11-5-09 - Pepin the Hunchback The eldest son of Charlemagne Had a spinal deformity Used by nobles to "head" a rebellion Caught in 792 and sent to a monastery Lecture Topics: Muslim Invasions of the ninth century Dar al-Islam Harun al-Rashid (r. 786-809) Abbasid Caliphate Establishment of the Aghlabid Dynasty Abbasid caliphate Established in 750 Al-Andalus Muslims in west Africa and Spain called Moors Baghdad 827-1061- traditional dates for Islamic Sicily These dates are an important part of studying medieval culture. There was a mix of Muslim and Norman architecture. Aghlabid dynasty (800-909) Ruled North Africa for the Abbasid Caliphate The Aghlabid dynasty became the most powerful naval force. They attacked Sicily first. Benevento vs. Naples They were constantly fighting each other. Naples hired Muslim mercenaries to help him in the war against Benevento. This created a power vacuum that muslim armies could fill. Euphemius alliance of Republic of Naples with Aghlabids (832-839) Radelchis of Benevento Kalfun Bari Muslims took over Bari. This gave them a foothold on Italy. Fatimid caliphate Corsica and Sardinia Castrogiovanni (fell in 859) 915- end of Muslim rule in mainland Italy dhimmi basmalah Kufic/Pseudo-Kufic ash-Shadrif al-Idrisi Disintegration of the Carolingians and the ninth-century invasions Pepin the Hunchback Pepin was Charlemagne's eldest son and he had a spinal deformity (could never be king). He was used by the nobles to head a rebellion. He was caught in 792 and was sent to a monastery. The signaled the beginning of decline. Divisio Regnorum (806) "Division of the Kingdoms" Geographical territories were given by Charlemagne to his three sons as "Kings" while he was still alive. Sign of decline Louis the Pious (814?840) Charlemagne had Louis crowned as co-emperor in 813 at the placitum generale at Aachen. No consent of pope Charlemagne had no sons left aside from Louis when he died. Church reform Louis' first mistake after his father died was to have himself re-crowned as emperor in 816 by Pope Stephen IV. Benedict of Aniane (751-821) was his spiritual advisor Bishops' military regalia Bishops were dressing like soldiers and Louis said they needed to dress like bishops Moral conduct at court Had Charlemagne's daughters sent to nunneries Simplified his title to Augustus Wanted to create a unified Christendom under one code of law Pope Stephen IV (816?17) Re-crowned Louis the Pious in 816. Benedict of Aniane (751?821) Louis the Pious' spiritual advisor Ordinatio Imperii (817) 'Ordering of the empire' Attempt by Louis the Pious to change the succession law of partible inheritance Birth of Charles the Bald created a new division of land This led to civil wars lasting from 829-840 Battle of Fontenoy (841) (Louis' sons) Charles and Louis meet against Lothar and Pepin (the younger) Charles and Louis won but nothing was resolved Strasbourg Oaths (842) Oaths sworn by Charles and Louis in front of each other's armies. Significance is the different languages each man used (vernacular French and German). Importance: This was the first written evidence of differences. Treaty of Verdun (843) Division of kingdom into east and west Francia Charles the Fat (839-888) was the king of east Francia and the last Carolingian "emperor" to rule over a united Frankish kingdom. Lothar received the tiniest piece. It was called "Middle Kingdom." Magyars Nomadic peoples that migrated westward from Asia and settled on the Hungarian plains. They were fast, everybody had at least one horse, and they were violent in their invasions. Invasions began to intensify and became invasions of plunder. Continued to plunder westward. (1st half of 10th century) (Carolingian kings fairly ineffective against invasions.) More brutal than viking invasions because they attacked the peasants and focused on monasteries because they weren't well defended. Carried off prisoners and had a very devastating effect to the Frankish kingdom. Thuringians Otto Crowned as Holy Roman Emperor Asked by Pope to come to assistance of papacy German duke Battle of Lechfield, 955 (end of Hungarian threat) Battle of Lechfield (955) Ottoe crowned as Holy Roman emperor End of Hungarian threat (didn't actually go away) Holy Roman Empire Vikings Characteristics of invasions: Had the greatest and most lasting impact Merchant-warriors Wars of plunder - not of conquest Some were seasonal (farmed at home during the summer) Superb shipbuilders and navigators How were they attacking?: Longships (make invasions fast; Gokstad ship in Oslo); 32 oarsmen; flat bottom, could go into shallow water so they didn't need to drop anchor in the harbor and switch to rowboats Swedish vikings: Didn't originally attack Europe Set up trade routes and a kingdom called Kievan Rus' c. 88 Established very important trade routes (spices and silks; timber and furs; information) called Volga and trade route of Varangians to the Greeks Denmark Wreaked havoc on Western Europe Invaded England and Ireland Attacked Northern England c. 787-793 They destroyed the monasteries of Lindisfarne and Jarrow. Attacked Ireland in the early 9th century There they set up bases so they could continue to attack England Conquered most of east Anglia by 870 They were prevented from conquering westward by King Alfred the Great (Anglo-Saxon of Wessex; 871-899) Norway Invasion of Iceland, Greenland, and North America Eric the Red invaded North America from Greenland and established Vinland. Sweden Swedish vikings didn't attack Europe at first. Varangians Varangian guard made up of mostly Swedish Vikings Charles the Simple (King of the West Franks 893-923) Struck a deal with Rollo in 911 Rollo Viking that helped siege Paris for 2 years Normandy (Normans) Given to Rollo by Charles the Simple after Rollo became a Christian Danelaw Couldn't get rid of Danes so Alfred the Great recognized their territory and called it the Danelaw and in exchange the Danes became Christian Kingdom of Hungary King Stephen, baptized 1000 Invasions of England and Ireland First attack Northern England in c. 787-93 Monasteries of Lindisfarne and Jarrow Attack Ireland in early 9th century Set up bases from which hey continued to attack England By 870, the Danes had conquered most of East Anglia Prevented from conquering westward by King Alfred (871-899)
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