Mozart’s Symphony No. 40 in G Minor, Movement I (1788) • Exposition: 1st theme is circling and more uneasy Bridge brings dramatic change, followed by silence 2nd theme is slower with bits of 1st theme returning • Development: Lots of movement, themes changing form, bottom falls out. • Recap: Return to 1st theme as it was, longer bridge, 2nd theme in different key. • Pleasing variety: changes in dynamics, use of 2 different themes, many instruments (timbre / tone color), bridge between themes. • Natural simplicity: accessible, tuneful melodies, repetition of themes and motives, straightforward rhythm and meter, clear texture (background, accompaniment, melody line) => homophonic. Haydn’s Symphony No. 95 in C Minor, Movement IV (1791) • Rondo form: ABACABA, ABABABA, etc. • Fast, simple finale with theme of return to A with episodes in between. • Rhythm is predictable because of repetition in the changes. More flexible than Bach’s Brandenburg Concerto. • Melody is more accessible than Bach’s; fugue at the end adds interesting twist. • Lots of change in dynamics. • Uses orchestra in today’s sense (more woodwinds, brass, percussion)—more variation than in Baroque compositions. Beethoven’s 5th Symphony (1808) Movement I (Sonata) • Central motive of short-short-short-long, characterized by rhythm and pitch. Resonant theme that reverberates and changes form. • 2 themes of exposition make use of same motive. • Recap is not exact mirror of Exposition: adds in oboe cadenza, plays with cadence theme, extends Coda that modulates like “second development”. • Sonata is not the typical arch; Recap is extended so that the arch becomes lopsided. • Short-short-short-long motive is microcosm for entire 1st Movement. • Changes our listening experience and forces us to pay closer attention to Recap and Coda. We enter the 2nd Movement with excitement. • Organic development of piece. Movement II (Theme & Variations) • More typical A B A’ form. • 2 Themes that play off of central motive. • 1st theme is slow, smooth-sounding, uniform/round melody. • 2nd theme has bolder sections (brass), more changes in dynamics, more march- like or processional/regal. • Changes in key, rhythm, instruments, dynamics, timbre. • Ex. Mozart’s “Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star” Movement III (Scherzo) • Beethoven’s Scherzo replaces the Minuet & Trio, which was too closely aligned to formality and elegance of Classical music for his taste. • Faster than Minuet, triple meter movement. • Scherzo means “joke” – broad, brusque, violent section. Also low instruments play fast, high notes. • A B A or A B A B A form. • A Section: 1st theme is slow and mellow, 2nd theme is loud, bold and march-like • B Section: “joke” of low instruments playing faster and higher notes than normal • A’ Section: 2nd theme is toned down (woodwinds instead of brass)—playing with expectations • Lots of suspense created with timpani drums, but Beethoven won’t give us a bold finale—goes straight into 4th movement—no closure. • Beethoven manipulates expectations, breaks with convention of formal structure. Movement IV (Rondo) • 2nd Theme from Movement III comes back to satisfy expectations in a different way: organic, original, transcendent narrative that brings excitement and pleasure. • No break between 3rd and 4th movements. Berlioz’ Symphonie Fantastique (1830) • Written as he loved Smithson from afar. Response to Smithson and to Shakespeare. • 5 movements = slightly unconventional, though Beethoven had done it. • Program: music tells narrative—link between music and literature. • Pure Romanticism: drama, heightened emotion, dreams. • Orchestra is expanded to achieve broader range of expression. • Symphony is guided by drama. I: Rêveries, passions (loosely sonata form—volatile, stormy introduction) II: Un Bal (brilliant and proud waltz, similar to rondo, use of harps) III: Scène aux champs (narrative with shepherds—2 melodies—transition to nightmare, mood of isolation, homage to Beethoven’s Pastoral Symphony) IV: Marche au supplice (March of the Guards: led to execution by guillotine for murdering his beloved) V: Songe d’une Nuit du Sabbat (idée fixe, then Dies Irae, then Witches’ Sabbath) Movement V, Dream of a Witches’ Sabbath • Incorporates supernatural with theme of witches. Sound effects and church bells create eerie effects—echo of strings, low rumbling, collogeo (playing with wood of instrument). • Thematic unity = idée fixe, which replaces Beethoven’s central motive to make it coherent. • Love and revenge for Smithson; melody is now vulgar instead of noble. • Theme transforms itself throughout: changes in dynamics. • Dies Irae: Slightly scandalous to use Catholic chant for nonreligious purposes, but church was in decline. Catholic chant for dead / day of wrath. • Three phrases: each time faster and with different instruments. • Witches take melody and make fun of it. • Lots of little statements of different lengths: unpredictable. • Romantic because it reflects life and genuine emotion: Berlioz’ love for Smithson. • Lots of notation to demonstrate pulls and pushes in dynamics, tempo. Not uniform or constant.