sparse accompaniment and usually only a basso continuo instrument accompanied recitative
particular theater’s producer. Responsible for selecting performers, works, making profits.
famous opera singer
“first lady,” soprano who sings the leading female role
male singer castrated during boyhood to preserve the soprano or alto vocal register
upside-down, values/morals, indulgence, anonymity. Carnival season is a dramatic characteristic of Venetian opera.
method for writing instrumental accompaniment. Notated bass line (figured bass) written with numeric figures that indicate chords and harmonies. Usually performed by harpischord and 1 low chord instrument.
a numeral above or below the bass not indicating the chord required.
A type of entertainment that combined vocal and instrumental music with poetry and dance
ground bass aria
repeated idea that decends along the chromatic scale, always symbolic of gried in baroque music
multi-movement, dramatic vocal genre with a text based on religious or other serious theme.
Develops in baroque period.
Vernacular language (about religion but vernacular so between sacred & secular)
Opera without scenery
involves solo singers, chorus, & orchestra
da copa aria
a ternary, or A-B-A, form that brings back the first section of the section at the end with embellishment by the soloist.
a work with one or more solo vocalist with instrumental accompaniment - secular or sacred themes
develops in Baroque period
lutheran hymn tune - contatas often use chorales in there songs
single solo instrument set against orchestra. 3 movements: fast slow fast
group of solo instruments set against the orchestra
concerto involving a group of soloists
concierto involving the entire orchestra
Each line of a poem is printed above a certain passage in the score; the music at the point mirrors geographically the action described.
repeating theme in full orchestra (ritornello/refrain) in full orchestra vs. contrasting, varying episodes with soloist
multi-movement work consisting of a series of contrasting dance movements, all in the same key
Differentiated through characteristic meter, form, and tempo Types:
Allemande - German, moderate tempo, duple meter
Courante - French, faster, triple meter
Sarabande - Spanish, slow, triple meter
Minuet - french, moderate tempo, triple meter
Gigue - English, fastest, compound meter
early baroque keyboard instrument, strings are pluck by quills, instead of struck
wind instrument by mechanical means (2+ keyboards and pedals)
instrumental work preceding a larger work
virtuoso composition(organ or harpsichord) free and rhapsodic style, in baroque, served as intro to fugue
short baroque organ piece, a traditional chorale melody is embellished
combining in a texture; two or more melodic lines
polyphonic form popular in the Baroque era where one or more themes are developed by imitative counterpoint
main idea or theme of the work
second entry of the subject in a fugue, usually pitched a fourth below or a fifth above the original subject
opening section, (in fugue- voices enter in turn w subject)(in sonata-allegro- major thematic material is stated)
interlude section in baroque fugue serves as area of relaxation between statements of the subject.
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