CORELLI?S SONATAS ? were extremely popular, setting a benchmark for all later baroque sonatas ? they fall into two main types: Sonata da chiesa Sonata da camera (church sonata) (chamber sonata) typical four-movement format: consists of a series of dances, e.g.: Adagio?Allegro?Adagio?Allegro Allemanda, Courrente, Sarabanda, Giga, Gavotta, etc. KEYBOARD MUSIC ? Apart from Frescobaldi?s works, very little keyboard music was published in the 1600s. Keyboard music circulated mainly in manuscript form, within professional circles. ORGANS ? Organ building flourished in Northern Germany and Denmark, where many of the most spectacular baroque organs still exist. The city of Hamburg became a center of organ music. Example No. 94 Buxtehude lived and worked in the city of Lübeck, near Hamburg; he was widely known as the greatest organist of his day. This prelude exemplifies his works ? much like other instrumental genres seen above ? with many contrasting sections, some free and some in strict counterpoint (fugues). Lecture 36 ? Friday, April 22 OPERA SPREADS BEYOND ITALY Germany Schütz wrote the first German opera, Dafne, in 1627, but it is lost. There was very little other German musical theater in the 1600s. France The French nobility favored dancing and ballet over opera. Lully was born in Florence, and came to Paris as a dancer and composer of ballet music. He gradually introduced elements of opera onto the French stage. Finally in the 1670s he wrote fully-fledged French operas, which were called tragédie lyrique or tragédie en musique. (The word tragédie means serious drama, not necessarily ?tragic.?) England The English favored spoken drama with a few songs sprinkled in, very much like modern-day musical theater in New York and London. Purcell was the leading composer of music for the English stage. His one true English opera (all sung) ? Dido and Aeneas of 1689 ? is virtually unique in the baroque era. Examples No. 80 Lully excerpt from Armide, French opera. Lully?s music follows the model of early Italian opera: most of the singing is recitative. This excerpt ends with a short air (aria) and dance. Lecture 37 ? Monday, April 25 No. 82 Purcell excerpt from Dido and Aeneas, English opera. This excerpt combines several sections of recitative, air, chorus and dance. Dido?s first air, ?Ah Belinda,? uses a ground bass, i.e. a short repeating bass line. Purcell used ground basses in many of his works. (We watched several video excerpts from Dido and Aeneas in class.) CANTATA ? A piece of vocal chamber music written in the style of opera, with recitatives and arias; often written for just one singer. Example No. 86 Eliz. Jacquet ? a leading composer of her time (late 1600s), de la Guerre wrote many vocal and keyboard works. This selection is an air (aria) from a cantata. It has a typical form for opera arias: TERNARY FORM (three-part form) A B A da capo ||____________________|____________________|____________________|| Key: I - - - V - - - I x - - - - - - - y I - - - V - - - I ( iii, vi, IV, etc. ) On the ?da capo? (second A section), the soloist may improvise embellishments. ? Note: When the tonic is minor (i), then the A section may go to III (relative major) instead of V (dominant). Lecture 38 ? Wednesday, April 27 DANCE MUSIC ? Dance flourished in France, especially at the court of Louis XIV, who himself was a dancer. French keyboard dances were published in great number. A standard suite consisted of four dances: Allemande ? Courante ? Sarabande ? Gigue Example No. 91 Couperin ? chief harpsichordist in the court of Louis XIV. These two pieces ? Courante and Sarabande ? exemplify French keyboard dances of the time. They have a form typical of such dances: BINARY FORM (two-part form) A B ||:________________________:||:________________________:|| Key: I - - - - - - - - - V [ V ] - - - - - - - - I On the repeat of the A or B section, the player may improvise embellishments. ? Note: When the tonic is minor (i), then the A section may go to III (relative major) instead of V (dominant). OPERA SERIA ( ?serious? opera as opposed to OPERA BUFFA ? light opera ) ? written for the best singers ? virtuosi ? of the day, including castrati ? stories from classic Greek/Roman history or mythology ? 6 to 8 characters ? minimal ?extras? ? chorus, dancing, machinery, etc. Leading composer of opera seria: George Friderick Handel Lecture 39 ? Friday, April 29 THE ROYAL WEDDING ? NO LECTURE Owner C:\Users\Owner\Documents\WP DOCS\I.C\lectures 28-42.wpd
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