MUSIC 202 Study Guide (2013-14 Howard)
- Brigham Young University
- Music 202
- MUSIC 202 Study Guide (2013-14 Howard)
Last Modified: 2014-06-19
- heroic couplets in iambic pentameter
- Tory satirist
- man was good but could be corrupted
- targeted religion based on feeling, commercialism, and new rationalism
-writings influenced by classics (Homer, Cisero, etc.)
-Writes of man's accomplishments but also limitations. "Essay on Man" (in heroic couplets)
-to be "Noble Savage"
-Man is good but can be corrupted
- Gulliver's Travels and A Modest Proposal
- saw people as animals capable of reason
- knew a lot about political struggles
-connection with Handel
-Unleashed his “savage indignation” upon those he deemed worthy
- Liliput has most criticism of society
- emphasis on parade and ceremony
- Houyhnnms are like horses; rational
- Yahoos are most like humans
- if we admit faults then we can get somewhere
- all learning available to populous
- if everyone is learned there is no need for government
- Denis Diderot and Jean d'Alambert
- Voltaire and Montiesquieu
-it was to be a “vast encyclopedia describing the state of contemporary science, technology, and thought and provide a system for the classification of knowledge.”
-Rousseau and Voltaire also contributed
- noble savage; people generally good but corrupted by society
- Le Devin du Village
- first opera with peasants as main characters
- Emile--natural religion, develop your own relationship
- freedom of thought, hated bigotry and intolerance
- "ecrasez I'infame", crush the infamous thing
- believed in God but did not trust churches
- Bible is fairy tale
- simple person surrounded by complex characters
- reaction to Leibnitz-God created best imperfect universe possible
- not interested in helping others because everything happens for the best
- pokes fun at university
- cultivate your garden
- storm and stress
- unpredictable, supernatural
- point is to shock
- carried into other disciplines
- personal expression, fragmentation, and mystery
- fascination with supernatural
- prized unorthodoxy
- author, publisher, painter
- genius recognized after death
- Jerusalem and Songs of Innocence
- lake poet, wrote a lot about countryside
- emotion recollected in tranquility
- elevates nature
- Tintern Abbey
- personifies nature, recollection
- We are Seven
- mad, bad, dangerous to know
- many epics
- 4 operas based on his work Don Juan
- died young
- educated at Oxford but very depressed
- ran away with 16 year old
- drowned by mysterious circumstances
- most poems about death
- most stable out of Shelley and Byron
- Ode to Autumn and Ode to a nightingale
- word choice creates feeling through body
- seasons of mist: s sounds creates biting chill of shade
- sleep at end of autumn, last oozings; gentle, leading to death
- death is pause before eternal life
- iambic pentameter, but not obvious
- didn't trust church but believed in God
- The Three Hermits
- flowery style of Jane Austen but focused on social issues of the day
- archaic language to soften blow of satire
- long sentences make issues not so serious
- distinguishes between class of characters
- wrote in segments that were published in journals to make more money
- Oliver Twist (dialect to nurse)
-wrote on Mormonism in "American notes for General Circulation"
- like truth and facts, like to observe
- Henry David Thoreau and Ralph Emmerson
- element of truth that transcends senses
- first to distinguish American style
- describes personal feelings
- wants to extrapolate own experience onto mankind
- anti-war poet
- Songs of Myself and Songs of Parting
- private poet
- ballad meter (Amazing Grace)
- equal topic division of love and death
- view of death usually kind
- dramatizes gothic horror so much that it almost becomes a parody
- The Oval Portrait and The Raven
-meant to show how sensitive we are, surprises
-Goeth, Schiller, Scott, Walpole
-minor key, syncopations, incomplete repititions, slash modulations
A large orchestral piece in several movements
- retains outline of classical form, but with momentary surprises
- always compensates for it
- piano work written like it was for the orchestra
- op. 27 piano sonatas
- only retains larger outlines of classical form
- free and striking liberties with internal arrangements
- demphasize tonic and dominant harmony
- experiment with non-referential part of movement
- extend second halves
- elision of movements to create seamless flow
- shifts all weight to last movement
- breaks all the rules; goes against everything that developed in the past
- Symphony 9-- last movement like a big drinking song
- worked in London for Esterhazy family
- most of work for their small ensemble
- left and wrote German oratorios
- four movement symphony format
- section devoted to mixed wind emsemble
- harmonic ambiguity
- bum bum bum bum motif
- classical contrast in 2nd movement
- slows down motif like military movement
- question and answer section
- trio movement speeds up motif
- transition from 3rd to 4th has new instruments
- ends in new key
- Organist at the court at Salzburg which was ruled by an archbishop that did not like him
- 1781- quit court position and became a freelance musician
- 1782- married
- 1791- died from illness while composing his Requiem Mass/Mass for the Dead
- Death marked transition
2) Muhlhausen- organ/keyboard
3) Weimar- orchestral
4) Cothen- orchestral
6) Leipzig- religious music
(middle)- Kappelmeister, orchestral works
(late)- Kantor, sacred vocal works
Concerto grosso- 'big' concerto
concertino- little group of soloists
Ripieno- the full ensemble
Ritornello- refrain or main theme
German late-baroque composer. Old-fashioned. Listen for linear counterpoint.
German/English late-baroque composer. More cosmopolitan. Combines German, Italian, French, and English musical styles.
*french overture: dotted rythm signifies entrance of King.
2) Water Music- written for Elector of Hanavor (King Georg), recognizable melodies, imitation between sections, royal sounding.
-A feminizing of the Baroque (dainty, frivolous, artificial)
-subject matter: love and unimportant things
Satire= pointed argument aimed at a particular individual or group that takes issue with an attitude, behavior, by holding it up for public ridicule.
2) Jonathan Swift
2) Growing commercialism of European life.
3) New rationalsim
-(Descartes) 'Cogito, ergo sum', I think therefore I am.
Classical= "of or relating to Greek or Roman literature, art, or culture"
-Tries to look like anient Greek or Roman art.
-"Ecrasez I' Infame!"
-equivilent of 'Rococo' in art.
-pp to FF, slow to fast rapidly
-opposite of Style Galante
-Opera buffa= lightheartedness in opera
2) Only use the aria forms that agree with the dramatic moment
3) Eliminate showy ornament
4) Lessen contrast between recitative & aria
5) Return the chorus to an important role
6) Adapt the orchestra to suit the drama
-Standardizes classical style and form
2) Slow Movement (lyrical)
3) Minuet & Trio
4) Lighthearted Finale (T&V, Rondo, S/A)
-comissioned by Count Walsegg
-Sussmayer (one of Mozart's students) finishes it.
-emotion displayed in paintings, emotions and opinions of artists shown
-subject amtter comes from curent events
-group mentality dissipating--> raising individual on a pedestal
-Father of English Romantic Poetry
-reality &imagination both come from the mind
-inspired many operas
-wrote first poem @ 10 years old
-married Mary Shelley who writes, "Frankenstein"
"leaves of grass"
-took lessons from Haydn, considered himself first a pianist who also composes, later changes to a composer who plays piano
-private and public genres
-moonlight sonata (#14 in C-sharp minor)
-experiments with form (symph. #5)
-de-emphasizes I and V
-Now his music really breaks out of classical forms and focuses more on expression. Completely deaf at this point.
-meditative, contrapuntal (9th symphony "Ode to Joy")
-german art song w/ piano accompaniment
-German art song w/ piano accompaniment
Aristocratic artist, figures in stately poses, gently engaged in unimportant activities. Pastel colors. Fêtes galantes.
Mounds of pink flesh.” Sensual paintings of (mainly) nude mythological figures.
Sensual scenes, but with the clothes still on. Paintings are about (usually) illicit love.
Applies rococo principles to religious art. Famed for his ceilings and trompe l’oeil (opening up of buildings) effects.
-indifference on Mary's face
Rococo sculptor. Triumph of technique over subject. Brilliance of effect.
-sculpted net in "Deception Unmasked"
Superficiality of design. No straight lines. Ornament. Create a graceful, light, airy effect.
German architect who applied rococo principles to his buildings. No straight lines.
. Style and subjects are classical, revolutionary. Shallow space, bright colors.
Rival of Gainsborough. Liked to place his sitters in “classical” mythological settings.
Caricature quality to his paintings, which tell a moral story.
Applies gothic engineering to neoclassical-style buildings.
Brings neoclassicism to the US. Shapes the “look” of governmental buildings in DC, and elsewhere.
Dynamic canvasses with political stories. Documentary vividness.
Also looked to political events for inspiration. Colorful, exotic, dynamic. Like grand opera.
-seems like just a portion of scene (a box 'cut and pasted')
One of the more classically-inclined of the French Romantics. Subjects are often classical (or portraits). Look like low-relief sculptures.
-student of David
-distortion slightly of body
-color doesn't effect story-> line artist
-showcases poor & rich
-'nobody appreciates his art'
Known for his Paris Opera House. Designed to appeal to the wealthy middle classes. Very ornate, richly decorated.
– symbols of death in his paintings. Ruins, landscapes, all suggestive of the decline of the Church and the rise of Nature as a spiritual influence in society.
English landscape artist. Shows the effect of weather on the landscape.
Liked to paint fogs, clouds, mists. Color is everything, very little line.
A “Luminist.” Panoramic landscapes with luminous lighting effects. Very still. Almost photo-realistic.
Came under the influence of early French Impressionism. “Suggestion rather than detail.” Favorite subjects include the ocean.
Twin preoccupations: medicine, and optical truth. Liked to paint bodies with accurate technique. Also a portrait artist.
Proto-impressionist. Gives musical titles to his rather abstract paintings.
- R. Schumann
- Symphonic Composer
- Symphonic Composer
part of song cycle
small accompanying ensemble
- Claude Debussy
- Influenced by Asian architecture
- Ideas of interconnecting interior/exterior space
- Combined steel and glass
- Guggenheim Museum
- Created domes
- Elaborate walls/ceilings
- Palazzetto dello Sport
- The separation of ideology and architecture
- designed wing shaped airports
- TWA Terminal
- Simple, unadorned
- Function is obvious
- L’Unité D’Habitation
The Right Angle
High density buildings, but realized high density doesn't work
Right angle important in free masonry
- "Less is more"
- Louvre pyramid
- East wing of national gallery
- Romantic Pianist (Early 1800's)
- Wrote over 600 lieder
- Tells stories
-Famous Piece: Erlkonig “The Elf King”
-accompaniments tend to be pictorial
- Romantic Pianist (
- Also wrote lieder
- Topics of nature and love
-accompanist is equal with the singer
-married Clara Wieck
- Inside out
- Pompidou Center
- AT&T Building
- Unique scrolls on the top
- Looks like it was put in the microwave
- American Center (Paris)
- Lady Gaga hat
- Revamp old factories
- Tate Modern
- Getty Center
- Crown Fountain
- Visual art and architecture
- Giant screens displaying people
- Not quite Impressionist (Mid 1800's, Paris)
- Fine, quick brushstrokes
- Bar at Folies-berigere
- Le déjeuner sur l'herbe (Luncheon on the grass)
- Impressionist (Mid 1800's, Paris)
- Wide brushstrokes, color, Landscapes
- Impression Sunrise
- Red Boats, Argenteuil
- Rouen Cathedral
- Water Lilies
- Impressionist (Mid 1800's, France)
- Happy people outside
- Moulin de la Galette
- Two girls at Piano
- Impressionist (Mid 1800's, Paris)
- Ballerinas and keyhole series
- Rehearsal of a Ballet on Stage
- The Tub
- Little Dancer (Sculpture)
- Impressionist (Mid 1800's, Paris)
- Flattened images, mothers and children
- Mother Combing Sara's Hair
- The Boating party
- Post Impressionist (mid 1800's, France)
- Reduces what he sees to basic shapes, flat images, still lifes
- Mont Sainte-Victoire
- Post Impressionist (1880, France)
- Juxtaposition of colors, thick paint, nervous brushstrokes
- Starry Night
- Night Cafe
Thick painnt, bright colors, distortions (leg of chair like the billiard table), short brush strokes
- Post Impressionist (Early 1900's, France)
- Bright color, happy content, classical subject matter
- The Joy of Life
- The Red Studio
the red studio
-much more reserved than Liszt, sick and weekly temperament not reflected in his music.
-™Followed the footsteps of Paganini the virtuoso violinist (La companita, etude based on melody of Paganini)
-iron frames, felt dampers, quicker escape action, extra octave, etc.
-music motif that represents characters
-when he thinks of his beloved
-More conservative and traditional than other Romantic composers.
-Still uses romantic techniques of lyrical melodies, harmonic variety, and color.
doesn't follow rules
Antonin Dvořák (1841-1904)
Rossini, Bellini, Donizetti
-less recitative, longer arias (cantabile/cabaletta)
-words often don't match music and emotions
-(ex. song sounding like one is picking flowers but singing about betrayal, being overcome, etc.)
-Rossini, Bellini, Donizetti, etc.
-Sometimes transcends logic & reason throughout stories
seen as political leaders
-short arias, performance continues (no applause between)
-triadic but not always tonal
-no moral message
-recurring motifs (to foreshadow)
-lead characters caught up in epic scenes
-begins as opera conductor
-absorbs style of Meyerbeer
-accepts position in court of Dresden (Lizst helps him escape when convicted of treason)
-Oper und Drama (Gesamtkunstwerk, leitmotif)
total art work
New way he thinks opera should be like. Unifying text, word, the whole process
-(ex. darth vador)
-color, lyricism, no angst
-old music of Couperin, Rameau
-clarity, balance, restraint, classical proportions
-whole tone scale, chromatic, pentatonic
-sometimes called an impressionist (symbolist poets)
-fascinated w/ machines
-Resurrection Symphony HUGE
-Song of the Earth
-Died after 9th Symphony (like Beethoven)
-Inherits late Romantic tradition (Brahms)
-2 ideas to systematize atonality: use text, string together lots of short pieces.
not actuallly singing or speaking
-Wozzeck – Opera
-was a WWI soldier
-German expressionate opera- very dark
-intense, controlled, weird all over the place sound bits. (Symphony Op. 21)
-Day job of selling insurance, wrote music as a hobby.
-eclectic: shows, music hall, camp meetings, circus, folk songs, band songs, etc.
-layering (instruments seemingly unrelated playing simultaneously), experimental
-Nadia Boulanger was his teacher
-Rodeo, Billy the Kid, Appalachian Spring, Fanfare for the Common Man
-devote christian all his life
-symmetrical structure: non-retrogradable rhythms, modes of limited transposition (whole tone scale)
-birdsong (from instructor Paul Dukas "listen to the birds")
-WWII prisonor of war, "Quartet for End of Time"
-Music can't communicate emotion
-lacked regular pulse
-regular pulse of high C as recommended by Steve Reich
-music based on human voice
-Einstein on the Beach
- Van Gogh
-switches in between minilism & 19th century lyricism
- Motherwell and Frankenthaler
- Christo and Jeanne Claude
-What artist SEES, not necessarily what is REAL.
-In Impressionism, LIGHT is real, form is not.
Calculated theories of color and form
-Sought to “realistically” represent 3-D objects on a 2-D surface by breaking them up, representing them geometrically
many advantages to piano
-First movement, very preoccupied with shape, objective
Usually more lively & playful, often look like collages
-Rothko: Fields of color, gradual changes in shade
-Gottlieb: Iconic “burst” paintings - a red orb, and exploding mass
-Frankenthaler: The liquidity of paint emphasized, “washes” across a canvas, paint thinned so as to be absorbed, tried to look spontaneous
-felt alienated from those around him
- Worker's Compensation worker
- Weird stuff
- The Trial (Joseph K.)
-dif. between being happy and being merry (having fun)
- Founder of realism
- Depressing stories
- Doll's House
-"Not with a bang, but a whimper"
- Le Corbusier
- Mies van der Rohe
juxtaposed ordinary objects. using objects for something other than original intent