Neuroscience Approaches To Understanding Psychopathology
In determining which disorders tend to co-occur with other disorders, two clusters of disorders have been found. What are the two clusters, and what kinds of disorders do each include?
The co-occurring clusters are internalizing disorders, such as anxiety and depression, and externalizing disorders, such as conduct disorder, antisocial personality disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and substance abuse. (p. 60)
What is the document published by the American Psychiatric Association that lists the criteria for identifying and classifying mental illnesses?
That document is the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, version 5, also known as the DSM-5.
Drugs that cause pleasure often involve dopamine release in what brain structure?
Drugs that cause pleasure generally involve dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens
Neurological studies of brain activity have found that cognitive treatments for depression affect brain functioning differently than drug treatments for depression. In what fundamental way do the two treatments affect brain functioning differently?
Cognitive therapy appears to increase frontal lobe activity in depressed people, whereas drug therapies appear to reduce excessive emotional responsiveness that appears to originate from the amygdala.
Your text points out that the neck vertebrae in giraffes are created by the same genes that create the neck vertebrae in turtles and humans. So what differs between these species that causes their necks to be so different?
The factor that causes vertebrae to end up so differently in different animals even though they’re created by the same genes is the regulation of the genes—the mechanisms that determine which genes are turned on and off at what times.
What part of a neuron receives signals from other cells, and what part transmits those signals to other cells?
Dendrites receive neural signals, and send those signals down axons, which pass the signals on to other cells