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Health & Fitness
Health & Fitness 001
NASM Chapter 5
NASM Chapter 5
Health & Fitness 001
(At Home Study)
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a study that uses principles of physics to quantitatively study how forces interact within a living body
positioned above a point of reference
positioned below a reference point
positioned nearest to the center of the body or point of reference
positioned farthest from the center of the body or point of reference
on the front of the body
on the back of the body
positioned near the middle of the body
toward the outside of the body
positioned on the opposite side of the body
positioned on the same side of the body
three planes of the body
1. sagittal plane
2. frontal plane
3. transverse plane
an imaginary bisector that divides the body into left and right halves
the bending of a joint, causing the angle to the joint to decrease
the straightening of a joint, causing the angle to the joint to increase
an imaginary bisector that divides the body into front and back halves
movement of a body part away from the middle of the body
movement of a body part toward the middle of the body
an imaginary bisector that divides the body into top and bottom halves
rotation of a joint toward the middle of the body
rotation of a joint away from the middle of the body
movements that occur on the sagittal plane of the body are on which axis?
sagittal plane motions
flexion and extension
which axis do movements on the frontal plane occur on?
anterior and posterior
sagittal plane movements move in which way?
front to back
frontal plane movements occur in which way?
side to side
frontal plane motions include..
adduction/abduction, lateral flexion, and eversion/inversion
transverse plane movements occur on which axis?
what are some transverse plane motions
internal rotation, external rotation, left/right rotation, horizontal adduction, horizontal abduction
movement of the arm or thigh in the transverse plane from an anterior position to a lateral position
movement of the arm or thigh in the transverse plane from a lateral position to an anterior position
eccentric muscle action
occurs when a muscle develops tension while lengthening
performance of an isotonic action
force is produced, muscle tension is developed, and movement occurs through a given range of motion
performance of an eccentric action
moving in the same direction as the resistance decelerates or reduces force
performance of a concentric action
moving in opposite direction of force. Accelerates or produces force
performance of an isometric action
no visible movement with or against resistance. Dynamically stabilizes force
performance of an isokinetic action
the speed of movement is fixed, and resistance varies with the force exerted. Requires sophisticated training equipment often seen in rehabilitation or exercise physiology laboratories
an influence applied by one object to another, which results in an acceleration or deceleration of the second object (push or pull)
the resting length of a muscle and the tension the muscle can produce at this resting length
scapular retraction (adduction)
adduction of scapula: shoulder blades move toward the midline
scapular protraction (abduction)
abduction of scapula; shoulder blades move away from the midline
downward (inferior) motion of the scapula
upward (superior) motion of the scapula
muscle groups moving together to produce movement around a joint
what is the common force couple that causes a trunk rotation?
internal and external obliques
force-couple that causes upward to ration of the scapula
upper trapezius and the lower portion of the serratus anterior
force couple that produces hip and knee extension during walking, running, stair climbing, etc
gluteus maximus, quadriceps, and calf muscles
force-couple that causes the performance of plantar flexion at the foot and ankle complex
gastrocnemius, peroneus longus, and the tibialis posterior
force-couple that causes shoulder abduction
deltoid and rotator cuff
a tool our bodies have to create movement due to the interaction of the bones, muscles, tendons and ligaments
levers consist of..
a rigid 'bar' that pivots around a stationary fulcrum (pivot point)
in the human body, the fulcrum is what?
the joint axis
four parts of the lever system
fulcrum - joint
effort/motin - muscles
resistance - body part or object
first class lever
have the fulcrum in the middle, like a seesaw
example of a first class lever
nodding the head
second class levers
have the resistance in the middle, with the fulcrum and effort on either side, like the load in a wheel barrow
example of a second class lever
calf raise. ball of foot is the fulcrum, body weight is resistance, and effort is applied by the calf
third class lever
have the effort placed between the resistance and the fulcrum. effort always travels a shorter distance and must be greater than the resistance.
example of a third class lever
forearm. fulcrum is the elbow, effort is applied by the biceps, and the resistance is in the hand
motor response to internal and external environmental stimuli
how the central nervous system integrates internal and external sensory information with previous experiences to produce a motor response
integration of motor control processes through practice and experience, leading to a relatively permanent change in the capacity to produce skilled movements
the change in motor soil behavior over time throughout the lifespan
groups of muscles that are recruited by the central nervous system to provide movement
the cumulative sensory input to the central nervous system from all mechanoreceptors that sense position and limb movements
the cooperation of the nervous and muscular system in gathering and interpreting information and executing movement
muscle synergies when performing a squat
quadriceps, hamstring complex, gluteus maximus
muscle synergies when performing a shoulder press
deltoid, rotator cuff, trapezius
the use of sensory information and sensorimotor integration to help the human movement system in motor learning
the process whereby sensory information is used by the body to reactively monitor movement and the environment
information provided by some external source, such as a health and fitness professional, videotape, mirror, or heart rate monitor to supplement the internal environment
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