that children born with these procedures
The single cell that is formed by the union of a sperm cell and egg cell is called a
All major organs begin to form between the second and the eighth week after conception. This period of time is called the
The placental barrier
Which of the following accureately represents the process of sex differentiation during the prenatal period?
The presence or absence of testosterone affects the process of sexual differentiation in
The age of viability refers to
A critical period is a time when
Which of the following is NOT a gerneralization about the effects of teratogens
Mothers who contract rubella (german measles) during the first trimester of pregnancy often have children who have problems such as
Prolonged and severe emotional strain experienced by a mother during pregnancy can result in
-All of the above
---Prolonged and painful labor
---A baby who is irritable and has irregular habits
It is MOST important for mothers to consume ample amount of protein, vitamins, and calories during
Serious anoxia during the birth process is associated with
The experiences of childbirth
Longitudinal studies of at-risk babies
Sensation refers to _______ of stimuli, while perception refers to ______ of this information.
Nativists argue that a child is
Suppose you repeatedly present a stimulus until an infant loses interest in it. This technique is known as
Which of the following is TRUE about your infants’ visual capabilities?
Newborns appear to have a preference for viewing human faces. This probably reflects
At around 2 or 3 months of age, infants prefer to look at a “normal” faces opposed to faces that have been distorted in some way. This suggests that infants
Very young infants are most visually attracted to a
The visual cliff is an apparatus used to determine
Two-month-olds tested on the visual cliff typically show a slower heart rate on the deep side than on the shallow side of the cliff. This suggests that two-month-old
Normal hearing in young infants is different form normal hearing in adults in that infants
Research findings with animals suggest that, in order for normal perceptual development to occur, infants
Both B and C
Must be able to watch movement in the environment
must be exposed to patterned stimulation.
The point at which a dim light can still be detected is termed
Most age related hearing problems originate in the
When speaking to people who are hard of hearing, the speaker should
An example of accommodation is
Which of the following statement best characterizes Piaget’s position on the nature-nurture issue.
Throughout the sensorimotor stage, infants’ knowledge of the world shifts from
Which of the following is an example of object permanence?
Which of the following responses to a conservation problem indicates that the child has reversibility of thought?
Research on Piaget’s description of preoperational though has found that
Formal operational children are different from concrete operation children in that
Research by Perry with college students suggests that their thinking progresses from
Piaget has been criticized by modern developmentalists who suggest that
Research with older adults solving Piagetian tasks shows that the older adults
Which of the following is NOT a valid criticism of Piaget’s theory
Vygotsky used the term zone of proximal development to refer to the
Vygotsky would be MOST likely to agree with
Which of the following is the best example of Vygotsky’s idea of guided participation?
In comparing Piaget’s view of Vygotsky’s view, which of the following is true?
In the information-processing model, the “hardware” would be the ________ and the “software” would be the ________.
Tim is introduced to a professional colleague at a meeting, but has no idea what the person’s name is immediately after it was spoken! It is most likely that the name:
Taking an essay exam is an example of ______, while taking a multiple choice exam uses _______ memory.
Memory that is deliberate and effortful is _______, and memory that is unconscious of effortless is ______.
Habituation is sometime used to assess infant’s memory. Habituation occurs when an infant
At age 8, Jill can remember more than her 3-year-old brother, Harry. This is MOST LIKELY because:
Bob knows that he remembers the material in biology better when he takes notes form a chapter he is reading, than when he simply highlights passages in his text. His knowledge of this BEST illustrates
Memory strategies tend to develop in order, with _________ appearing first, followed by ________, and then ________.
Most children and adults cannot remember much about their lives prior to about age 3. This is because
Siegler’s research regarding the rule assessment approach to problem solving (with the balance beam problem) shows that
One difference between the memory strategy use of preadolescents and adolescents is that adolescents
Research on expertise shows that
Which of the following statements accurately describes memory performance of adults
Some older adults develop a mild cognitive impairment and demonstrate:
Among adults, problem-solving skills
Which of the following is an example of crystallized intelligence
The ________ emphasizes the importance of context, experience, and information-processing components in defining intelligent behavior.
Sternberg’s concept of successful intelligence is characterized by
Creativity is typically assessed by using measures of _______thinking, whereas intelligence tests typically measure _______thinking.
The Bayley Scale of Infant Development is a useful indicator of
Correlations between scores on infant intelligences tests and scores on later intelligence tests shows that
Correlations of IQ measured during early and middle childhood with IQ measured during adolescence and young adulthood indicate that for individuals, IQ scores
The cumulative-deficit hypothesis suggests that
The relationship between IQ and occupational status indicates that
Fluid intelligence declines with age more than crystallized intelligence
Declines in intellectual performance among older adults may occur because of all the following EXCEPT
Creative endeavors increase in young adulthood, and then usually peak and remain steady in middle adulthood.
A child’s home environment
Can increase their intelligence when parents are involved with them and responsive to their needs
Deficits in intelligence and difficulties with adaptive behavior, both evidenced during the developmental period.
Calling all four-legged animals “doggie” is an example of
Johan speaks with simple two and three-word senstences, such as “kitty gone.” This indicates that Johan has developed:
When getting ready for bed, Rachel says that she is going to “go brush my tooths.” This is an example of
Learning theorists argue that language is acquired though
Which of the following claims does Chomsky make about language acquisition
Research indicates that
From a very early age, infants are motivated to control their environments
I did well on that test because I knew that material
Children with a learned helplessness orientation
Have low expectations for success and give up easily
Young children are often more confident than older children about their chances for success because younger children
Compared to skilled readers, unskilled readers tend to
Skip over words or parts of words
One factor that contributes significantly to school effectiveness is
A comfortable setting where the emphasis is on academics
Achievement motivation declines during adolescence for all of the following reasons EXCEPT:
Teens in the U.S. spend less time on academics during school hours than teens in some other nations and score about in the middle compared to other nations.
Research on adolescents and work indicates that
There are more potential disadvantages than advantages to working while in high school.
Self-esteem refers to a person’s
Develops and changes throughout the lifespan
Someone who adheres to social learning theory would believe that
personality traits are only consistent across the life span if there person’s environment remains the same.
Infants with a spot of rouge on their noses who recognize themselves in a mirror will
Research on behavioral inhibition suggests that
Inhibited toddlers are more likely to turn out ot be shy children than uninhibited toddlers
An infant who is classified as “slow to warm up”
Follows a somewhat regular schedule, is inactive, and somewhat moody.
Children’s ratings of themselves were consistent with how others rated them.
Adolescents who have experienced a crisis involving identity but have not resolved the crisis or made a commitment are classified in Marcia’s ________status.
Longitudinal research on the major dimensions of personality suggests that they
The fact that personality is affected by the historical context in which it develops
Compared to adults who do not achieve a firm sense of identity , those adults who do achieve a sense of identity are
Experience a midlife crisis and question their life structure.
The theory that successful again requires a gradual withdrawal from society is
The process by which children learn their biological sex and acquire the motives, values, and behaviors considered appropriate for the members or that sex is called
Females tend to outperform males on verbal tasks and males tend to outperform females on tests of spatial ability
Females in our society have historically been encouraged to adopt traits that
Children in early elementary school and adolescence hodl the most rigid beliefs about gender roles
Money and Ehrhardt’s biosocial theory of gender-role development suggests that
Genetically XX and has external genitals that appear masculine
According to Freud’s psychoanalytic explanation, boys resolve their Oedipus complexes and girl resolve their Electra complexes
Social learning theorists explain sex-typing as the result of
The parents differentially reinforcing behaviors and the child’s observations of same-sex models.
According to cognitive-developmental theorists, gender-role development
Influence the kinds of information that children attend to
With respect to androgyny, research indicates that
The possession of masculine traits leads to high self-esteem and good adjustment
Which of the following is true regarding changes in sexual attitudes
More likely to engage in oral sex, but less likely to consider this as “having sex”
Having a theory of mind shows an understanding that
Children who are popular and have close friends
Social cognitive skills
Remain high in socially active older adults
According to Freud’s psychoanalytic theory
Children reach moral maturity around age 6 or 7 when they resolve their Oedipal conflicts
Research on Freud’s explanation of morality shows that all of the following are PROBLEMS with the explanation EXCEPT:
Piaget argued that elementary school children
Believe that the consequences of an action are more important that intentions or the actor.
A child how says that it is wrong to cheat because he or she might get caught would be in Kholberg’s
PUNISHMENT-AND-OBEDIENCE ORIENTATION (STAGE 1)
Social learning theorists argue that morality is
A situation-specific trait that is subject to change
Standards of what behaviors are right, or wrong based on rights and priviledges of individuals are termed
Recent studies or kohlberg’s and Piaget’s theories of moral reasoning suggest that
Parents who use an inductive style of discipline
Explain to their child why the behavior is wrong and emphasize how it affects other people
According to Dodge’s social information-processing model, aggressive behavior results from
The way that information is processed and interpreted
Moral maturity can be fostered by
Carol Gilligan claims that men and women score at different levels on Kohlberg’s moral dilemmas because
Males operate on the basis of morality of justice and women do not.
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