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What kind of waves during normal awake time on EEG?
What kind of waves during relaxation on EEG?
What kind of waves during lighter sleep stages on EEG?
What 2 weird phenomena during stage 2 sleep on EEG?
Sleep spindle and K complex
What kind of waves during deeper sleep (3 & 4) on EEG?
What is the general trend in the amplitude/frequency from awake to deep sleep?
Wave amplitude increases, it starts off as low voltage, de-synchronized pattern, then waves become slower, higher, and more rhythmic, then finally it becomes high amplitude and has a slow wave rhythm. In general, slow amplitude fast waves to high amplitude slow waves.
How are the waves on an EEG during coma? How are they different from delta waves?
The waves during a coma are very slow, low amplitude waves. They are different from delta because they are more stretched out, they are slower, and lower.
What are the differences between REM and NREM sleep w.r.t. movement of body parts (eyes, limbs etc).
In NREM the brain is asleep but the body is awake (twitching, turning, kicking, sometimes sleep walking). In REM the brain is active but the body is not. The body is immobile and all muscles are “paralyzed” from the neck down.
Explain the sleep cycles that one goes through in a normal night (both stages and REM/NREM).
People spend 75% of their sleep in NREM and 25% in REM. A person goes through the three stages of sleep starting with low amplitude fast waves to high amplitude slow waves and then REM sleep which is fast and random.
How does the % of REM sleep change during your lifespan? (infants, grandparents)
How does the % of REM sleep change during your lifespan? (infants, grandparents)
Infants spend 50% of their time in REM sleep whereas grandparents spend 20% in REM sleep.
What happens in sleep apnea (in general)? What is specific about obstructive sleep apnea?
Sleep apnea is a serious disorder resulting from frequent episodes of apnea (cessation of airflow) during sleep. Apnea means “lack of breath.” Obstructive sleep apnea is when apneas occur more often in REM sleep when either the upper airway collapses or the body weight of the patient on the chest compromises respiratory effort.
*What is the main daytime symptom for sleep apnea?
The main daytime symptom of sleep apnea is temporary stoppages of breathing while asleep.
What is the standard therapy for sleep apnea?
Surgical and mechanical means. The most effective is continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) which is a mask that forces air through the nose or mouth while sleeping.
What are the 3 symptoms of narcolepsy that were discussed in class?
Excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucinations, and sleep paralysis.
Explain the difference between cataplexy and sleep paralysis.
Cataplexy is a brief episode of muscle weakness, actual paralysis, or both. In cataplexy the patient is awake. Sleep paralysis is the momentary paralysis on awakening or at sleep onset. This means that the patient had been sleeping or is about to sleep.
Explain the distinction between epilepsy and seizures.
Epilepsy is a syndrome in which brain seizure activity is a primary and chronic symptom. Epileptics have seizures generated by their own brain dysfunction. People with epilepsy have seizures but people can have seizures for other reasons, not just epilepsy.
What is the incidence of epilepsy?
Epilepsy affects about 1% of the population.
Describe the grand mal and petit mal seizure (old) classification.
Grand mal (“big bad”) - loss of consciousness and equilibrium, tonic-clonic convulsions (rigidity and tremors), and resulting hypoxia may cause brain damage
Petit mal (“little bad”) - not associated with convulsions and a disruption of consciousness associated with a cessation of ongoing behaviors
What is the difference between a partial and generalized seizure?
Partial is does not involve the whole brain, whereas a generalized seizure does.
What are the stages of an epileptic attack? What modalities can the aura be associated with?
There are 3 stages: prodromal, seizure, and postictal. People experiences an “aura” or nausea, dizziness, and numbness in the prodromal stage.
What is an absence seizure?
An absence seizure is when someone usually just stops talking mid sentence, their eyelids may begin to flutter, and they seem to stare into space. These people do not usually realize what just happened.
What is the difference between myoclonic and clonic seizures? How are they contrasted with tonic seizures? So what is a tonic-clonic seizure?
A myoclonic seizure is when there are bursts of jerky motor movements that usually do not last more than a second and tend to occur in clusters over a short period (“jumps”). A clonic seizure is when you jerk, because clonic means “jerking.” Tonic seizures are when you stiffen, because tonic means “stiffening.” A tonic-clonic seizure is when both of these symptoms are present.
*Could you tell the difference between an atonic seizure and cataplexy?
An atonic seizure is when there is sudden loss of muscle tone and may result in a fall. Cataplexy is when you experience muscle weakness, paralysis, or both. In a severe case, the victim may fall to the floor. In my opinion, you would not be able to tell the difference.
What is the difference between simple and complex partial seizures?
The symptoms of simple partial seizures could be sensory, motor, or both and they spread as epileptic discharge spreads. Complex partial seizures are often restricted to the temporal lobes. The patient usually engages in compulsive and repetitive simple behaviors, more complex behaviors seem normal, and religious experience and social behaviors are also important. Basically, complex seizures are simple seizures with an aura or altered psych added.
What is a secondarily generalized seizure and what is the “Jacksonian march”?
A secondarily generalized seizure begins in one place and spreads. “Jacksonian March” involve motor areas and “March” because they begin with jerking or tingling of a single body area and spread to other areas.
*What is the general division of function between the 6 layers of (most) of the cortex?
The functions are sensory, motor, and association.
*How is the function of all the layers in a cortical column related?
Neurons in a given column have similar properties. For example, in the somatosensory cortex all the neurons within a given column respond to stimulation of the same area of skin.
What is Brodmann’s division of the cortex into separate areas based on (i.e. why did he say these areas were different?)
Brodmann’s division is based on organization, structure, and distribution of cortical cells. This makes a cytoarchitectonic map.
What are the three parts of all sensory systems?
The three parts are sensory receptors, neural relays, and central representations in the neocortex.
Explain what it means that receptors only respond to a range of stimuli.
Sensory receptors respond to only a narrow band of energy and some respond to only a certain shaped molecule.
What is transduction when you are talking about receptors?
Transduction means that receptors transduce energy.
*Explain how receptors locate events and help to distinguish internal from external stimuli.
Receptors locate events by using their receptive fields and they distinguish between internal and external stimuli using their exteroceptive and interoceptive receptors.
Explain the function of cornea.
The cornea helps to shield the eye from germs, dust, and other harmful matter. It also acts as the eye’s outermost lens. It controls and focuses the entry of light. When light enters the cornea it bends or retracts the incoming light onto the lens.
Explain the function of iris.
The iris regulates the entrance of light into the eye.
Explain the function of lens.
The lens bends the light rays to focus them on the retina.
Explain the function of retina.
Finally, the retina converts light rays into electric signals which are sent to the brain. The brain then translates the image into what we call sight. The retina has two types of cells - rods and cones. The rods show you black and white, and the cones show you color.
Explain what the fovea and the blind spot on the retina are.
The fovea is an area consisting of a small depression in the retina containing cones and where vision is most acute. This is where vision is most sharp and good detail. The blind spot is on the optic disk of the retina where the optic nerve passes through. There is lack of light-detecting photo receptor cells. However, the brain fills in with surrounding detail and and with information from the other eye, so the blind spot is not normally perceived.
What are the three cell layers of retina, and how does the light travel to get to the receptor layer?
The three layers are the photoreceptor layer, the bipolar cell layer, and the ganglion cell layer. The light passes through the ganglion cell layer, to the bipolar cell layer, then to the back of the eye so that it reaches the receptor layer.
*What is the main pathway for vision called?
The main visual pathway is called geniculostriate.
What is the tectopulvinar pathway and what is its course?
The tectopulvinar pathway is the basis for eye movements. It takes part in detecting and orienting to visual stimulation. Its course is eye to superior colliculus, to pulvinar in thalamus, then to visual areas in temporal and parietal lobes.
What is the optic chiasm?
The optic chiasm is the crossing (point of decussation) of the two nerves from the two eyes at the base of the brain. It is the crossover point for optic nerve fibers.
What is the optic tract?
The optic tract is a continuation of the optic nerve and runs from the optic chiasm to the lateral geniculate nucleus. It is fundamental for visual sensation.
What is the LGN?
The lateral geniculate nucleus is where synapses terminate. It is the primary processing center for visual information received from the retina located inside the thalamus. It relays information.
What is the optic radiation?
Optic radiation is a nerve pathway from the lateral geniculate body to the visual cortex. It is a collection of axons from from relay neurons in the LGN of the thalamus carrying visual information to the visual cortex along the calcarine fissure.
What is the striate cortex?
The striate cortex is the primary visual cortex. It is the part of the occipital cortex that receives the fibers of the optic radiation from the lateral geniculate body, and it is the primary receptive area for vision.
What is the V1?
V1 is the striate cortex. It is the primary visual cortex.
*Which parts of the thalamus take part in the geniculostriate pathway and which in the tectopulvinar pathway?
The geniculostriate pathway includes axons, LGN, optic radiations, and the striate cortex. The tectopulvinar pathway includes the eye, superior colliculus, pulvinar, and temporal and parietal lobes.
*What is the visual field? Explain the overlap between the visual fields of the R and L eyes.
The visual field is all of the points of the physical environment that can be perceived by a stable eye at a given moment. The visual fields of both eyes overlap extensively in the central portion of each visual hemifield resulting in binocular vision.
Which hemifield is nasal and which is temporal?
The right hemifield is nasal and the left is temporal.
What do “ipsilateral” and “contralateral” mean?
Ispalateral means “on the same side” and contralateral means “on the opposite side.”
What is the extrastriate cortex?
The extrastriate cortex is the location of mid-level vision. It is next to the striate cortex and is known as the secondary cortex
What is the primary cortex?
The primary cortex is the striate cortex. It is the part of the occipital cortex that receives the fibers of the optic radiation from the lateral geniculate body, and it is the primary receptive area for vision.
What are the tertiary visual cortices?
The visual cortices are the inferior temporal and posterior parietal cortex.
What are the dorsal & ventral visual stream?
As visual information exits the occipital lobe, it follows two main “streams.” The dorsal ventral stream is the “where” pathway. It helps recognize where objects are in space. It contains a detailed map of the visual field and is also good at detecting and analyzing movements. It terminates in the parietal lobe. The ventral stream is the “what” stream. It travels to the temporal lobe and is involved in object identification. It helps form object representation.
What is processed in MT (V5), and V4?
V5 processes motion and V4 processes color.
*What does it mean that the representation in V1 (BA 17) is retinotopic?
Retinotopy describes the spatial organization of the neuronal responses to visual stimuli. A visual image is transferred from the retina to V1.
What is the difference between hemianopia and scotoma?
Hemianopia is blindness on one side of the visual field. Scotoma is when parts of the visual field are missing.
*What are the symptoms of akinetopsia, what are they thought to be the result of? How common is this disorder?
The symptoms of akinetopsia are the inability to identify objects in motion. Akinetopsia is the result of brain lesions.
What are the symptoms of achromotopsia, what are they thought to be the result of in the cerebral form?
The symptoms of achromotopsia are the loss of ability to see color. It is caused by damage in the cerebral cortex of the brain.
*What are the receptors for hearing, and how are they situated with respect to the basilar membrane and the cochlea?
The receptors are hair cells and they are situated in the fluid of the cochlea and around the basilar membrane.
*What is the name(s) of the nerve that transmits information from the cochlea?
VIII, vestibulocochlear, auditory, or acoustic nerve transmits information from the cochlea.
What does it mean that the primary auditory cortex has a tonotopic organization?
This means that there is a spatial arrangement of where sounds of different frequency are processed in the brain. Tones close to each other in terms of frequency are represented in topologically neighboring areas of the brain. Certain cells in the auditory cortex are sensitive to specific frequencies.
What are other names for A1?
Heschl’s gyrus/i, Brodmann’s 41 and 42, Transverse Temporal Gyri are all other names for A1.
*Where is the secondary auditory cortex?
The secondary auditory cortex is in the auditory cortex.
*How does the hierarchical sensory pathway run in the temporal lobe, what is its function?
The hierarchical sensory pathway runs from the primary and secondary auditory and visual cortical regions to the lateral temporal cortex, and then terminates in the temporal pole. The visual travels through the inferior temporal gyrus and the auditory travels through the superior temporal gyrus.
*How does the dorsal auditory pathway run in the temporal lobe, what is its function?
The dorsal auditory pathway connects with the posterior parietal cortex and it enables location of sounds in space and promotes the orienting and initiation of movements relative to sound location.
*How does the polymodal pathway run in the temporal lobe, what is its function?
The polymodal pathway connections emerge from the auditory and visual hierarchical pathways and is directed to neurons enfolded within the superior temporal sulcus. It has multiple sensory modalities and is believed to be involved in assigning stimuli to categorical classes.
How does the medial temporal projection pathway run in the temporal lobe, what is its function?
The medial temporal pathway runs through the amygdala and hippocampus. It starts in the perirhinal cortex to the entorhinal cortex to the amygdala/hippocampus. Its function is integration in of information into memory and emotional tone.
The perforant pathway runs from the entorhinal cortex to the hippocampus, what appears to be its function?
The function of the perforant pathway is stimulus recognition and the familiar conscious experience of knowing, assimilating, and feeling.
*How does the temporal cortex connect with the frontal lobes, what could be the function of these projections?
Neurons from the temporal lobe have strong connections with the frontal lobe. The posterior temporal cortex projects to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the anterior temporal cortex projects to the orbitofrontal cortex. This attributes to object perception.
What is biological motion perception and what parts of the temporal lobe seems to be involved in this? What is the role of biological motion perception in social cognition?
Biological motion perception is the motion of biological entities. It is the basis of social perception and development of social cognition. The superior temporal sulcus analyzes biological motion.
*What parts of face processing are carried out in the Fusiform face area, the superior temporal sulcus and the striate cortex?
The Fusiform face area processes invariant aspects of faces and perception of unique identity. The superior temporal sulcus processes changeable aspects of faces, perception of eye gaze, expression, and lip movement.
What is the difference between conductive and sensorineural hearing disorders?
Conductive hearing disorders are problems in conduction of sound due to outer ear, ear drums, and ear bones in the middle ear. Sensorineural hearing disorders are a dysfunction of inner ear (cochlea), auditory nerve or higher auditory processing centers. This is mostly a dysfunction of hair cells.
What processes commonly cause conductive hearing disorders?
Ear wax, ear infection, fluid accumulation, allergies, and tumors are all common causes of conductive hearing disorders.
What processes commonly cause sensorineural hearing disorders?
Sensorineural hearing disorders are mostly causes by abnormalities in the hair cells. Other things that may cause this are meningitis, mumps, measles, and other viruses.
*What kind of hearing disorder is the result of bilateral lesion of primary auditory cortex?
Bilateral lesions lead to central deafness.
What are auditory hallucinations?
Auditory hallucinations are a perception of sound that is not externally present. The patient usually hears fully formed verbal passages and the statements are typically hostile and accusatory; people usually feel extreme paranoia.
What is a disorder where sufferers commonly experience auditory hallucinations?
Auditory hallucinations are a common symptom of schizophrenia.
What is thought to be the cause of auditory hallucinations?
Auditory hallucinations are caused from spontaneous neural activity in the auditory cortex which interacts with the language areas of the temporal lobe.
What does the research of Dierks et. al. (1999) show?
Dierks research shows that there was activation seen in the Broca’s area, primary auditory cortex, and speech zone in posterior temporal cortex. Additional limbic areas were also recruited (like the amygdala and hippocampus). This was all probably due to the engagement of memory as well as emotional responses and to hallucinatory content.
What are special characteristics of speech in comparison to other sounds?
Speech sounds come from three restricted ranges of frequencies, same speech sounds are different depending on spoken context BUT perceived as sound. Auditory system categorizes sounds as equivalent. Also, speech sounds change rapidly with respect to each other, and the order is crucial.
What are the symptoms of left and right auditory cortex damage w.r.t. speech perception, i.e. what functions appear to be on those sides?
When the left auditory context is damaged, people have difficulty discriminating sounds. They usually complain that people are talking to fast and that it is like learning a new language. They also have difficulty judging the temporal sequence of heard sounds. When the right auditory context is damaged, people have difficulty understanding emotional intention of the language.
What are the main characteristics of music that can be perceived?
The main characteristics of music that can be perceived are loudness, pitch, timbre, rhythm, meter, and melody.
What problems in music perception L and R.
The left hemisphere is usually concerned with speed and grouping (rhythm). The right hemisphere is usually concerned with frequency differences. People with damage in the right hemisphere usually have trouble with pitch discrimination.
What is amusia?
Amusia is deficit in pitch discrimination.
What can be the result of temporal lobe damage on selection of visual and auditory input?
Temporal lobe damage impairs auditory selection, meaning that a patient would have trouble recalling the words correctly because the brain tries to simultaneously process information delivered to both ears. Visually, it also impairs selection because flashing of stimuli could not be correctly recalled.
Know examples of functioning selection of auditory input, and how it is tested.
Auditory selection is like attending two different conversations or different elements of a musical piece. To test this, you use a dichotic listening task. This is when two words are simultaneously presented in both ears. The normal results would be to recall the word in the right ear more because of left temporal lobe selectivity. However, people with damage to the temporal lobe would experience a drop in the correct recall of words because the brain loses selectivity.
Know examples of functioning selection of visual input, and how it is tested.
Visual selection is like watching a football game - where do you direct your attention (quarterback or runners)? Visual testing involves simultaneous flashing of stimuli, and people with damage to the temporal lobe were not able to correctly recall them.
Where in the brain can damage result in a deficit in organization & categorization of daily stimuli?
When the posterior temporal lobe is damaged deficits in organization and categorization of daily stimuli results.
Where in the brain can damage produce deficits in biological motion perception, and how would this affect face perception?
Damage to the superior temporal sulcus results in deficits in biological motion perception. This would affects face perception because it is hard to recognize and recall faces.
What does ‘agnosia’ mean?
Agnosia means “failure to know.”
What is the difference between apperceptive and associative visual agnosia? Generally where in the ventral visual stream would lesions be located in these agnosias?
Apperceptive visual agnosia is when you have no recognition of objects. Associative visual agnosia is a disorder of meaning. For example, it is an inability to name what is seen. This is a result from damage to the occipitotemporal border which is a part of the ventral stream.
What is prosopagnosia?
Prosopagnosia is the inability to recognize faces. This results in different levels of impairment in different people.
What changes in personality & affect can occur is some temporal lobe lesions?
Lesions to the temporal lobe usually result in personality changes like aggressive and hostile behavior, self-centered thinking, and preoccupation with religion. There is also usually impairment in long-term memory, and causes problems with interpreting things.
What are the receptors for pain and temperature?
Nocioceptors detect pain and thermoreceptors detect temperature.
Which submodalities are normally included in somatosensation (know the name and be able to describe), which one did your instructor add under that category?
Nociception is the perception of unpleasant stimuli, like pain and temperature. Hapsis is the perception of objects using fine touch and pressure receptors. Proprioception is the perception of limbs and their movement. Professor Mayhew added balance which is mediated by the vestibular system in the inner ear.
Recognize the names of the different receptors for hapsis as such.
The receptors for hapsis are Meissner’s corpuscle, Pacinian corpuscle, Ruffini corpuscle, Merkel’s receptor, and hair receptors.
*What somatosensory submodalities are carried in the spinothalamic tract? How does the spinothalamic tract run, where does it cross, where does it go in the thalamus?
Pain and temperature are carried out in the spinothalamic tract. It crosses at the level of entry into the spinal cord.
*What somatosensory submodalities are carried in the dorsal column medial lemniscal pathway? How does the dorsal column medial lemniscal pathway run, where does it cross, where does it go in the thalamus?
Touch and proprioceptive information are carried out in the column medial lemniscal pathway. It crosses in the medulla.
What are the two different subparts of the vestibular organ?
The vestibular organ contains the saccule and the untricle.
*What is the function of the vestibular sense, which cranial nerve deals with the information from the vestibular organs?
The vestibular system allows us to stand upright, maintain balance, and move through space. It also coordinated information. Information travels through nerve VIII.
*In what sense are there multiple representations of the body on the somatosensory cortex?
There are multiple representations of the body on the somatosensory cortex because it is organized into four separate homunculi.
*Be able to locate on sketches of the parietal lobe: postcentral gyrus, general location of superior parietal lobule, and inferior parietal lobe. How in general are the functions of these three areas different?
The postcentral gyrus deals with somatosensory, the superior parietal lobule deals with somatosensory and visual, and the inferior parietal lobe also deals with somatosensory and visual.
What are the two areas that comprise the inferior parietal lobe?
The inferior parietal lobe is made up of the supramarginal gyrus and the angular gyrus.
*What is the general organization of connections, and what are the functions of superior posterior parietal lobe areas?
Generally the anterior zone of the parietal lobe is for somatosensation and the posterior parietal lobe areas are for integration of input and from vision and body and other senses, for the purpose of movement.
*What is the difference between dizziness and vertigo?
In vertigo you experience a loss of balance.
What is Ménière’s disease? What is the incidence? What are the symptoms of the disease? How is the disease treated?
Meniere’s disease is a vestibular disorder when there is too much fluid in the inner ear. 15 in 100,000 people have this disease. The symptoms are vertigo attacks, hearing loss attacks, tinnitus, and a fullness feeling in ears - these can all last up to 24 hours. The disease is treated during the attacks with anti-emetics and dramamine. It is also treated with anti-diuretic for maintenance.
What are the symptoms in cases of focal lesions in postcentral gyrus?
Lesions in the post central gyrus result in high sensory thresholds of touch and two point sensitivity. They also cause an impaired sense of vision.
What are phantom limbs, and phantom limb pain?
Phantom limbs is a sensation that missing limb is still moving or often causing pain.
What is thought to be an explanation of phantom limb sensations?
Phantom limbs are thought to be caused by rewiring of the somatosensory cortex.
What is a mirror box in the context of phantom limbs, and what is it used for?
A mirror box is a box with two mirrors in the center used to treat phantom limbs. This tricks the patients brain into thinking it is moving the phantom limb from the uncomfortable position.
What is astereognosis (also astereognosia) and how is it assessed?
Astereognosis is the inability to recognize an object by touch. A pattern is placed on a blindfolded subject’s palm for 5 seconds then placed in with a mix of others. The task is to identify the original pattern after handling all six patterns.
What are asomatognosias? What are autopagnosia and how is finger agnosia related to autopagnosia? What is anosognosia? What is asymbolia for pain?
Asomatognosias is the loss of knowledge or sense of own body or bodily condition. Autopagnosia is the inability to localize and name body parts. Anosognosia is unawareness or denial of illness. Asymbolia is for pain because it is the absence of normal reactions to pain.
What type of agnosia did Ian Waterman have (general term).
Ian Waterman had asomatognosia which is the destruction of fibers for certain proprioceptive receptors, which means he had no sense of where his limbs were.
What are the symptoms of neglect (contralateral, contralesional, unilateral, hemineglect, hemispatial agnosia, hemispatial inattention all names for the same phenomenon)? What is a common lesion location in those with neglect?
Usually a patient will not be able to see part of a visual field. Patients are usually unaware that they exhibit neglect and they usually act like they have accomplished an accurate representation of the object they have copied. Neglect usually results from right parietal lesions.
What are the symptoms in Balint’s syndrome?
The symptoms of Balint’s syndrome are the inability to fixate an object, attention limited to one object at a time, and a reaching deficit.
Where are the lesions in Balint’s syndrome?
The lesions in Balint’s syndrome occurs in some bilateral parietal lesions but mostly in the superior parietal lesions.
What is optic ataxia? What is simultagnosia?
Optic ataxia is mis-reaching. Simultagnosia is when attention is limited to one object at a time.
What are the symptoms in Gerstmann syndrome?
The symptoms of Gerstmann syndrome are finger agnosia, right/left confusion, the inability to write and the inability to do arithmetic operations.
What is apraxia?
Apraxia is the disorder of movement not due to weakness. It is the inability to move muscles, abnormal muscle tone/posture, intellectual deterioration, and tremors.
What percentage of the neocortex are constituted by the frontal lobes?
The frontal lobes are constituted by about 20-30% of the neocortex.
*When is the frontal lobe fully developed?
The frontal lobe maturation continues through adolescence.
What is the general function of the frontal lobes, be able to explain this to a random stranger.
The general function of the frontal lobes is generating appropriate behavior.
What are the anatomical divisions in the frontal lobes, how do these relate to functional distinctions in the frontal lobe?
The main divisions are motor (primary), premotor (“before motor”) and supplementary motor cortex, and the prefrontal cortex “in front of the front”).
What areas constitute the primary and secondary motor cortices?
The motor and premotor make up the primary and secondary motor cortices.
What are the four areas of the prefrontal cortex?
The four areas of the prefrontal cortex are the dorsolateral, the orbitofrontal, the medial, and the anterior cingulate gyrus.
What general types of information have to be taken into account when deciding what action in appropriate?
When deciding in what is appropriate you need to consider internal information (what just happened and rules for action), external information (external cues for action), contextual information (what is appropriate in this context), and knowledge of itself (past experience and future goals).
What is the general direction of information flow in the brain?
Information flows to the anterior parietal cortex and the posterior parietal cortex and then travels to the secondary motor cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and the orbital frontal cortex.
*Which thalamic nuclei are associated with PFC and motor cortices?
The dorsomedial nucleus is associated with the PFC and motor cortices.
Why are motor functions so important?
Motor functions are so important because they enable the organism and underlie the execution of all motivational goals. In many ways the brain’s goal-initiated regulation of the motor system determines the emotional and social well-being of the organism.
What three general types of movement are there?
The three general types of movement are reflexive, rhythmic, and voluntary movements.
*In general what is feedback and feedforward in movement?
Feedback monitors discrepancies which can be used to refine the actions, and feedforward anticipates the relation between system and environment to determine a course of action (to respond in advance).
What is the flow of information and which parts of NS are involved in a simple motor sequence from intention to grasp through successful grasp?
First visual information is required to locate the target, the frontal lobe motor areas, then the spinal cord, then motor neurons, then sensory receptors on the fingers send a message to sensory cortex, then the spinal cord, then the basal ganglia judge grasp forces and the cerebellum corrects movement errors, and finally the sensory cortex receives the message that the cup has been grasped.
What aspects of movement does the cerebellum moderate?
The cerebellum moderates balance, coordination, and accuracy. It is also important for tasks that require timing and important in acquiring new movement sequences.
What aspects of movement do the basal ganglia moderate?
The basal ganglia is important for force of movement. It is critical for learning motor skills, organizing sequences of movement, “automatic” behaviors, and new habits.
What are the two major output tracts from the primary motor area? What is the difference between their functions?
The lateral corticospinal tract and the medial corticospinal tract are the two major output tracts from the primary motor area. The lateral corticospinal controls movement in the peripheral areas (hands and feet). The medial corticospinal allows control of muscles of the neck, shoulder, and trunk. It enables movements such as walking, turning, bending, standing up, and sitting down.
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