9/1/09 Four ways Sam Gill factors Native American religion: 1) Tribal traditions 2) Christianity 3) New religious movements 4) Indian spirituality Tribal traditions: -Orality -Native American traditions are passed on orally, not through the written word. -Many stories are creation myths?stories that tell origin of tribal group. -All tribes root humanity in the earth. -Religion is defuse/accompanied by rituals -Many Native American tribes lack a corresponding word to our ?religion?/it?s a part of their everyday life; they don?t just practice it once or twice a week. -Ritual (birth, death, first menstruation, etc.) -Healing -Everything is sacred: All life is conceived as sacred, including and especially animal life -Animist: Everything is alive/has soul?including rivers, trees, mountains, etc?inanimate objects. -All life is related, including spirits of ancestors and spirits of souls yet to be born. -Localized: Place is important. Locations and landscapes are sacred. -Participation: Practice is considered more important than belief. -Generosity: Potlatch ceremony?social status is determined by how much you gave away/opposed to greed -Shamanism: Leader who uses ecstatic techniques to enter into a ________ state of consciousness to heal others. -Christianity is the most widely practiced religion by Native Americans New religious movements -Crisis cults- new religious movements frequently occur during crises -Native American Church ? not one of the NRMs have been as widespread as this one, also called peyote. -Categorized as orthodox Christian, quasi-Christian, non-Christian -Taking peyote helps them receive guidance, healing, spiritual connectedness -Consumed during an all night ceremony -Led by peyote chief -Service includes singing, prayers, etc. -Service concludes in the morning with communion breakfast -Called the peyote road -Fosters and encourages a certain set of values, including brotherly and sisterly love, family care, charity and generosity for the broader community, right living, avoidance of all drugs and alcohol -According to 2000 U.S. census, there were more than 2 million Native Americans, less than 1% of the population. -When Columbus arrived, there were about 10 million Native Americans. -Decreased to about 1 million after Columbus? discovery because of disease, war, etc. -100+ federally recognized tribal groups in the U.S. today
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