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German comic opera that includes arias, folk-like
songs, and choruses, interspersed with spoken dialogue
"Nuages" No 1 from Nocturnes
Composer: Claude Debussy
Title: “Nuages,” No. 1 from Nocturnes
1899, in Paris
Nocturne as in the Whistler paintings, notChopin/Field
Use of parallel 3rds and 5ths at the beginning fromMussorgsky song
Javanese gamelan influence; Debussy went to world’sfair in 1889
English horn intrudes on the predominant timbreestablished at the beginning of this selection
Enthauptung from Pierrotlunaire
-Poet: Albert Giraud
-FromSong Cycle w/ 21 songs
Symphony, Op. 21
Webern: Symphony, Op. 21
-12tone, pointillism, serialism
-Klangfarbenmelodie--when the melody is played throughout different voices -- Studentof Schoenberg
Danse des adolescents from The Rite of Spring
Stravinsky: Danse des adolescents from The Rite of Spring
-TheRite of Spring--> Ballet
-Nijinskywas Choreographer (Angular motions, from Greek Vases)
-Piecewas commissioned by Sergei Diaghilev by Ballets Russes
-Primitivism: newmovement of music -- incessant repeated rhythms
- “Howlong will this go on?” “Til the end, my dear”
Symphony No. 5, op. 47 (second movement)
Shostakovich: Symphony No. 5, op. 47 (second movement)
-Writtenin response to the outcry of his opera
-Stalinheard performance of opera, Prevda (Newspaper) greatly criticized it--toneddown his writing and wrote a neo-classical symphony
-Madefun of the idea of the Scherzo and Trio
-Form:Scherzo, Trio, Scherzo
-GREATLY influencedby Mahler
-”Anartist’s response to just criticism”
Messian: Liturgie decristal from Quartet for the End of Time
-Written:in Prisoner of War camp -- WWII
-Characteristics:Upper 2 voices--bird songs, Talea--deals with time, Non-retrogradablerhythm--> same forwards and backwards
-Dedicated in homage to the angel ofthe Apocalypse that says “there will be no more time”
John Cage: Sonata V from Sonatasand Interludes
(soundslike drum, metaliphone, dong)
-Binaryform (like Scarlatti)
Penderecki: Threnody: To the Victims of Hiroshima
-originallywrote this as an abstract work (originally wrote as “8:37”)
-Instrumentsare given seconds (conductor keeps time, does not conduct)
-Instrumentsplay as high as they can on their instrument
-Leadsto Climatic 52 NOTE CHORD!!!
John Adams:Short Ride in a Fast Machine
Ostinatos and repeating chordscreate a sense of harmonic progression and move the music forward.
Wide-range melodies emerge anddominate the texture.
3-part counterpoint over slowlychanging but rapidly pulsing harmonies.
Claude Debussy - preferred to be associated withthe symbolist poets, but called impressionist (derogatory)
-NOTteleological -- harmony doesn’t move any where, it is STATIC--> doesn’t moveanywhere
-Addson to chords by thirds (9, 11, 13th chords)
-Usesquartal and quintal harmonies
People are analyzing strong emotions and conveying them
Serializing or creating an order for an element ofmusic--most commonly pitches
-Schoenberg, Berg, later Stravinsky
Prime, retrograde(backwards), Inversion, retrograde inversion
Stravinsky; term comes from Rite of Spring and usually implies repetitive rhythmic elements
Arnold Schoenberg; in atonal music, there is nopulling toward or away from tonic, so you cannot tell the difference between dissonance and consonance
"sound" "color" "melody"- melody from various timbres
Webern used this in Symphony No1
Written by Bartok--collection of piano pieces
Paul Hindemith; “music for use” intended foryoung/amateur audiences
Hindemith was disturbed by the “gap” between theaudience and the music
-Utilitarian music--slimmed down and stripped away
Required style of writing for composers in SovietRussia; portray Soviets in a positive light through:
1 Simple and accessible language
2 Emphasis on melody, often folk
3 Patriotic and inspirational subjects
**No Jazz, Jews, or Intellects
Derogatory term for Russian composers that did notabide by socialist realism and believed in modern music “for music’s sake”
-Blacklisted-->if you were a formalist
music that is recorded to make concrete- bring apiece in the studio to base it on the music of the outsides. - natural/originalsound. Tape recordings. (play backwards, cut/paste)
Hugh LeCaine (I think)
New methods for compositional decisions (ex 4:33)
-Indeterminacy (Performer as creator)
Creating blocks of sound (they are contrastedbecause of their different textures)
-Self-contained,NO over-arching form
Tchaikovsky, Rachmaninoff, Stravinsky, Scriabin; general Russiantrait
ALSO - Debussy uses this in the nocturne welistened to
Russian composers used it- Stravinsky
8 notes - W h W h...
Arnold Schoenberg; x notation
Alexander Scriabin (Rimsky may also have had it)
See sound in colors
Schoenberg -- created this society
1.Couldn’t advertise the program (no one knew beforehand)
4.No critic comments
5.Pieces had several rehearsals--guaranteed a good showing
John Adams (post-minimalist)
Non-representational, so not photographic orrealistic; the impression of a singlemoment in time (morning, afternoon, night); effect of light and dark; unblendedbrushstrokes; blurring
Pentatonic scales (Asian association), whole-tonescales, quartal harmonies, extended harmonies (9th, 11th, 13 chords — move themusic away from tonic); static rather than directional
Angular melodies, atonality, serialism, 12-tone,disjunct rhythms (repeating), texture (Block construction), tambour --nontraditional sounds on traditional instruments
Expressionism;atonal, but NOT twelve-tone (he adopts this later)
-Wantedto build a dome where everyone would come to listen
Referential chord, specifically the Prometheus (ormystic) chord
Arnold Schoenberg, Anton Webern, Alban Berg
Ballet Russes; Sergei Diaghilev
-Stravinsky’s three compositional periods: (1)Russian Period (2) Neo-Classical (3) Serialism
Russian - Rite of Spring, Petrushka, Firebird
Neoclassical -L’histoire du soldat, Pulcinella, The Rake’s Progress (opera), Symphony ofPsalms
Serialism - In Memoriam DylanThomas, Threni
Ethnomusicology; Bela Bartok and Zoltan Kodaly
Dissonant, intellectual, Jewish, or jazz-influence
*Preference for grand German tradition (Wagner,Beethoven, Bruckner)
Stalin did not like his opera, Lady MacBeth of the Mtsensk District
War Requiem (choral work w/ orchestra; singersoloists sing English poems written by a WWI soldier while larger choirs singLatin text)--> Poem/Poetry by Wilfrid Owen
Worked for: Merce Cunningham (Modern dancechoreographer)
-Cunninghamwanted percussion to accompany a dance piece, space they had to rehearse wastoo small for a percussion ensemble (all they had room for was a piano)
-Cagestudied w/ Henry Cowell (THE BANSHEE), created the prepared piano-- sounds likeJavanese Gamelan (percussive)
Prime, Inversion, Retrograde, Retrograde Inversion
What would you consider the single most important change in the mindset of theClassic Era when it comesto explaining musical changes that took place during that time? Keep in mindthat the social classof people determining the musical culture at this time is changing.
With which geographical regions are thestyle galant and the empfindsamer Stil associated? List
threemusical characteristics of each and one composer for each who exemplifies eachstyle. Keep in mindthat these are transitional styles bridging the difference between baroque andclassical traditions.
Stylegalant – French; emphasis on melody and light accompaniment, simple harmonies,frequent cadences, periodic phrases; Couperant, Ramaeu
EmpfindsamerStil – German; frequent cadences, lots of ornamentation, shorter melodies, moreexaggerated than French counterpart (disjunct; more chromaticism and ornamentationthan style galant); C.P.E. Bach
In what way would you say the Albertibass continues a Baroque tradition? Consider the foundationalfunction that this continuous broken chord device has as you determine youranswer.
How does the attitude toward humanaffects change from the Baroque (Doctrine of Affections) to the Classicalera?
Oneemotion at a time; no conflicting emotions happening at the same time;classical changing affects within a section or movement
What is the typical content and contextof the intermezzo? Provide the title of an important example andcomposer.
Dramaticwork or staged work that occurs in-between acts; provides comedic value duringa serious production; La serva Padrona byPergolessi
What is the favored form for the aria in opera seria? How does the form cater to the star singersof thetime?
What is comic opera called in France? England?Germany? In what single feature do these forms differ from opera buffa? What is the social value ofcomic opera in the vernacular?
Define ballad opera. Which librettist and workled to the popularity of this genre? What was the benefitof such a genre (consider what the predominant type of opera was in England atthis time)?
A ballad opera consists of spoken dialogue interspersed withsongs that set new words to borrowed tunes, including folk songs and dances,popular songs, and well known airs and arias. The Beggar’s Opera with librettist John Gay. The benefit was that the audience couldunderstand the language.
Why did opera seria (Italian serious opera) needreforming? Who were the early reformers in addition to Gluck?
Due to the enlightenment, people sought to bring opera intoharmony with new ideals of music and drama. They sought to make the entire design more natural, flexible, expressive,less ornamented, and more varied in musical resources. Also to make it appeal to society outside thearistocracy. Reformers: Tommaso Traettaand Niccolo Jommelli.
Provide the names of twoworks by Christoph Willibald Gluck and Calzabigi that reflect the reformideals? What did Gluck consider the proper function of music? How did hechange the role of the overture and the relationship between recitative and aria? What is the similarity between Gluck’s reformopera and themusic drama of Wagner?
Which forms (includesonata allegro) predominate in music of the Classical period (define each). Use theforms typically found in a four-movement Classic era symphony as yourguide. What would you sayis the benefit of these clear forms, stripped of most of the filigree of theBaroque, to contemporaryaudiences?
Theme and variations, song form, ternary, sonata form,minuet and trio, scherzo and trio, rondo, sonata form.
Sonata form- exposition, development, recapitulation, two contrastingthemes in the exposition, recap is all in tonic,. Simple things, ABA
Theme and variations- self explanatory
Minuet and trio- minuet trio minuet, trio is for reducedinstrumentation.
Sonata rondo- ABACABAMakesit easier to follow and undertstand
Who was CPE Bach’s patron? On what topic did CPE Bach write a treatise? What purpose didsuch treatises serve? Why are suchtreatises important for musicians today?
What is postmodernism?
Which genres are the ancestors of the symphony?Who was the most prominent of the early symphoniccomposers? Describe the form of the first movement in these symphonies. Theanswer to thelast question shows that the form itself is in a state of transition.
The Italian sinfonia, the orchestral suite, and orchestralconcertos. Giovanni BattistaSammartini. Form: Sonata
What is minimalism? Namefive musical artists associated with this style.
Why is thecity of Mannheim important to the development of the early symphony? Why is Johann Stamitz important to the development of the symphony? Note the relationship between these symphonies and the overture or sinfonia that preceded a dramatic work
Manheim waswhere Palatine’s court was, one of the most active music centers inEurope. This was one of the mostprominent places that the symphony spread to. Johann Stamitz was the first symphony composer to consistently use the“standard plan”- four movements, with a minuet and trio as the third movementand a very fast finale.
Most popularin Paris, def- a symphony that has aspects of a concerto, 2 featuredinstruments, usually violin and viola.
For what typesof occasions were the divertimento, cassation, and serenade written? Note that the forms, lengths, andinstrumentation of these works vary, in keeping with the occasion for whichthey are designed.
They werewritten for background music, to be played during a meal, a party, or othersocial occasion in an aristocratic or well-to-do home, or for performance in informal settings both indoors or outdoors.
What is Sturm und Drang and how does it compareto the empfindsamer Stil? In whatkeys are Haydn’s pre-1773 symphonies that manifest the Sturm und Drang intensity - major orminor?
Sturm und Drang means “storm andstress”. They are symphonies that havean emotional, agitated character.
Know the names of two minimalist operas and their composers.
Whichof Haydn’s symphonies is nicknamed the “Surprise” Symphony and why? This is oneof the Londonsymphonies. How many are there in total? Why are they called the Londonsymphonies? Whocommissioned them? Note that these worksare an example of the composer responding to his perceivedpublic and other market forces, notably a competing concert series.
Symphony no. 94: because there is a sudden fortissimo crashon a weak beat in the slow movement. There are twelve London symphonies. They are called that because he was invited by Johann Peter Salomon in1790 to compose and conduct symphonies for the cosmopolitan and exactingaudiences of London. (Commissioned byJohann Peter Salomon).
How is durationindicated in Threnody: To the Victims ofHiroshima?
What term does Haydn use to describe the minuetsubstitute in his Op. 33 quartets? Beethoven consistentlyuses this alternate form.
Who wrote Poème electronique and what generated thesounds? What was the context in which it waspremiered?
What is the name of Mozart’s most well-known serenade(written in Vienna)? Where were most of hisserenades written? Why is this not surprising?
Eine Kleine Nachtmusik, most were written in Salzburg, notsurprising because that’s where serenades are most popular.
What is musique concrèteand who “invented” it?
What solo instrumentis featured in many of Mozart’s concertos written while he was in Vienna? What was the motivation for writingthem? Here is an example of a composer creating works in response to practical concerns. Who wasMozart’s primary model for these works? This is an example of the fact that even such anexemplary composer as Mozart was influenced by the creative activity of others, that he admired theworks of others, and utilized some of their ideas in his own work.
The piano, the motivation to write them was that they were vehicles forhis own concerts and he
intended them to please the entire range of listeners. His primary model was J.C. Bach
Whose name does the K.stand for in describing Mozart’s works? This brings up the issue of thematic catalogs, those publications that determine in somany cases concerning works of composers of classical music, the organizational system thathas been codified for referring to individual pieces.
Who was the librettist(Italian) for three of Mozart’s most popular operas written while he was in Vienna?What are the names of these operas?
What is chance music?Indeterminacy? Who pioneered these approaches?
Chance Music – Notation decided by chance (e.g. flipping a coin)
Indeterminacy – Leaving elements of the performance up to performer (e.g. throwing the pages of music in the air and picking them up in a random order)
What organization’s beliefs are incorporated in Mozart’s last opera – DieZauberflöte? There is spoken text in this lastopera and in Die Entführung aus dem Serail. What category of opera dothese two works represent as aresult? Note that Mozart was a member of this organization himself and wrote a sizable body of music for use in their meetings.
Where was Messiaen’s Quartet for the End of Time written andfirst performed?
Is there anyextensive influence of “foreign music” (exoticism) in Mozart’s operas? If so,where? This work is evidence of a case whenthe culture of another society (here, it was that of Turkey) is of interest to people in other regions.Such interest may be generated by people visiting from another culture, persons in exile, the appealof the exotic (or unfamiliar), etc. and is therefore, a comment on the society of the time.
Introduced a new concept of nation, equal rights, France,Germany, Italy, Spain, and Austria forge identities now as more of individual nations.
What effects did the Industrial Revolution haveon European society? What are some of the consequencesof these effects on musical culture?
New technologies transforming the economy from agriculturalto an urban economy. Mass production ofcotton and textiles etc. Mass productionlowers market prices. Increased musicsurplus; able to print more music for profit.
Beethoven’s career is often divided into threeperiods. Provide the dates and brief characterization of eachperiod. What in Beethoven’s personal life seemed to mark a change in period? Here is a clear caseof how dramatically a person’s life and creative achievement can be affected bymatters beyond theircontrol.
First period: from birth in 1770 to 1802: He mastered themusical language and genres of his time and gradually found a personalvoice.
Second period: 1802-1814: He developed a style that achieved a new level of drama and expressionand brought him enormous popularity.Thirdperiod: 1815-1827 death: his music became more introspective and more difficultfor performers to play and for listeners to comprehend.
What is tonal serialism?
What are tone clustersand with which composer is this technique associated? What new way of “playing”the piano is utilized in The Aeolian Harpand The Banshee?
What is theHeiligenstadt Testament? What change to the public perception of the musiciandoes this documentreveal (developing age of the “artist”)?
It was a letter written to his brothers to be read after hisdeath, concerning his affliction and his loss of hearing; he couldn’t letpeople know he was deaf otherwise the respect from his public would diminish
Dmitri Shostakovich and Sergei Prokofiev
How does Beethoven’sSymphony No. 3 differ from the symphonies of Haydn and Mozart? What connectiondoes this symphony have to Napoleon Bonaparte?
How is formalismdefined?
What subcategory ofopera does Fidelio fall under? Note that this genre is particularly popular duringthe time of and immediately following the French Revolution.
What is socialistrealism?
What is Carl Orff’sbest-known work? From what source is the text derived?
For what area of music study are Orff and Kodály best known?
What is Gebrauchsmusik?Who is the German composer associated with this style?
In what ways is the Pastoral Symphony significantlydifferent from Beethoven’s five preceding symphonies? What genre does this work represent?
Who and what was “LesSix”? Who was their mentor (inspiration)?
What was the extent ofStravinsky’s influence?
The use of solo voices and chorus in the finale
In what way doesBeethoven’s life as an artist represent a break with the Classical era anddefine the Romanticview?
Who commissionedStravinsky’s most popular ballets, where were they premiered, and which group premieredthem?
Program music - a piece of music that follows a story,narrative, or sequence of events
Absolute Music - music that is independent of words, drama,visual images or any kind of representational aspect
Character piece - a piece of instrumental music that usuallydepicts or suggests a mood, personality, or scene (usually indicated in thetitle)
What are the four waysin which a twelve-tone row may be presented?
For what genre isSchubert best known? What is the nineteenth-century definition of this genre? What is a Schubertiad? Note that this type of gathering is a typical venue for performance ofthis typeof genre at this time.
Lieder; German art song; a gathering in a private home whereSchubert would play his songs or accompany a singer
Define strophic,modified strophic, and through-composed. Note these are forms that are most appropriate to describe how text is set.
Strophic – repeated verses with the same music
Modified Strophic – music repeats for some strophes, butothers vary or use new music.
Through-composed – new music throughout
With which journal isRobert Schumann associated? Whatimportant function did this journal fulfill?
What genre does Pierrot lunaire illustrate? Who was thepoet for the text? What unique vocal style isillustrated in this set of works? How are pitches indicated by Schoenberg whenwriting in this style?
What are Liszt’s innovationsto the public concert? How did Paganini affect the technical character
of his works? Why did he write and perform paraphrases andtranscriptions of other works?Mentionthe market that such paraphrases and transcriptions appealed to.
The first pianist to give solo concerts; pioneered the termrecital; Paganini was really technical as a violinist and wanted to bring thatto the piano; he wanted to bring it to audiences who normally wouldn’t hear it
Define expressionism(see glossary and pp. 818-19 in text).
Florestan – the embodiment of Schumann’s passionate, volubleside
Eusebius – the embodiment of Schumann’s dreamy,introspective side
The Davidsbund – work of Schumann’s imagination, most ofwhich were kindred spirits (such as Chopin, Paganini, and Clara)Thegroup was created to defend the cause of contemporary music against itscontractors
What African-Americanstyle is prefigured in the works of Louis Moreau Gottschalk? In what way wasGottschalk’s stay in Paris significant to European composers? What alterations did Gottschalk makein his compositional style in order to make his music more popular?
What does Schoenbergmean by “the emancipation of the dissonance?”
How does the role of theconductor change in nineteenth century? What is a practical reason for this change?
Included multiple genres
How did literary worksof high quality, including Shakespeare, and Harriet Smithson affect Berlioz’s music?What genre is represented by his Symphoniefantastique? Because of the genre it represents, whatdid Berlioz provide to his audience? What is an idéefixe? What non-musical entity does it representin Berlioz’s Symphonie fantastique? Notethat without the interest in continental Europe in Shakespeareat this time, Berlioz’s Sf would nothave been written. Such a realization brings to mind thedirect manner in which art and circumstance are interconnected.
Saw Harriet play Ophelia in Hamlet and became obsessed with her; wrote Symphonie fantastique about her; represented his obsession through“idée fixe” (the use of a melodic motif in every movement; fixed idea orobsession; used throughout the piece to transform the idea and suit the mood orsituation); provided them with an autobiographical program; spoken words of anopera, but read instead
How do Mendelssohn’s Italian and Scottish symphonies and TheHebrides overture represent an importantpart of the Romantic aesthetic? What genre and form does Mendelssohn’s overtureto a Midsummer Night’s Dream represent?
They sought to represent musical landscapes (program music);Classic Overture structure without repeats
Played in concert halls by professional ensembles
On what work is thefourth movement of Schubert’s TroutQuintet based? This is evidence of the continuingtradition, though greatly diminished, of a composer borrowing from his own orthe works ofothers.
Dieforelle (also by Schubert)
What is the significanceof the Berlin Singakademie? Who was its director during its most prosperousperiod? Such groups are evidence of the rising participation of amateurs inpublic music makingand the resultant avalanche of music geared to satisfy this new market.
How is Mendelssohnimportant to the “resurrection” of J.S. Bach? While it is foolish for us to imaginethat without Mendelssohn, J.S. Bach would have been forgotten forever, thisfact does not diminishthe importance of Mendelssohn and Zelter in bringing him to public attentionagain. Note thatthis is also a period when there is a growing interest in music of the past,publishing critical editions,and writing histories of music.
In what style didSchoenberg paint?
What was Satie’saesthetic?
What element oftraditional notation is omitted in Scriabin’s last five piano sonatasindicating an abandonmentof tonality? What takes its place?
What was Rachmaninov’sapproach to appealing to an audience? Why did he need to satisfy an audience?
What did Dvořák believe was the truesource of a national music for the United States?
What genre does Má vlast represent? Who composedit? In what way is this work a nationalist statement?
Which of Musorgsky’s works was inspired by the artwork of his latefriend Viktor Hartmann? What was the original instrumentation? Wholater orchestrated the work?
Who constituted the“mighty five” and what point of view did they represent?
Who was considered the most original of the Mighty Five?
Who is the first Russiancomposer recognized both by Russians and internationally as an equal of his Westerncontemporaries?
Define lyric opera.
Lies between light opera comique and grand opera
Who was the mostsuccessful Italian opera composer after Verdi? What are the names of his most popularoperas? What do you think is the singlemost important element in this person’s operas that makethem so popular?
What is verismo? Whichoperas and composers are listed as examples?
What are the names ofVerdi’s most popular operas? What do you think is the single mostimportant elementin his operas that make them so popular?
What is a tempo di mezzo and what is its purpose(p. 666)?
What is unusual about Der Ring des Nibelungen in terms oflength and attitude of the composer towardthe conventions of serious opera?
What is the distinctionbetween nationalism and exoticism? How is nationalism achieved in music?
Define melodrama. Whenwould melodrama be appropriate to use in an otherwise sung work?
Which work, by whichcomposer, established German Romantic opera? What are the characteristicsof German Romantic opera exemplified in this work?
Define grand opera. Whowere the leaders of grand opera (librettist and composer) at this time?
To what types ofensembles were the partsongs directed and for what venues were they suitable?
What painting by whom provided the name for Impressionism andhelped initiate a new attitude
toward artistic depiction?
What are the characteristics of Impressionism in painting?
For what genres is Mahler particularly noted? To what area ofmusic other than composition did he
devote a large segment of his career?What was Mahler’s aesthetic in terms of symphonic
composition? What is significant abouthis instrumentation in the symphonies? Be able to recognize
the titles of his orchestral songcycles.
What technique is used in Don Quixote to represent the sheep? (lecture) Seurat uses this same
technique in painting. What term doesArnold Schoenberg use to describe this technique?
What are the names of four of Strauss’s symphonic poems thatare described in some detail in your text?
Don Juan; Macbeth; DonQuixote; andAlsosprach Zarathustra
Who promoted absolute music and claimed that music should beunderstood and appreciated on its
own terms rather than for its ties toanything outside music (text or program music)? He also wrote
“On the Beautiful in Music” / “On theMusically Beautiful.”
What is the focus of the dispute in German-speaking lands thatpolarized around Brahms and
To what nationality does the revival of older music seem to beskewed? What effect did the revival
of older music have on composers of thelate Romantic era? Consider that thecomposers whose
music was revived or made permanent incritical, collected editions were also cemented in the
Western European mainstream, to be played and studied by future generations.
Germany and Austria? Had an effect because composers had to figure out how to compose pieces that were traditional but new
What activities are responsible for the increase in theavailability of music of the past in the late
Which Bohemian composer’s operas provide an early nationaliststatement for the Czech lands andestablish a Czechnational style?
What does “block construction” mean?
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