Required for normal body functioning and come from dietary source; Carbs, Protein, Fats, Water, Vitamins, Minerals
Where is glycogen stored in the body?
Muscle and liver
What nutrients should be consumed after a workout to enhance recovery?
Simple carbohydrates along with some protein
What are proteins made of?
What is the primary function of protein in the human body?
To build and repair tissues
Which fat increases the risk of cardiovascular disease more than any other?
Which type of fat is solid at room temperature and typically comes from animal sources?
What is special population?
Individuals with chronic condition
List all the factors for coronary heart disease. Which can be mitigated?
Sedentary lifestyle, obesity, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, stress (all can be changed)
What are HDLs and LDLs? What do they do?
HDLs- High density lipoproteins. Good in blood. Takes cholesterol from food and takes it to the liver. Filters and disposes through the endocrine system. LDLs- Low density lipoproteins. Bad in blood. Takes cholesterol from good and deposits it into veins and arteries, causes a build up of plaque. Higher chance of heart attack and stroke. Increases blood pressure and heart rate.
What are the common effects of anti-hypertensive medication?
Diuretics, beta blockers, ace inhibitors, and calcium channel blockers
When is a female considered obese? Male?
Female- 32% body fat Male- 25% body fat
What are the health risks of obesity?
Hormonal deficiency, strain on joints, diabetes, coronary problems
What is the main purpose of a fitness assessment?
To find a starting point for a new client
What forms should be completed by the trainer, under the supervision of the client, prior to beginning any exercise program?
Health history, Par-Q, 6 Components of Fitness
What is a superset?
Two exercise in a row without stopping
What is a compound set?
Any exercise that involves more than one muscle
Which muscles are traditionally trained first? Large or small?
What is FITTR?
Frequency, Intensity, Time, Type, Rate of Progression
What is microcycle, mesocycle, & macrocycle?
microcycle- smaller, often weeks mesocycle- smaller, often months macrocycle- entire training period, often a year
What is TUT?
Time Under Tension
What are the five levels of fitness?
How long should you allow a muscle group to recover between workouts?
48 hours between workouts
What is the Principle of Overload?
Stressing the body to cause physiological changes
What is the SAID principle?
Specific adaptations to the imposed demands; if one wants specific change, training must stress that muscle
What is the principle of specificity?
Applying training to someone specific
What is functional training?
Training that stimulates the body to move the way it is naturally engineered
What must be identified prior to implementing an exercise?
Goal, starting position, motion
What are the 3 forms of ROM?
What is the TZ% of max for recovery training? Aerobic? Anaerobic?
What is a structural exercise?
Loading occurs through the spine
How does direction of resistance relate to desired motion?
Usage of free weight or usage of machinces
What is the main focus of a trainer in regards to joint stabilization during exercise?
Monitor joint positioning and stabilization of every rep. Spinal position, joints involved, and remaining joints (entire body)
What is anterior?
What is posterior?
What is superior?
What is inferior?
What is medial?
What is lateral?
Away from midline
What is proximal?
Close to reference point
What is distal?
Farther from reference point
What is unilateral?
What is superficial?
What is deep?
What is cephalic?
What is caudal?
What is supine?
Laying on back
What is prone?
Lying face down
What is flexion?
What is extension?
What is abduction?
Away from body
What is adduction?
What is internal rotation?
Rotating towards body
What is external rotation?
Rotating away from body
What is protraction?
Abduction of scapula or pushing mandible forward
What is retraction?
Adduction of scapula or moving mandible posteriorly
What is elevation?
Raising of scapula
What is depression?
Lowering of scapula
The primary substance which is converted from food to be used from energy by the body's cells is known as:
Shrugs are primary performed to enhance/develop which muscle?
Immediately following an incline-bench chest press with a barbell deadlift, without rest, is an example of what form of training?
Accumulation of lactate in the muscles will correlate with:
Light, aerobic activity mainly utilizes what source of energy?
Which of the following planes bisects the body laterally from side to side, dividing it into front and back halves?
The maximum volume of oxygen consumed per unit of time during exercise is known as the:
An increase in mobility leads to:
A decrease in stability
Benefits of cardiovascular training include all of the following EXCEPT:
Decrease number of mitochondria
When “carbohydrate loading” before an endurance event, which food choice would be the most beneficial:
Varying the appropriate ______ and allowing for adequate rest/recovery to obtain tissue adaptations and achieve client goals is the central concept of program design.
What are the prime movers (or agonists) during the shoulder extension phase of an over-arm throw?
A __________ is a period of training or training stage lasting a few weeks within an entire _________ or training year.
Which muscle listed below originates at the ilium and inserts at the femur and functions to abduct the hip?
An example of a _______ is the head-neck extensor muscles that control the posture of the head in the sagittal plane.
1st class lever
Using the Karvonen Equation, determine the target heart rate for a 37 year-old with a resting heart rate of 61 bpm at a 60% intensity level.
What is the primary difference between maximum strength and power?
Of the movements of the Scapula, which two are considered frontal plane movements?
Depression and elevation
Which of the following is not a common anti-hypertensive agent?
During cardiovascular exercise an individual’s mouth begins to open more visibly with less nasal inhalation. The individual cannot complete spoken sentences without pausing. In terms of energy production, what is happening internally?
The primary phase of energy production has moved from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism
The rate of change in momentum of a body and its direction is proportional to the force causing it. This is known as:
Newton's Second Law
A person’s own body weight is considered which type of force?
Why is it important to cool-down following an exercise session?
Decrease heart rate toward homeostasis
What is the goal of eccentric muscular actions on joint movement?
The muscle that is the primary mover of glenohumeral flexion is the:
What is VAK?
Visual Auditory Kinesthetic
What do the numbers 2-0-2 represent for an exercise repetition?
Order of the muscle action (Eccentric, Isometric, Concentric)
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