Mozart?s Symphony No. 40 in G Minor, Movement I (1788) ? Exposition: 1st theme is circling and more uneasy Bridge brings dramatic change, followed by silence 2nd theme is slower with bits of 1st theme returning ? Development: Lots of movement, themes changing form, bottom falls out. ? Recap: Return to 1st theme as it was, longer bridge, 2nd theme in different key. ? Pleasing variety: changes in dynamics, use of 2 different themes, many instruments (timbre / tone color), bridge between themes. ? Natural simplicity: accessible, tuneful melodies, repetition of themes and motives, straightforward rhythm and meter, clear texture (background, accompaniment, melody line) => homophonic. Haydn?s Symphony No. 95 in C Minor, Movement IV (1791) ? Rondo form: ABACABA, ABABABA, etc. ? Fast, simple finale with theme of return to A with episodes in between. ? Rhythm is predictable because of repetition in the changes. More flexible than Bach?s Brandenburg Concerto. ? Melody is more accessible than Bach?s; fugue at the end adds interesting twist. ? Lots of change in dynamics. ? Uses orchestra in today?s sense (more woodwinds, brass, percussion)?more variation than in Baroque compositions. Beethoven?s 5th Symphony (1808) Movement I (Sonata) ? Central motive of short-short-short-long, characterized by rhythm and pitch. Resonant theme that reverberates and changes form. ? 2 themes of exposition make use of same motive. ? Recap is not exact mirror of Exposition: adds in oboe cadenza, plays with cadence theme, extends Coda that modulates like ?second development?. ? Sonata is not the typical arch; Recap is extended so that the arch becomes lopsided. ? Short-short-short-long motive is microcosm for entire 1st Movement. ? Changes our listening experience and forces us to pay closer attention to Recap and Coda. We enter the 2nd Movement with excitement. ? Organic development of piece. Movement II (Theme & Variations) ? More typical A B A? form. ? 2 Themes that play off of central motive. ? 1st theme is slow, smooth-sounding, uniform/round melody. ? 2nd theme has bolder sections (brass), more changes in dynamics, more march- like or processional/regal. ? Changes in key, rhythm, instruments, dynamics, timbre. ? Ex. Mozart?s ?Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star? Movement III (Scherzo) ? Beethoven?s Scherzo replaces the Minuet & Trio, which was too closely aligned to formality and elegance of Classical music for his taste. ? Faster than Minuet, triple meter movement. ? Scherzo means ?joke? ? broad, brusque, violent section. Also low instruments play fast, high notes. ? A B A or A B A B A form. ? A Section: 1st theme is slow and mellow, 2nd theme is loud, bold and march-like ? B Section: ?joke? of low instruments playing faster and higher notes than normal ? A? Section: 2nd theme is toned down (woodwinds instead of brass)?playing with expectations ? Lots of suspense created with timpani drums, but Beethoven won?t give us a bold finale?goes straight into 4th movement?no closure. ? Beethoven manipulates expectations, breaks with convention of formal structure. Movement IV (Rondo) ? 2nd Theme from Movement III comes back to satisfy expectations in a different way: organic, original, transcendent narrative that brings excitement and pleasure. ? No break between 3rd and 4th movements. Berlioz? Symphonie Fantastique (1830) ? Written as he loved Smithson from afar. Response to Smithson and to Shakespeare. ? 5 movements = slightly unconventional, though Beethoven had done it. ? Program: music tells narrative?link between music and literature. ? Pure Romanticism: drama, heightened emotion, dreams. ? Orchestra is expanded to achieve broader range of expression. ? Symphony is guided by drama. I: Rêveries, passions? (loosely sonata form?volatile, stormy introduction) II: Un Bal (brilliant and proud waltz, similar to rondo, use of harps) III: Scène aux champs (narrative with shepherds?2 melodies?transition to nightmare, mood of isolation, homage to Beethoven?s Pastoral Symphony) IV: Marche au supplice (March of the Guards: led to execution by guillotine for murdering his beloved) V: Songe d?une Nuit du Sabbat (idée fixe, then Dies Irae, then Witches? Sabbath) Movement V, Dream of a Witches? Sabbath ? Incorporates supernatural with theme of witches. Sound effects and church bells create eerie effects?echo of strings, low rumbling, collogeo (playing with wood of instrument). ? Thematic unity = idée fixe, which replaces Beethoven?s central motive to make it coherent. ? Love and revenge for Smithson; melody is now vulgar instead of noble. ? Theme transforms itself throughout: changes in dynamics. ? Dies Irae: Slightly scandalous to use Catholic chant for nonreligious purposes, but church was in decline. Catholic chant for dead / day of wrath. ? Three phrases: each time faster and with different instruments. ? Witches take melody and make fun of it. ? Lots of little statements of different lengths: unpredictable. ? Romantic because it reflects life and genuine emotion: Berlioz? love for Smithson. ? Lots of notation to demonstrate pulls and pushes in dynamics, tempo. Not uniform or constant.
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