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1. What view did Hughlings Jackson propound with respect to the organization of the nervous system?
o Alternative model: viewed organization of nervous system as combination of localization and equipotentiality
§ Hierarchy of function
1. What was Luria’s view on the organization of the nervous system?
o Functional model: each area in nervous system involved in one of three units
§ Unit 1: brainstem, responsible for arousal and maintenance of proper muscle tone
§ Unit 2: posterior area of cortex, responsible for reception, integration, and analysis of sensory information
§ Unit 3: frontal area of cortex, responsible for deciding, thinking, and judging
1. What is the distinction between the central and peripheral nervous system?
1. What is the difference between the somatic and autonomic nervous system?
o Somatic nervous system: voluntary movement through skeletal muscles
o Autonomic nervous system: involuntary movement that control visceral functions
1. How are the directions ventral, dorsal, rostral, caudal, medial, lateral, superior, inferior, anterior and posterior used?
o Ventral (towards stomach) versus dorsal (towards back)
o Rostral (towards nose) versus caudal (towards tail)
o Medial (towards midline) versus lateral (towards sideline)
o Superior (above and higher) versus inferior (below and lower)
o Anterior (towards front) versus posterior (towards back)
1. How are dorsal, ventral, rostral and caudal different for the head and the trunk?
o For head facing forward
§ Ventral (towards feet) versus dorsal (towards head)
§ Anterior (towards face) versus posterior (toward back of head)
1. What are the sagittal, transverse or horizontal, frontal or coronal, midsagittal planes of section?
o Sagittal plane: vertical slices from ear to ear, from left to right
§ Midsagittal plane: vertical slice that equally divides left from right
o Transverse or horizontal plane: horizontal slices across, from top to bottom
o Frontal or coronal plane: vertical slices from front to back
1. What are the two general classes of cells in the nervous system? What are the ranges of estimates for the quantity of each of these classes?
o Neurons: 100 to 200 billion neurons, each with 10000 synapsesGlial cells: 10 to 50 times more than there are neurons
1. What are the parts of a neuron? What is the main function of the neuron, and which special neuron parts help with this?
o Neuron: transmits signals through electrical and chemical synapses to rest of body
§ Dendrites: receives information and sends signal to cell body
§ Soma or cell body: contains organelles such as the nucleus and mitochondria
§ Axon: transmits signal from cell body
· Axon hillock: site of generation of action potentials
§ Terminal buttons: sends signal to other neurons
o Unipolar: one dendrite or axon branch sprouting from soma
o Bipolar: two dendrites or axon branches sprouting from soma
o Multipolar: three or more dendrites or axon branches sprouting from soma
1. What is a myelin sheath? What difference does it make if an axon is myelinated or not?
o Myelin sheath: fatty substance that speeds up conduction
§ If axon is myelinated, signal is transmitted more quickly and does not lose strength
1. What are the types of glial cells? What is the function of microglia, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and Schwann cells?
o Glial cells: supports neurons
§ Microglia: phagocytes that get rid of foreign material
§ Astrocytes: bring nutrients and involved in blood-brain barrier
§ Oligodendrocytes: produce myelin and wraps around multiple axons
§ Schwann cells: produce myelin and wrap around one axon
1. How are oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells the same and different?
o Oligodendrocytes located in central nervous system
o Schwann cells located in peripheral nervous system
o Both produce myelin
1. What is the difference in composition between white and gray matter? Where is gray matter found in the brain?
o White matter: myelinated axons; found in inner parts of brain
o Gray matter: unmyelinated cell bodies, glial cells, and capillaries; found in outer parts of brain
1. What is the relationship between fibers, tracts and pathways?
o Fiber: threadlike extension of nerve cell
§ May or may not be myelinated
o Tracts: bundle of myelinated fiber nerves in central nervous system
o Ganglia: bundle of unmyelinated fiber nerves in peripheral nervous system
o Pathway: series of tracts that connect one part of nervous system to another
1. What in general is multiple sclerosis?
o Neurodegenerative and inflammatory disease in which myelin is damaged
o Four types of attack
§ Relapsing-remitting: most common; stable condition between attacks but worse after
§ Primary-progressive: condition gets steadily worse from the onset
§ Secondary-progressive: few attacks at first, then linear increase in degeneration
§ Progressive-relapsing: rare; condition gets worse in between attacks
1. What is the general disease mechanism in MS? Which cells appear to get attacked particularly?
o Demyelination in central nervous system in which oligodendrocytes are attacked
§ Attack causes tissue to scar, resulting in nerve impulses that travel through damaged areas to become distorted
1. What is the proximal cause of MS? What is the thinking as to what starts that (distal cause)?
o Proximal cause: autoimmune disease
o Distal cause: possible genetic susceptibility combined with environmental triggers
1. What categories of symptoms occur in MS? What types of cognitive symptoms occur most frequently? What is the cause of the emotional symptoms?
o Sensory, motor, cognitive, emotional, visual impairment
§ Cognitive: decreased attention span, poor judgment, and memory loss
§ Emotional: demyelination causes emotional symptoms
1. What is the incidence of MS in the US? What is the status of the latitude-observation on the incidence of MS across the world?
o Incidence: 1 in 2000
o Latitude may reveal environmental influence
o Ethnicity may reveal genetic influence
1. What is the usual age of onset of MS? What is the gender difference in incidence?
o Usual age of onset: 20 to 40 years of age
o More frequent in women
1. What are the 3 characteristics of MS that get treated?
o Attacks, progression, and symptoms
1. What are neurogenesis and migration? When does most neurogenesis take place?
o Neurogenesis: formation of new neurons from neural stem cells and progenitor cells
§ Most active during pre-natal development
§ Occurs in subventricular zone, which lines the lateral ventricles, and the subgranular zone in the hippocampus
1. What is synaptogenesis? When does it start and how long does it continue?
o Synaptogenesis: formation of new synapses
o Starts around second trimester and occurs throughout entire lifespan
1. What is myelination? When does it start and how long does it continue?
o Myelination: production of myelin and accumulation around nerve cells
o Starts before birth and occurs until 10 to 12 years after birth
1. What is synaptic pruning? When does it start and how long does it continue?
o Synaptic pruning: removing inefficient synapses
o Starts near time of birth and occurs until 13 to 14 years of age
1. What three layers does the embryonic plate develop into? What 2 major structures does the ectoderm develop into?
o Ectoderm: neural cells that form brain and epidermal cells that form the skin
o Mesoderm: blood, muscle, tissue, majority of organs
o Endoderm: lining of digestive tract and organs associated with it
1. When does the neural tube close on average at the anterior and posterior pores?
o Closure of anterior cranial neural pore occurs on day 24
o Closure of posterior caudal neural pore occurs on day 28
1. What are the defects that result when the neural pores do not close? Which type of nonclosure has the more serious defects?
o Failure of anterior pore closure leads to anencephaly, where no higher brain develops
o Failure of posterior pore closure leads to spina bifida, where a portion of spinal cord protrudes through opening in the bones
§ How large the opening determines severity of spina bifida
1. What is lissencephaly (or agyria)? What is thought to be the process that is disturbed in lissencephaly?
o Lissencephaly: cephalic disorder where brain has no folds and grooves
§ Caused by defective neuronal migration during 12th and 24th weeks of gestation
§ Cause might be genetic, viral, or due to hypoxia
1. Name the 7 CNS structures caudal to rostral.
o Spinal cord, medulla oblongata, cerebellum, pons, midbrain, diencephalon, cerebral cortex
1. Which structures in the adult human brain comes from the vertebrate myelencephalon?
o Medulla oblongata and fourth ventricle
1. Which structures in the adult human brain come from the vertebrate metencephalon?
o Cerebellum, pons, and fourth ventricle
1. What is another name for the vertebrate mesencephalon?
o Midbrain consists of tectum, tegmentum, and cerebral aqueduct
1. Which structures in the adult human brain come from the vertebrate diencephalon?
o Thalamus, hypothalamus, pineal body, third ventricle
1. What structures in the adult human brain come from the vertebrate telencephalon?
o Neocortex, basal ganglia, limbic system, olfactory bulb, lateral ventricles
1. What are the names of the meningeal membranes? Know the order.
o Dura mater: outer layer
o Arachnoid: middle layer; overlies subarachnoid space and contains blood vessels
o Pia mater: inner layer; overlies entire outer brain
1. What is the result of folding of the dura in the skull?
o Dura folds divide brain into hemispheres and separates cerebrum from cerebellum
§ Falx cerebri: divides brain into left and right hemispheres
§ Tentorium cerebelli: separates cerebrum from cerebellum
1. What is the subarachnoid space? What structures and liquid are in that space?
o Subarachnoid cavity: occupied by spongy tissue consisting of trabeculae and channels that contain circulating cerebrospinal fluid; also houses blood capillaries
1. Where are subdural and subarachnoid bleeds?
o Subdural bleed: hemorrhage in space between dura mater and arachnoid
o Subarachnoid bleed: hemorrhage in space between arachnoid and pia mater
1. How many ventricles are there, and where in the brain are they located (i.e. what brain structures would you use to locate them), what is the fifth bit related to the mesencephalon?
o Four ventricles: two lateral, third, and fourth
§ Lateral ventricles located in forebrain in telencephalon
§ Third ventricle located in forebrain in diencephalon
§ Cerebral aqueduct: connects third and fourth ventricles; located in midbrain
§ Fourth ventricle in hindbrain between pons and cerebellum
1. What is cerebrospinal fluid? Where is it formed? How (in general) does it drain to the venous system? How much of it (approximately) is formed on average per day? How much (approximately) is present in the ventricles & subarachnoid space at any time?
o Cerebrospinal fluid: colorless fluid that acts as cushion for brain
§ Formed in choroid plexus
§ Choroid plexus forms about 450 to 500 mL per day but only 150 mL in brain at once
§ Drained to venous system through arachnoid granulations or villi into cavities
o Buildup of cerebrospinal fluid leads to hydrocephalus
1. What are the main functions of the CSF?
1. Be able to describe the blood supply to the brain and the Circle of Willis (identify on picture), including: internal carotid arteries, vertebral arteries, basilar artery (1), anterior, middle and posterior cerebral arteries, anterior communicating artery (1) & posterior communicating arteries (2).
o Supply arteries: internal carotid arteries and vertebral arteries
o Posterior communicating artery: between internal carotid and posterior cerebral artery
o Middle cerebral artery: trisection with internal carotid artery and anterior cerebral artery
o Anterior communicating artery: between anterior cerebral arteries
o Basilar artery: joining of vertebral arteries
1. What cerebral arteries supply the frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital lobes with blood (you don’t need to know this by surface, just which one or two for each lobe).
o Frontal lobe: middle cerebral and anterior cerebral
o Parietal: middle cerebral and anterior cerebral
o Temporal: middle cerebral and posterior cerebral
o Occipital: posterior cerebral
1. What is the point of having an incomplete blood-brain barrier in places?
o Blood-brain barrier: tight junctions between endothelial cells of brain capillaries
§ Needed to control levels of hormones that are necessary and also to remove toxins
§ Tight junctions prevent any molecules from passing through
§ Astrocytes surround endothelial cells and provide biochemical support
1. Where is the area postrema and what does it have to do with blood-brain barrier?
o Area postrema: area in medulla where blood-brain barrier is absent; susceptible to toxins
§ Circumventricular organ that leads to vomiting and changes in blood pressure
1. What is the relationship between the spinal cord segments and spinal vertebrae?
o Spinal cord: thick, cable of nervous tissue continuous with brain
o Spinal vertebrae: vertebral column of bones
§ Anterior part serves as weight-bearing section, where vertebrae stack on each other
§ Posterior part contains a cavity that is filled by spinal cord
1. How is the nomenclature of the spinal nerves related to that of the spine?
o Areas are synonymous with areas of spine
o Every spinal segment has a pair of spinal nerves stemming from it
o 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 1 fused coccygeal nerve
1. What are dermatomes?
o Dermatomes: body segments innervated by spinal nerves
1. What is the cauda equina?
o Cauda equina: site where a large number of spinal nerves converge
1. Where is a lumbar puncture done? Why is it done there?
o Lumbar puncture: sampling cerebrospinal fluid for diagnostic purposes
§ Easiest access is between lumbar vertebrae L3 and L5
§ Spinal cord ends near L1 and L2 and therefore a lumbar puncture poses no risk of paralysis
1. What characteristics of the cerebrospinal fluid can be informative medically?
1. What are the differences between a motor neuron and a sensory neuron?
o Sensory neuron: nerve cell that transmits sensory information to central nervous system
o Motor neuron: nerve cell that transmits signals from central nervous system to muscles
1. What is the dorsal root ganglion?
o Dorsal root ganglion: cluster of afferent nerve cell bodies that relay sensory signals from environment to central nervous system
1. Be able to identify the following structures in a cross-section of spinal cord: gray matter, white matter, dorsal root ganglion, dorsal and ventral roots of spinal nerves. Which ones are afferent? Which ones are efferent?
o Spinal cord: gray matter on inside and white matter on outside
o Dorsal root ganglion: cluster of afferent nerve cell bodies
o Dorsal root of spinal nerve or posterior root: one of two roots that emerge from spinal cord
§ Travels away from spinal cord to dorsal root ganglion, which joins with ventral root of spinal cord to form a spinal nerve
o Ventral root of spinal nerve or anterior root: efferent motor root of spinal cord
§ At distal end, ventral root joins with dorsal root of spinal nerve to form a mixed spinal nerve
1. What causes the differences in amount of white and gray matter along the length of the spinal cord?
1. What are the two factors that determine the impairments in spinal cord injuries?
o Spinal cord injuries determined by level and extent of damage
1. What is a paraplegic and what a quadriplegic?
o Paraplegic: loss of control over lower limbs due to injury at L1 or T6
o Quadriplegic or tetraplegic: loss of control over all limbs due to injury at C4 or C6
1. What are the top three causes of spinal cord injuries?
1. Where do the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system nerves exit the spinal cord?
o Sympathetic nerves exit spinal cord from T1 to L2
o Parasympathetic nerves exit spinal cord from S2 to S4
1. What is the function of the sympathetic nervous system? What is the function of the parasympathetic nervous system?
o Sympathetic: fight-or-flight response; thoracic-lumbar regionsParasympathetic: rest-and-digest response; cranio-sacral regions
1. Where is the Medulla oblongata? Which things are regulated there?
o Medulla oblongata: located in brainstem just above and continuous with spinal cord
§ Regulates breathing, heart rate, salivation, and blood pressure
1. What is decussation?
o Decussation: crossing over in an area
1. What are the cranial nerves?
1. Which cranial nerves do facial movement and sensation?
§ trigeminal for skin sensations from most of the face; control of jaw muscles
§ facial for taste from anterior 2/3 of tongue, control of facial expressions, crying
1. Which cranial nerves serve functions to do with speech (motor to larynx, tongue)?
§ vagus for parasympathetic nerves and sensations of neck region
hypoglossal for control of muscles of tongue
§ accessory for control of neck and shoulders
1. Where is the pons, what structures (general) are located there?
o Pons: located in hindbrain between midbrain and medulla oblongata; in front of cerebellum
§ Relay station involved in increasing arousal and readiness in other parts of the brain
1. Where is the cerebellum? What are the three sections (distinguished by function) of the cerebellum, and what are the functions (generally) of these sections?
o Cerebellum: located in hindbrain
§ Flocculonodular lobe or vestibulecerebellum: regulates balance and eye movements
§ Spinocerebellum: regulates body and limb movements, and corrects motor errors
§ Cerebrocerebellum: helps plan movement and evaluates sensory information
1. What is another name for the mesencephalon? What are the tectum and tegmentum?
o Mesencephalon: midbrain that consists of tectum and tegmentum
§ Tectum: roof of midbrain involved in auditory and visual reflexes
§ Tegmentum: intermediate level of midbrain involved in homeostatic pathways, motor function, and attention
1. What sensory systems are the superior and inferior colliculi associated with?
o Tectum can be divided into superior colliculus and inferior colliculus
§ Superior colliculus: involved with visual input from retina and visual reflexes
§ Inferior colliculus: involved with auditory pathways of brain and auditory reflexes
1. What is the connection between the substantia nigra and Parkinson’s disease?
o Substantia nigra: located in midbrain; involved in reward, addiction, and movement
o Parkinson’s disease: death of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta
1. From where to where does the reticular formation extend?
o Reticular formation: extends from mesencephalon through metencephalon where it is most concentrated to the myelencephalon
o Involved in maintaining behavioral arousal, motor control, pain control, and consciousness
1. What are the two main structures in the diencephalon?
o Thalamus and hypothalamus
1. Where is the thalamus located, why is the thalamus important?
o Located in diencephalon of forebrain and involved in relaying sensory and motor signals to cerebral cortex
1. What is general is the function of the limbic system?
o Limbic system: subcortical brain structures involved in expression of emotions
§ Forms ring-like border around brainstem
§ Contains amygdala, cingulate gyrus, hippocampus, hypothalamus, and olfactory bulb
1. Be able to identify on a diagram the amygdala, hippocampus, hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and the cingulate gyrus.
1. What types of mental states are especially associated with the amygdala? What mental function is associated with the hippocampus?
o Amygdala: involved in expression of fearHippocampus: involved in learning and memory storage, including emotional memory
1. What are the functions of the hypothalamus?
o Located in diencephalon of forebrain and regulates metabolic and visceral processes
1. What is the pituitary gland, and what is its function?
o Pituitary gland: endocrine gland involved in release of hormones; found at base of hypothalamus
o Basal ganglia: multiple subcortical nuclei at the base of the forebrain
1. What are the three basal ganglia structures that we discussed?
o Caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus
§ Caudate nucleus and putamen are both part of the striatum
1. What functions are the basal ganglia associated with?
o Planning of motor movement, execution of autonomic and action sequences, movement patterns, and involved in memory and emotional expression
1. What are sulci and what are gyri?
o Sulci or fissure: inward fold or groove
o Gyri: outward fold or bump
1. Where are the longitudinal fissure, lateral fissure? What is the Sylvian fissure?
o Longitudinal fissure: separates left and right hemispheres
o Lateral or Sylvian fissure: separates frontal lobe and parietal lobe from temporal lobe
§ Located in both hemispheres but longer in left hemisphere
o Central fissure: separates frontal lobe from parietal lobe
o Examine effects of brain damage on behavior, brain-imaging, record brain activity during behavior, examine effects of stimulating particular parts of brain
1. What is inflammation? What is the function of inflammation?
o Inflammation: normal bodily response to any harmful stimuli
§ Vasodilation, tissue swelling, pain, loss of function
§ Function is to eliminate initial cause of injury and to initiate repairs
o Infection: bodily response to pathogens such as bacteria that enter the body and cause harm
1. What are the 5 classic signs of inflammation? (Latin and English), Which ones are related to the vasodilation, increased permeability parts of the inflammatory cascade? What are some standard remedies for inflammation?
§ Vasodilation: redness (rubor) and warm feeling (calor); first sign of inflammation
§ Tissue swelling (tumor): leads to fluid buildup and cell infiltration from immune system
· Edema caused by increased permeability in parts of inflammatory cascade
§ Pain (dolor)
§ Loss of function (function laesa)
o Treatment: anti-inflammatory medications
1. What is traumatic brain injury?
o Traumatic brain injuries that occur when external force injures the brain
§ Can be classified as open or closed
1. What are the major causes of TBI? Which age groups are particularly likely to fall? What gender suffers more TBI?
o Major causes: falls, motor vehicle accidents, and sports and recreational activities
o Frequency: highest in 0 to 4 year old toddlers and elderly people
o Gender: more incidences in males than females
1. What is the difference between open/penetrating and closed TBI?
§ Open: penetration of head and brain by object; damage passes through membrane
§ Closed: damage caused from internal injuries; skull and dura mater remain intact
1. Name some causes of open TBI?
§ High-velocity objects such as bullets and low-velocity objects such as knives and weapons
1. What is the difference between a concussion and mild TBI?
§ Mild traumatic brain injury: possible loss of consciousness or amnesia as a result of mechanical force to head
· Glasgow coma score of 13 to 15
· Concussion: trauma-induced alteration of mental status that may or may not involve loss of consciousness
o Transient state from which individual can fully recover
o Form of mild traumatic brain injury
1. What are coup and contra-coup in TBI? When is it thought you get one, rather than other?
§ Coup: brain damage at site of impact
· Determined when moving object impacts stationary head at anterior portion of skull
§ Contra-coup: brain damage at opposite side of impact
· Determined when moving head strikes stationary object at posterior portion of skull
1. What is diffuse axonal injury? How does it cause problems?
§ Diffuse axonal injury: brain injury where damage in form of lesions in white matter tracts occurs over a widespread area
· Major cause of unconsciousness after head trauma
· Frequently leads to comas
§ Occurs from shearing force, which tears, twists, and breaks the axon
1. What are edema and hematoma, how do they cause problems?
§ Brain swelling or edema: abnormal accumulation of fluid
· Leads to inflammatory cascade, causing surrounding tissue to swell
o Pressure can prevent blood from flowing to brain, which deprives it of oxygen, leading to death or damage of brain cells
§ Hematoma: localized collection of blood that has clotted outside blood vessels
· Reduces mobility, may accumulate, may irritate surrounding tissue and cause inflammation
§ Hemorrhage: active bleeding, which leads to hematoma
1. What are symptoms of TBI?
§ Headache, dizziness or unsteadiness, difficulty concentrating, confusion and disorientation, visual disturbance, sensitivity to light, amnesia
1. What is the Glasgow coma scale? What categories of responses does it score? From what
number to what number does it run? What does a high score mean? What does a low score
§ Glasgow coma scale assesses damage or record conscious state of person after head injury
Severe: score of 3 to 8
Moderate: score of 9 to 12
Mild: score of 13 to 15
§ Composed of three tests: eye, verbal, and motor responses
· Eye: does not open eyes, opens eyes in response painful stimuli, opens eyes in response to voice, opens eyes spontaneously
· Verbal: makes no sounds, incomprehensible sounds, utters inappropriate words, confusion or disorientation, oriented and converses normally
· Motor: makes no movements, extension to painful stimuli, abnormal flexion to painful stimuli, response to painful stimuli, localizes painful stimuli, obeys commands
§ Sum all three values to determine overall score and state of consciousness
1. Why was loss of consciousness and length of amnesia mentioned in class with respect to TBI?
§ Used to indicate degree of damage
· Mild: 0 minutes to 1 hour
· Moderate: 1 hour to 24 hours
· Severe: 1 day to 7 days
· Very severe: 1 to 4 weeks
1. In the video we saw on TBI, what bodily function was suggested would be very useful for
making a diagnosis of TBI?
§ Post-concussion syndrome: set of symptoms that may continue for extended period after a concussive injury has occurred
· Diagnosis made when symptoms resulting from concussion last for more than three months after the initial injury
o Loss of consciousness is not required for diagnosis
· Physical, psychological, behavioral, mental symptoms
1. What is chronic traumatic encephalopathy? Who is affected by CTE?
§ Chronic traumatic encephalopathy: progressive neurodegenerative disease where many small injuries that result in greater damage that could result in memory loss, depression, aggression, and symptoms of dementia
· Common in athletes such as football players who are subject to repetitive injuries
1. What is second impact syndrome?
§ Second impact syndrome: brain rapidly swells after person suffers from second concussion before symptoms from earlier one have subsided
· Inflammatory cascade can result in death
o Inability of blood vessels to control diameter
1. Which part of IMPACT testing appears to be the most reliable indicator of TBI & recovery?
§ IMPACT testing: tests for reaction time and recall time
· Used under assumption that one performs worse after injury
§ Only good indicator is visual memory
1. What are tumors, what is the distinction between a malignant and a benign tumor?
§ Tumors: neoplasm or new tissue growth; morbid enlargement resulting from uncontrolled cell division and proliferation
§ Tumors can be classified according to degree of progression
· Malignant: progressive; cells continue to grow out of control and spread
· Benign: cell growth arrested but still able to cause neurobiological problems
§ Both are still cancerous
1. What is the difference between an infiltrative and noninfiltrative tumor?
§ Tumors can be classified according to tendency to grow into adjacent areas
· Infiltrative: aggressive spreading that takes up space and compresses surrounding tissue
o Characterized by stage 4 cancer
· Noninfiltrative: tumor remains single lump in localized tissue
o Characterized by stage 1 cancer
1. What is the difference between a local and a metastasized tumor?
§ Tumor can be classified according to place of origin of tumor
· Local: primary tumor; place where tumor progression begins
· Metastasized: secondary tumor; tumors arise elsewhere in body not in origin
1. Which types of brain tissue can give rise to tumors?
§ Neurons, glial cells, cells lining meninges, cells lining blood vessels
1. What are meningiomas? What percentage of local tumors in the brain are
meningiomas? Are they benign or malignant (in general)?
§ Meningiomas: cancer of the meninges
· 15% of local brain tumors
· Usually benign
1. What is an acoustic neuroma, what is the originating cell type? What is a better name
for acoustic neuroma?
§ Acoustic neuroma or vestibular Schwannoma: cancer of myelinating cells surrounding auditory nerve, statoacoustic
1. What percentage of local tumors are gliomas?
§ 40% to 50%
§ astrocytomas, oligodendriomas, oligoastrocytomas, glioblastoma multiforme
1. What is a glioblastoma multiforme? Is it benign or malignant, local or metastatic,
infiltrative or non-infiltrative?
§ Glioblastoma multiforme: cancer of glial cells
§ Malignant, infiltrative, and local
§ Very poor prognosis
1. Why are there no common tumors originating from neurons?
§ Mature neurons do not divide once they are fully differentiated
1. What percentage of brain tumors is metastatic?
§ 40% are metastatic and are usually a result of secondary tumors arising
1. Which types of cancers are commonly the primary sources for metastatic tumors?
§ Lung cancer, breast cancer, skin cancer
1. What is the difference between anoxia and hypoxia?
§ Anoxia: no access to oxygen; results in cell death if prolonged
§ Hypoxia: reduced oxygenation; does not normally cause cell death
1. What is the difference between ischemia and infarction?
§ Ischemia: insufficient blood flow; can be temporary or permanent
§ Infarction: prolonged insufficiency in blood flow leads to tissue death
1. What does CVA stand for? What are the two types of causes of CVAs?
§ Cerebrovascular accident or stroke
· Causes: ischemic or hemorrhagic
1. What are TIAs? What does a TIA put you at risk for?
§ Temporary ischemic attack increases chances of having a stroke
· Anterior circulation: temporary clumsiness, weak limbs, aphasia
· Posterior circulation: dizziness, double-vision, numbness, weak extremities
1. What is FAST?
§ Acronym for signs of stroke: face-drooping, unilateral weakness of arms, slurred speech, and importance of time
1. What are two possible causes of ischemic CVA? What are the symptoms of CVAs?
§ Possible causes of ischemic stroke: thrombus and embolus
· Embolus: air bubble or substance that travels in blood until creates blockage
· Thrombus: clump of coagulated blood
§ Symptoms: sudden reduction or loss of consciousness, sensation such as numbness or vision blurriness, or voluntary movements; cognitive deficits
§ Regaining function more achievable from surviving hemorrhagic stroke than from ischemic stroke
1. What is an aneurysm? What do aneurysms in the brain put you at risk for?
§ Aneurysm: loss of elasticity in areas of arterial wall; blood-filled balloon-like bulge
· Leads to decrease in blood pressure, preventing enough blood from going to the brain
§ Vulnerable areas can be ruptured with trauma
1. What is meningitis, what types of pathogen can cause it?
§ Meningitis: infection of meninges leading to inflammation
· Caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi
1. What is encephalitis? Give examples of two viruses that can cause encephalitis.
§ Encephalitis: infection of brain tissue leading to inflammation
· Caused by Herpes simplex and Measles virus
1. What is the way in which herpes virus “works”? What areas of the brain are usually
affected by herpes encephalitis?
§ Virus remain dormant in system upon activation due to stress, which induces immune response
§ Herpes encephalitis: affects medial temporal lobe and limbic system
· Causes hallucinations, epileptic seizures, impaired judgment, dementia, muscle stiffness
1. What are neurotoxins? Give some examples.
§ Neurotoxins: toxin that works specifically on nerve cells such as venoms
· Mercury, lead, alcohol, cocaine, methamphetamine
1. For the cranial nerves, know their names, numbers, functions (i.e. in general what do they do), whether they are sensory, motor or both. Know the differences between III, IV and VI.
§ I: olfactory for smell
§ II: optic for sight
§ III: oculomotor for eye movement and pupil constriction; controls four extrinsic eye muscles, eyelid raiser, lens accommodation
§ IV: trochlear for control of eye movements; controls superior oblique
· Superior oblique: downward and outward
§ V: trigeminal for skin sensations from most of the face; control of jaw muscles
§ VI: abducens for control of eye movements; controls rectus lateralis
· Rectus lateralis: outward
§ VII: facial for taste from anterior 2/3 of tongue, control of facial expressions, crying
§ VIII: statoacoustic for hearing and equilibrium
§ IX: glossopharyngeal for taste and sensations from 1/3 of tongue, swallowing, throat
§ X: vagus for parasympathetic nerves and sensations of neck region
§ XI: accessory for control of neck and shouldersXII: hypoglossal for control of muscles of tongue
o Sensory and efferent
§ Sensory: 1, 2, 8
§ Motor: 3, 4, 6, 11, 12
§ Both: 5, 7, 9, 10
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