Last Modified: 2011-06-01
Any change int he genetic information that is NOT the result of genetic recombination
1. Gene mutation change the nucleotide sequence of a gene; not visible. Sequence the gene to identify
2. Chromosome mutations -change the structure or number of chromosomes; visible changes that can be analyzed using a light microscope
1. Germinal/gametic affect gametes and heritable. individual not affected; progeny is.
2. Somatic affect somatic cells and are therefore not heritable; have no relevance for evolution but may have severe impact on individual; cancer!
2. Reverse (back) mutations revert a mutant allele into a wile-type allele
frequences show great variation depending on gene and organism
rarity in part due to mechanisms that protect against or repair mutations!
Words From Our Students
"StudyBlue is great for studying. I love the study guides, flashcards, and quizzes. So extremely helpful for all of my classes!"
Alice, Arizona State University
"I'm a student using StudyBlue, and I can 100% say that it helps me so much. Study materials for almost every subject in school are available in StudyBlue. It is so helpful for my education!"
Tim, University of Florida
"StudyBlue provides way more features than other studying apps, and thus allows me to learn very quickly! I actually feel much more comfortable taking my exams after I study with this app. It's amazing!"
Jennifer, Rutgers University
"I love flashcards but carrying around physical flashcards is cumbersome and simply outdated. StudyBlue is exactly what I was looking for!"