NBST 521 Exam 1 Study Guide Definitions Intertestamental period/Second Temple Period Time from the building of the second temple in 515 BC by Zerubbabel until its destruction by the Romans in AD 70 Hellenism Greek Culture Greek Jews Septuagint (LXX) Greek translation of the OT between 285 and 250 BC Originated from Alexandria The version of the 70 Apocrypha – things that are hidden Mysterious and/or esoteric writings that took place during the 2nd Temple period Historical value Deuteron-canonical Roman Catholics label for the Apocrypha. They consider it part of the canon Means the books were added to the canon at a later time Pseudepigrapha – false writings 2nd Temple writings not included in the Apocrypha Apocalyptic, Testaments, Pseudonymous, wisdom, expansions, and religious and philosophical treatises Does not conform to doctrines affirmed in the canonical books Dead Sea Scrolls (Qumran texts) Found in 1947 in Qumran area All OT texts except Esther Sectarian Writings – community rule, thanksgiving hymns, war scroll, Habakkuk Pesher, Temple Scroll Gnosticism – from Greek gnosis (knowledge) A second-century religion pitting spirit against matter, considering the former good and the latter evil It led to asceticism- suppression of bodily passions because of their connection with evil matter. Gnosticism also led to libertinism- the indulgence of bodily passions because of the insignificance of matter. Epicureanism Founded by Epicurus Taught that pleasure (happiness) was the chief good in life Advocated hedonism – the pursuit of pleasure as a matter of ethical principle Soul perishes with body at death Stoicism Taught the dutiful acceptance of one’s fate—a form of fatalism—as determined by impersonal reason ruling the universe. People were enjoined to face their destiny “stoically,” that is, without emotion (Apatheia). Immortal soul and rewards and punishments after death Divine force (the Logos) that directs human life and destiny Popular with upper-class Romans Cynicism Unconventional and unkempt itinerant philosophers that honored as the “supreme virtue” a simple life in rejection of the popular pursuits of comfort, affluence and social prestige. Platonism Founded by Plato Emphasized the existence of a dualistic universe consisting of an invisible spiritual realm containing ideal forms of everything that exists and an inferior material real composed of imperfect replicas of those forms. Paganism Variety of animistic or other non-Christian religious beliefs and practices Roman Pantheon of Gods Emperors served as Pagan High Priest (Pontifex Maximus) Emperor Worship – Emperor Cult Worship of the Roman Emperor as a God Roman Senate instituted the emperor cult by deifying Augustus and subsequent emperors after his death Mystery religions Greco-Roman cults conceiving of religion primarily in terms of mystical union with the divine Mysticism Various approaches to spirituality focusing on human union with the divine Syncretism Eclectic mix of religious beliefs and practices Judaism Monotheism – a firm commitment to the belief in one God Synagogue – 12 Jewish men could start and served as a place for Jews to worship, especially for Diaspora Jews. No sacrifices done here Temple – shorthand for the Jerusalem temple. Symbol of national and religious unity Proselytes – Gentile attracted to Jewish worship who submitted to circumcision and the keeping of Jewish Sabbath observances and food laws God-Fearers – Gentile (non-Jew) attracted to Jewish worship who participates in synagogue worship while not submitting to circumcision Messianism – various beliefs regarding a coming figure called the Messiah Sanhedrin – Jewish ruling council made up of Sadducees and Pharisees that delivered Jesus to Pontius Pilate to be crucified Sanhedrin Jewish ruling council made up of Sadducees and Pharisees that delivered Jesus to Pontius Pilate to be crucified. Sitz im Leben (German) "situation in life or setting", used in form criticism to refer to the sociological setting of the genres used. Philo’s Logos He held to a Logos doctrine that may have some influence on John’s Gospel. Said that Logos was the mind or reason of God, the locus of the “forms” of Platonic Philosophy; It was God in his rational aspect; was hypothesized as a person (like Wisdom in Proverbs 8) Burnt offering Called for the sacrificing for a domestic animal or bird, was the regular evening and morning sacrifice. It was entirely consumed on the altar and always accompanied by a grain offering. Peace offering (“fellowship offering” NIV “sacrifice of well-being” NBSV), which involved an animal, was a voluntary offering in which family and friends participated. There were three kinds, depending on the motive of the worshipper: thank (praise) offering recognized God’s unmerited or unexpected blessing; the votive offering was made in payment of a vow; and the freewill offering was an expression of love for God. Each type of peace offering was accompanied by a prescribed grain offering. Sin offering was made for sin committed unwittingly or for ceremonial defilement (there were no offerings for a willful sin). Both the ritual and the victim (domestic animal or bird) varied according to the prominence and economic state of the one who had sinned. Guilt or Trespass offering was required for ritual infraction or for wrongdoing to another person. These wrongs required both correction and restitution and presentation of an offering. Grain offering (meal, cereal, food [“meat” KJV] offering was the only sacrifice which did not involve an animal life; instead the products of the soil were offered. These could be oil or frankincense, parched or roasted grain, unleavened bread, cakes, or wafers. The grain offering usually accompanied some other form of offering, especially the burnt or peace offering. Targum Aramaic paraphrase of and commentary on the Hebrew Scriptures. Mishnah collection of Jewish rabbinic traditions compiled c. AD 200 Midrash ancient Jewish commentary, including interpretation of selected passages of Scripture, with a view toward pointing out their contemporary relevance (SCOTT: search or seek out, examine, investigate-similar to what we think of exegesis) Apocalyptic literature A revelation is given by God through a mediator to a seer concerning future events. Apocalypticism the sociological phenomenon of a group steeped in an end-time perspective Diaspora for “dispersion”, the scattering of Jews beyond the region of Palestine subsequent to the Assyrian and Babylonian exiles Canon means standard or rule. It eventually came to refer to the collection of the Christian Scriptures. Synoptic comes from a Greek word meaning “to see the same” or “to have the same view or vision.” Individuals and Groups Cyrus of Persia Conquered Babylon and allows Jews to return home in 538 BC Sent them with the temple furniture and provision for rebuilding of Jerusalem Zerubbabel and Joshua Rebuilt the temple Alexander the Great Studied under Aristotle Began the Greek Period with his conquests, beginning with Persia Was prophesied about in book of Daniel Spread the common Greek (Koine) language across the empire because of its ease to teach soldiers from conquered nations Died at 33 and had conquered the empire in only 13 years Kingdom was divided amongst his four Generals Ptolemies First rulers of Palestine after Alexander’s kingdom was divided Rulers of Egypt Aggressive taxation Ptolemy I deported over 120,000 Jews to Alexandria. Ptolemy II freed them Seleucids Became rulers of Babylon after Alexander’s kingdom was divided Defeated Ptolemy V for Israel Antiochus III made enemies with Romans. Son, Antiochus IV, was sent as hostage to Rome. Antiochus IV took over from brother, Seleucus IV Took bribes for position of Jewish High Priest and broke Jewish Law that High Priest had to come from the lineage of Zadok Antiochus IV (Epiphanes) Seleucid (Greek) ruler who sought to impose Greek culture onto the Jews “The Glorious One”—implying he was the incarnation of Zeus on earth. His program of aggressive Hellenization outraged the Jews. In instituting the ban, Antiochus prohibited possession of the Torah, circumcision, festivals, and offerings to Yahweh. Dedicated Jerusalem Temple to Zeus Put a statue of Zeus in Temple and sacrificed a pig on the Altar – “abomination of desolation” Maccabees – Jewish Self-Rule 167-135 Named for third son Judas whose nickname was Maccabeus (the hammer) From the house of Mattathias Mattathias refused to worship pagan gods and killed a Jew and the emperors envoy when the Jew offered to accept the money and make the sacrifice Fled to the wilderness and sparked a Jewish resistance movement Lead guerilla war against the Seleucids to win autonomy from them beginning a period of Jewish self rule Final autonomy achieved under Simon with the capture of the Syrian citadel in Jerusalem (called Akra) Hasidim Hasmoneans Named derived from the great-grandfather of Mattathias (Hasmon) First ruler was John Hyrcanus, son of Simon Pushed Syrians back out Hyrcanus forced circumcision on Idumeans which paved the way for Herod the Great Aristobulus I, son of Hyrcanus I, proclaimed himself King, first Hasmonean to do this – conquered Galilee and founded Jewish settlements there Alexander Janneus proceeded to rule as King and high priest when appointed by his mother Salome Alexandra, who then married him Alexander was powerful ruler but cared not for the spiritual duties Salome Alexandra became the first Queen to rule after the death of Alexander She appointed Hyrcanus II as high priest and Aristobulus II over the armies After her death the brothers battled it out and eventually appealed to Rome. Pompey sided with Hyrcanus II and made him High Priest by walking into the Holy of Holies and installing him there. Came under rule of imperial governor in Syria Mattathias Jewish priest in Modein who: Mattathias refused to worship pagan gods and killed a Jew and the emperors envoy when the Jew offered to accept the money and make the sacrifice Fled to the wilderness and sparked a Jewish resistance movement Judas (Maccabee) Third son of Mattathias Nicknamed “Maccabeus” – The Hammer Lead guerilla war against the Seleucids to win autonomy from them beginning a period of Jewish self rule Salome Alexandra First woman to rule Israel Alexander Janneus proceeded to rule as King and high priest when appointed by his mother Salome Alexandra, who then married him Alexander was powerful ruler but cared not for the spiritual duties Salome Alexandra became the first Queen to rule after the death of Alexander She appointed Hyrcanus II as high priest and Aristobulus II over the armies After her death the brothers battled it out and eventually appealed to Rome. Pompey sided with Hyrcanus II and made him High Priest by walking into the Holy of Holies and installing him there. Came under rule of imperial governor in Syria Herod the Great and sons Herod Made King of Judea in 40BC by Rome Did not officially gain rule until 37BC when he defeated Antigonus with the help of Antony Client King of Rome Largely expanded the Temple Very suspicious man – had sons of Mariamne killed and her too Sons Philip – Galilee Able and conscientious ruler Married Salome, daughter of half-brother Herod Philip Herod Antipas – Galilee and Perea beheaded John the Baptist Divorced his wife (daughter of Nabatean King Aretas IV) to marry wife of half-brother Herod Philip Aretas inflicted a heavy defeat on Herod Antipas Herod Archelaus – Judea. Samaria, and Idumea Totally inept and dismissed by Rome Later replaced by Rome with Procurator system Pharisees Likely originated with the Hasidim Group of pious and zealous Jews who participated with the Maccabeans in a revolt against the Seleucids, but later rejected the Maccabean corruption of the Jerusalem priesthood and temple system Practiced a form of righteousness that observed a complex system of oral traditions in a effort to flesh out the implications of scriptural command for everyday life Believed in the resurrection of the dead and angels Sadducees Began in the Hasmonean period Demise came from the destruction of the temple in AD 70 Ruling aristocracy in Jerusalem, had a vested interest in maintaining the status quo and arranged themselves with the foreign overlords in Palestine Held the majority of the Sanhedrin, accepted only the Pentateuch and denied the future resurrection and did not believe in angels Zealots First attested during the reign of Herod the Great Ceased to exist after the fall of Masada Resisted the foreign occupation of Palestine by the romans and opposed payment of tribute or taxes to pagan emperors Sicarii – a group of resistance fighters who concealed short daggers under their cloaks and murdered people in an effort to destabilize the political climate in the Holy Land Essenes Likely originated with the Hasidim Group of pious and zealous Jews who participated with the Maccabeans in a revolt against the Seleucids, but later rejected the Maccabean corruption of the Jerusalem priesthood and temple system May have formed the nucleus of the Dead Sea community that withdrew from Jerusalem to the desert in order to practice a form of communal living and pious religious observance. Were also Scribes – copiers of the scripture Paganism People in the ancient world were profoundly religious whether the embraced the religion of Israel or Christianity. Greek mythology featured Zeus as the head of the hierarchy of gods. Apollos, son of Zeus, was cast as one who inspired poets and prophets. The Roman emperor himself served as the “Pontifex Maximus”—high priest—merging the political and religious realms. Platonists A philosophical system deriving its origin from the Greek philosopher Plato (c. 429-347 BC); influenced Christianity through the writings of Clement of Alexandria, Origen, and Augustine. Stoics Taught the dutiful acceptance of one’s fate—a form of fatalism—as determined by impersonal reason ruling the universe. People were enjoined to face their destiny “stoically,” that is without emotion Epicureans Taught that the pleasure (in sense of happiness, not necessarily sensual pleasure) was the chief good in life. This led to an advocacy of “hedonism” the pursuit of pleasure as a matter of ethical principal. Name came from Epicurus. Cynics “Let us eat and drink for tomorrow we die.” (1 Cor. 15:32) Advocates of Cynicism were itinerant preachers who had forsaken worldly pursuits. They taught that simplicity was life’s supreme virtue and that people ought to cultivate it instead of popular pursuits. Sanhedrin (also called “Council,” “the rulers,” “chief priests, elders, and scribes”) was the Jewish supreme council in all religious and political matters. Ideally, it consisted of 70 members on the precedent of the elders and appointed by Moses at the advice of Jethro, his father-in-law, though this may not always have been their actual number. The Sanhedrin was convened by the high priest. While Palestine was ruled by the Roman governor who reported to the emperor in Rome, the Jews enjoyed a considerable degree of religious and political autonomy in Jesus’s day. Herodians They were consulted by the Pharisees to entrap Jesus (Mk 12:13). Their name identifies them as members of the household or court of the Herods or as supporters of the dynasty. Josephus describes them as “partisans of Herod”. Josephus does not call them Herodians because Herod would not have surrounded himself with Jewish supporters. It can be assumed that they were pro-Roman. The Pharisees teamed up with them due to their influence and the Sadducees supported the fact that the Herodians supported Herod. There is no assumption to equate Herodians and Sadducees. Scribes Ezra and the rise of scribes as interpreters of Scripture. Scribes and priests were interpreters of the law and the leaders of their people. Scribes gradually took their place alongside the priests as an authoritative group; yet many scribes in the earlier days of the Intertestamental Period were priests. This is illustrated by Ezra, he was also a governor and reformer. The multifaceted role of Ezra is paralleled by that of later scribes in Sirach 38:24-39:11. In the ancient times many scribes were copyists of the law and other sacred texts. Samaritans Children of Jew/Gentile mix From Northern Kingdom – remnant left behind after fall of northern kingdom and intermarried with others in the land Only accepted the first 5 books of the bible as scripture Ethnic Group Listing Four Criteria for Canonization Apostolicity- Direct or indirect association of a given work with an apostle. Orthodoxy- Confirmation to the early church’s “rule of faith.” Antiquity- whether a piece of literature was written during the apostolic era. Ecclesiastical usage- whether a given document was already widely used in the early church. Three Church Councils that officially dealt with the canon of Scripture Council of Laodicea 363- List of the NT minus the Book of Revelation Council of Hippo 393- met and affirmed the present 27-book NT. Council of Carthage 397- Read the previous affirmations and repeated them. Three Phases of the Greek Period The conquests of Alexander the Great (331-320 BC) The Ptolemaic Period (320-198 BC) The Seleucid or Syrian Period (198-167 BC) Similarities and differences between mystery religions and Christianity Similarities Emphasis on the after life Community Meals Initiation Rites Differences Accessibility Historical moorings Ethical and theological content Five major crises of Jews during the 2nd Temple period Babylonian destruction of Jerusalem and the First temple Collapse of the Persian Empire in the wake of Alexander the Great’s invasion Persecution by Antiochus IV Epiphanes Domination by Rome Roman destruction of the Jewish state and the second temple Differences between Diaspora and Palestinian Jews Diaspora Jews were more affected by Hellenization Greek was the predominant language of Diaspora Jews / Aramaic for Palestinian Jews Hellenistic ideas began to seep into the practices of Judaism among Diaspora Jews Diaspora Jews were more likely to suffer persecution by their non-Jew neighbors Three shared beliefs of the Jews The Nature of God – Yahweh, the only true God Centrality of the Torah – Teaching or Instruction The Temple – The Center of God’s Activity among humans Jewish Sects and their view of Purity The Pharisees ‘privitized’ purity by extending dietary regulations to the home. The Zealots ‘politicized’ purity by engaging in armed conflict with Roman “outsiders.” The Sadducees ‘institutionalized’ purity in the architectural space of the Temple. The Essenes ‘isolated’ purity, by creating an alternative community. Beliefs of the Pharisees Twofold Law – Mosaic Law and oral traditions Fence around the Law – Oral traditions to help from breaking the law Mishnah (that which is learned by repetition) Gemara (completion) Together they make the Talmud (teaching) Resurrection of the dead Rewards and punishments after life Existence of angels and demons Beliefs of the Sadducees Denied oral Law Denied Resurrection and angels Traditional Temple Worship Accommodate Romans Non-eschatological Beliefs of the Zealots Nationalistic – No master but Yahweh Insistence on the First Commandment Observance of purity and Sabbath Eschatological orientation Beliefs of the Essenes Strict interpretation of the Law Strict Discipline Strict Purity Expected two Messiahs – Priestly and Kingly The three reasons Josephus is important to the study of the NT He offers the most comprehensive history of the Jews from their origins to his own day. He mentions key figures in the new movement of Christianity. He offers an early comprehensive paraphrase and interpretation of the Old Testament. The three aspects of Philo’s Logos doctrine Logos was the mind or reason of God, the locus of the “forms” of Platonic philosophy. It was God in his rational aspect. Was hypothesized as a person (like Wisdom in Prov. 8) The four geographical regions of Israel Coastal Plains Central Hill Country Jordan River Valley Transjordan Plateau The four factors from the Roman empire that created a suitable environment for the coming of Jesus Roman Peace (Pax Romana) Roman Roads Greek Language (Koine) Jewish Messianic expectations The four changes the Jew made in response to the Roman destruction of the Temple From ceremonial to moral law Orthopraxy over Orthodoxy The attitude of exclusivism Renewed emphasis on religious and cultural distinctives. The building blocks of the Gospels Jesus’ life and preaching Kerygma- A Greek term meaning “proclamation” this word has come to represent the basic content of the preaching of the early church about Jesus (focused on His deeds) Didache- from the Greek meaning “teaching” this term represents the teaching of the apostles for new believers. The reason for the writing of the Gospels Death of the Apostles and Eyewitnesses Jesus did not return as soon as expected Materials needed for teaching and evangelism The rise of heretical movements The various solutions to the Synoptic Problem The Augustinian View- (Traditional view) Canonical Gospels are listed in the order they were written. Two-Gospel Hypothesis- (Griesbach Hypothesis) Gospels written in the order of Matthew, Luke, and then Mark. Markan Priority- Mark written first, Matthew, and Luke wrote independently of each other, both using Mark as a source. Two-Document Hypothesis- (Oxford Hypothesis) Matthew and Luke used Mark as a source; Matthew and Luke also used “Q,” a document containing the similar material found in Matthew and Luke, but not found in Mark. Four Source Theory- Adds two more sources, “M” and “L” unique to Matthew and Luke, along with Mark and “Q”. Farrer- Goulder Hypothesis- Luke used Mark and Matthew as sources. Tractate Aboth and the four steps at the heart of Judaism Careful study of the Law (especially by Rabbis) Teaching the Law to students (including the views of past and present teachers) Expansion of the Law by new interpretations Applying the Law to specific institutions. Form Criticism involved three basic steps Classifying the form of the Gospel materials as parable, miracle story, proverb, etc. Assigning the form to the context in the life of the early church in which it was probably used. Tracing the history of the oral transmission of each for until it was written down. Essays Essay 1: List and describe the four main Jewish groups in first century Judaism. Describe each group’s history as far as possible. Compare and contrast their beliefs and institutions. Which group’s beliefs are closer to your own? Which are the most different? Give your reasons for agreement or disagreement. Which party controlled the Temple and was apparently on better terms with the Romans? Which group had a majority in the Sanhedrin? Four main Jewish Sects / Describe and give history Pharisee Origin—The origin of the Pharisees is unclear, but they may have been an offshoot of the Hasidim who arose in opposition to Antiochus Epiphanes during the second century BC. The name “Pharisees” means “separated ones,” and they sought strict obedience to God’s Law as their main goal. They were teachers (rabbis) who not only studied the Torah, but instructed others in it. As such, they were often much sought after in the synagogues. (Famous Pharisees—Paul and Nicodemus) Major Teachings Twofold Law—The Pharisees accepted not only the Mosaic books of the Law, but also the oral traditions that had been handed down for generations regarding the proper observance of the Torah. So, in a sense, the Pharisees held to a twofold Law. Fence around the Law—the Pharisees also held to the need to construct rules that would aid people in keeping the Law without too much difficulty. So, they continued to add to the oral traditions so as to keep folks from breaking the Law of Moses. These traditions were often commentaries on the Law and after being written down became known as the Mishnah (that which is learned by repetition). The commentary on the Mishnah is the Gemara (completion). The Mishnah and the Gemara together make up the Talmud (teaching) which was to protect the Law from being broken. Miscellaneous Beliefs—other beliefs espoused by the Pharisees included a belief in the resurrection of the dead, rewards and punishments after life, and the existence of angels and demons. Institution—Synagogue House of Instruction Place of Prayer Community Center Essenes Discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls Characteristics Strict Interpretation of the Law Strict Discipline Strict Purity Expected Two Messiahs Institution(s)? Sadducees Origin—Mainly from the aristocratic wealthy priestly families in Palestine. Their name may derive from Zadok in the OT (1 Kings 1:26), the High Priest under David and Solomon. The Sadducees were more likely to accept Hellenization than the Pharisees or Zealots, and they were quick to accommodate their views with Rome. So, they retained a bit of power even under Roman rule as a result. They disappeared when the Temple was destroyed. Denied oral law, resurrection, angels, and demons. They practiced traditional Temple worship and were non-eschatological. Major Characteristics Doctrinal Conflict with the Pharisees Denied Oral Law Denied Resurrection and Angels Traditional Temple Worship Political Conflict with Zealots Accommodate Romans “Non-eschatological” Major Institution—The Temple Zealots Major Characteristics Very nationalistic—No master but Yahweh. They refused to accept Roman rule and pushed for an overthrow of the Romans in Palestine. Insistence on the First Commandment—No other gods but Yahweh, worship God alone. Observance of purity and Sabbath Eschatological orientation—apocalyptic mindset, expected divine intervention in their struggle, etc. No Institution Which party controlled the Temple and was apparently on better terms with the Romans? Which group had a majority in the Sanhedrin? The Sadducees had the majority in the Sanhedrin and the high priest was a Sadducee. They also were tied in with Rome. Essay 2: List and define some of the major sources used to reconstruct the history of the Intertestamental or 2nd Temple Period. Which of these sources do you consider the most important, and why? Why is the study of these sources important to a proper understanding of the New Testament? How do these sources help us understand NT thought and topics? List and define some of the sources: The Hebrew Text: The Old Testament The Septuagint: The Greek Translation of the Old Testament The Apocrypha: Also called Deuterocanonical, means “hidden away”, Reserved for the wise and learned. The Pseudepigrapha: Literally “falsely written” they were written under a pen name. The Dead Sea Scrolls: Texts discovered in the caves around the Dead Sea that represent the religious literature of the Essenes. The New Testament: Important because it shows the life of Christ and the life of the Jews before the destruction of the second temple in 70 A.D. Josephus and Philo Most of these sources are important for various reasons. The Hebrew Old Testament was the starting point for Intertestamental Judaism. The Pentateuch held a special place as unquestioned authority. By the end of the period all 39 books of the Hebrew canon were reguarded as the Holy Word of God. The Septuagint was important because it has some emphases and content that differs from the Hebrew text. Where these differences appear, the Septuagint is an essential source. The Apocrypha, the books found in the Septuagint but not in the Hebrew Canon, show importance because they constitute a different collection. While everything in them may not be theologically accurate, they do show good insight some of the history of this period. The Pseudepigrapha is not the most helpful because portions of these documents have been lost, they contain errors, and the authors are mostly unknown. Of all the writings the Dead Sea Scrolls prove to be the most significant: Included in the Dead Sea Scrolls are Old Testament texts, Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha books, Secretarian or community rules, worship rules, Eschatological expectations, Testimonia, Biblical Expectations, etc. The New Testament is also important because it tells about the life of Christ and life at the end of the Intertestamental Period. Josephus (AD 37-100)- He was a student, secretarian, statesman, military officer, traitor, historian, and apologist for the Jews. By the time he was 14, Josephus claims, that his learning was so high that Rabbis consulted him. Later he began an in depth study of three primary national sects: Sadducees, Pharisees, and Essenes. He became a Pharisee. His writings were preserved by Christians who recognized their contribution toward establishing the historical origins of their faith: History of the Jewish War, is the most important because it focuses on the struggle with Rome and what lead to the Jewish Revolt. In this work he gives a general overview of Palestine and Jewish history, life, customs, and thought. Antiquities of the Jews traces Jewish history from the creation of the world to his own day. He briefly mentions things like Jewish and Samaritan conflicts and the arrival of Alexander the Great in Palestine. He ends this book by focusing on the Jewish War. Josephus’ third word, Life of Josephus, is not so much an autobiography as a defense against continuing criticisms of his conduct and position during the war. He also wrote Against Apion which is considered to be in the last years of his life. He is important because he makes references to many of the New Testament characters such as: Jesus, John the Baptist, and James the Just. He also References the Sects: Pharisees, Sadducees, Essenes and Josephus hated the Zealots. He also referred to Religious Leaders: Pontius Pilate and Corrupt High Priest. Importance of Studies of the Bible: Josephus covers a wide spectrum of the Old Testament materials and presents a variety of interpretive techniques. He cites regularly form a version of the Septuagint, and His historical works are somewhat similar to the type of material and format in Luke and Acts. Philo The Jewish community in Alexandria, where Philo grew up, was the largest outside of Israel. He steeped in a Plationic philosophical system. Held to a Logos doctrine that may have some influence on John’s Gospel. He taught a middle way between the more literal interpretations of his contemporaries and the rejection of the law by some Hellenistic Jews. His Logos doctrine: Logos was the mind or reason of God (the locus of the “forms” of Platonic philosophy), it was God in his rational aspect, and it was hypostatized as a person (like Wisdom in Proverbs). Philo may have influenced Johns Gospel by means of his logos and portraying Moses as a shadow of Christ. He may have had influence on the Epistle of Hebrews via platonic terminology and thought patterns and interpretations of OT. He may have had some influence on Paul; according to Henry Chadwick, “Both men fished from the same pool.” Without the writings between the Old and New Testament there would remain a gap and studying the New Testament would be challenging. The different groups of Jews—Pharisees, Sadducees-- are not mentioned in the Old Testament but come up time and time again in the New Testament. Without the writings from the time between the two testaments, one would not know where they came from and their practices. The synagogue is a Jewish institution found in the New Testament which means that it had to come in to be during the Intertestamental period. The Study of the Old Testament shows the mindset of Pharisees when Jesus walked the earth. They had just gotten out of captivity and were determined to get their religion right, therefore they built a fence around the law. The Dead Sea Scrolls give an insight to apocalyptic literature and the messianic expectations of the Essenes. They also give insight to different ideas of worship and rules that they had to follow for purity. The Septuagint is important because most of the New Testament writers quote from it. [Other reasons why these writings are important are mingled through the rest of the New Testament- I realize this is a lot of information, but there is a lot of information for this question so I did my best to highlight the important parts.] Essay 3: Discuss the origins and influence of Hellenism in Israel during the Intertestamental or 2nd Temple Period. Be sure to identify any problems this movement caused for the Jews and describe the Jewish response to these problems. Which Hellenistic rulers most aggressively tried to influence Jews with Hellenism? How did Hellenism positively and negatively impact the Jews? What modern movement parallels the rise of Hellenism? Comparison of Hellenism with the Traditional Semetic culture of the Hebrews: The Hebrew Jew spoke Hebrew or Aramaic while Hellenistic Jews spoke Greek. The Semitic economy and setting were essentially rural and agricultural, while the Greek was urban. The religious outlook of the Hebrews was monotheistic, while the Hellenists was polytheistic or pantheistic, metaphysical, and speculative. Hebraic religion emphasized the worship of Yahweh and human relations to him; Hellenistic religion was pagan and secular and focused on the human and the human body. The Semetic outlook tended towards particularism and isolationism; the Hellenistic was universal and syncretistic. The Semite emphasized the community, the Hellenist emphasized the individual. With all of these differences, conflict was inevitable. After the conquest of Alexander the Great, Jews had benign contact with Hellenism through trade and military personnel who came to their areas. The Jews saw the Hellenistic way of life including their cities and administrative procedures. Alexander’s successors caused it to grow. As a part of the Ptolemaic Empire centered in Egypt, the Jews were forced to deal with the Hellenistic governmental structure and function within that framework. (Out of this period came the Septuagint.) In the Jewish Homeland most of the country side was thoroughly Hellenized. Jerusalem, the capital for the Jews, was initially protected by her remote location in the hill country and by conservative, temple-centered leadership. Life under the Seleucids brought the about the same level of contact with Hellenism under the Ptolemies, until this changed when Antiochus VI was determined to Hellenize Judea. The latent threats Hellenism had posed a threat and a challenge to the traditional culture of the Jews, especially their religion. The Maccabean revolt was not directed primarily toward Hellenism in general but rather against pagan worship. It broke out when Antiochus promoted pagan worship (Remember he erected a statue of Zeus and sacrificed a pig on the alter- The Abomination of Desolation) More evidence that the revolt was not aimed at Hellenism is due to the fact that Hellenism remained in Judaism as a permanent fixture. Herod the Great rebuilt Jerusalem, including the temple, after the Hellenistic model. The Greek language was big in Jerusalem. Greek words continue to appear in Hebrew/ Aramaic rabbinic writings of the 3rd and 4th centuries. Nevertheless, While a Pious Jew like Philo could virtually save all the aspects of Hellenism, other intertestamental writing—such as 1 Maccabees, Sirach, and Jubilees—showed much opposition. At the heart of the anti-Hellenistic reaction were strong views of Israel’s election by God and her consequent relationship with Him and other peoples. Deviation from it was viewed as very dangerous for their relationship with God and to the nation and with the race as a whole—they feared it would take away those entities that made them distinct from all other nations. Three points must be made to help understand the zeal of the Jewish opponents of Hellenism: (1) The OT law depicted culture and conduct as the visible results of covenant relation with God. (2) The prophets from Moses onward constantly warned that national and individual well-being were dependent upon faithfulness and obedience to God. (3) Examples were many of other nations, races, cultures, and religions losing their identities in that day to superpowers. These three things were recognized as the nation’s humiliation and downfall before. The Hebrews responded to the crisis in many ways: Shifts of emphasis: From Cultus to Moral Law Orthopraxy to Orthodoxy Particularism, Exclusivism, and Superiority. Renewed Emphasis on Religious Cultural Distinctives Steps to Increase the Impact of Interpretive Methods The Development of Interpretive Methods Translation Identification of the Canon Development of the Synagogue Reactions of Specific Groups: Hellenistic Judaism- compromised by trying to be apart of the Hellenized world and Judaism Scribes- sought to adjust to the changed by developing the oral law. The Pharisees ‘privitized’ purity by extending dietary regulations to the home. The Zealots ‘politicized’ purity by engaging in armed conflict with Roman “outsiders.” The Sadducees ‘institutionalized’ purity in the architectural space of the Temple and supported Hellenism and Roman authorites. The Essenes ‘isolated’ purity, by creating an alternative community. Essay 4: Compare and contrast the Palestinian Jews and the Diaspora Jews. Be sure to describe their similarities and differences. List some of the factors that caused differences in practice and outlook. Do you think that the social and religious practices of early Christianity more closely resemble those of the Palestinian Jews or of the Diaspora Jews, and why? Support your answers. Judaism had two major expressions: Palestinian Judaism and Diaspora Judaism. Palestinian Judaism was the expression of Judaism most common among Jews and Jewish groups in Israel. -established Rabbinic Schools which created a large body of oral tradition as they sought to interpret the Old Testament. They maintained that the oral law could be traced back to Moses at Sinai, claiming that it superseded the Old Testament itself. -the Religious Calendar was important for all practicing Jews but especially for the Jews in Israel. Diaspora Judaism generally refers to the Jews taken by the Babylonian captivity and was the expression of the Jewish faith by those living outside Israel, it was more focused on Synagogue than the Temple. The Diaspora Jews were more affected by Hellenism in language and culture, this resulted in the creation of the Septuagint. They were more likely to suffer persecution than the Palestinian Jews. The groups shared: -Their belief in the nature of God and who that ONE God is. He is jealous. Concern for humility. God of loving-kindness and mercy. Monotheism was paramount.Set them apart from their pagan neighbors. -The centrality of the Torah (“the instruction” the first 5 books of the Bible.) -The Synagogue was important for all Jews (because many did not live near the Temple) but was most important for the Diaspora Jews, especially after the destruction of the Temple. -The Temple was the center of God’s activity among humans, God lived there. When the Romans destroyed the Temple in AD 70, the Pharisees founded a Rabbinic School at Jamnia. Judaism attracted large numbers of proselytes (full converts) and God-fearers (no circumcision) These converts were attracted to Jewish monotheism and moral teachings, leaving their pagan gods and practices behind, and conformed to the teachings of Judaism to varying degrees. Acts and the Gospels make repeated reference to proselytes and God-fearers. The inclusion of Gentiles on equal terms, salvificly speaking, was a revolutionary concept to many first century Jews and Christians. Essay 5: Define the "Synoptic Problem" and describe the development of the Gospels according to the textbooks. Give an overview of the top four solutions that scholars have offered to this "problem." Why is Markan priority the most common scholarly solution? Which arguments both for and against it seem strongest? Which solution to the Synoptic Problem do you support, and why? The “Synoptic Problem” seeks to explain the preponderance of similar materials that constitute the Gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke. The word “synoptic” means “to see together.” These Gospels are so called because a significant amount of the material they have in common is, in the original Greek, verbatim or close to it, so much so that the absence of the Gospels being interrelated seems unlikely. Various explanations have been postulated to account for the material that these Gospels share in common. (For those still confused about “Q” or “Quelle”-German for “source.” Q is a hypothetical document that is purported to account for the body of material that the Gospels have in common. When you see “Q” think “common material” however, for the record, explanations involving the use of Q are frequently frowned upon in the Evangelical community because many of those explanations take less care than they could to avoid “damaging” the reliability, authority, or authenticity of Scripture or are held by individuals who do (this is not always the case however and the explanations themselves, while occasionally lending themselves to more or less conservative scholarship, do not mandate a liberal or conservative interpretation of Scripture per se. The four major explanations are as follows: Two SOURCE theory- Mark wrote first; Matthew and Luke used the hypothetical Q source and Matthew to compose their Gospels. Four source- Mark wrote first; Matthew and Luke used the hypothetical Q source AND their own hypothetical sources (some see their own experiences in lieu of additional written sources) which are generally dubbed M and L respectively. I.e. Matthew used: “M” source, “Q” source, and Mark. Luke used: “L” source, “Q” source, and Mark. Griesbach or two GOSPEL theory- Matthew wrote first (this is supported overwhelmingly by the Early Church Fathers) Luke wrote second and used Matthew, Mark wrote third and used both Matthew and Luke. Easier to explain non-apostle Mark using apostolic Matthew than vice versa. Reasonable solution for Matthean/ Lukan agreement against Mark. Explains “Markan redundancies” stating that he was accounting for the wording used by Matt and Luke. *This theory fails to completely account for: the simpler language used in Mark and the fact that almost all of Mark exists in Matthew and/or Luke (why write a book that has already been written). It is also at odds with Church tradition which states that Luke wrote last, and Mark, writing second, did not use the other Gospels. Farrer theory-Mark wrote first; Matthew, using Mark, wrote second, and Luke, using both, wrote third. Augustinian/ Traditional- Matthew>Mark>Luke. In that order. Markan priority is popular because “Careful analysis of the similarities between the Synoptic Gospels indicates that Mark has a special relationship to both Matthew and Luke. Mark shares more material and verbatim agreement with Matthew and Luke than they share with each other.” It’s the shortest Gospel and yet does not appear to be a summary of the others. Less-refined Greek. Matt and Luke translating Aramaic into Koine (common Greek) makes more sense than Mark translating Koine into lesser-known Aramaic. Mark has “theological difficulties” due to wording that have been “smoothed out” in Matthew and Luke. Matt and Luke seldom agree against Mark in wording or order. Lastly, word preferences in the “Markan” material in the other Gospels.