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Though ancient Americans lacked writing skills, they
used many other kinds of symbolic representation.
Modern archaeologists studying ancient peoples
use a variety of approaches, including the study of artifacts and attention to environmental factors.
The basic reason for the early, prolonged absence of humans in the Western Hemisphere is that
The Wisconsin glaciation created conditions that permitted
Although the exact time humans began migrating to North America is debated by experts, the first migrants probably arrived
around 15,000 BP.
Most of the artifacts that have survived from the Paleo-Indian era suggest that the first Americans
specialized in hunting large mammals.
About 11,000 years ago, the Paleo-Indians faced a major crisis because
running water became scarce as the climate cooled.
The apparent uniformity of the big-game-oriented Clovis culture was replaced by great cultural diversity after the Paleo-Indians began devoting more energy to
In 1492, Native American cultures were
so varied that they defy easy and simple description.
The term Archaic describes the
hunting and gathering cultures that descended from Paleo-Indians, as well as the period of time from 10,000 BP to approximately 4000–3000 BP.
Which of the following is an accurate description of Archaic Indians?
Archaic Indians who hunted the bison herds of the Great Plains were
nomads who moved constantly to maintain contact with their prey.
The Archaic Indians in the Great Basin inhabited a region of
The most important source of food for Archaic peoples inhabiting the Great Basin was
The Archaic Indians of the Great Basin maintained their basic hunter-gatherer way of life until long after AD 1492 by
diversifying their food sources and migrating to favorable locations.
The primary reason native peoples in California remained hunters and gatherers for hundreds of years after Europeans arrived in the Western Hemisphere was that
both the land and ocean provided an abundant food supply
Archaeological evidence indicates that the California Chumash culture was characterized by
a notable amount of conflict among villages.
Much of the warfare among Archaic Northwestern tribes seems to have arisen from
attempts to defend or gain access to good fishing sites.
The cultures of the Archaic peoples of the Eastern Woodland were shaped by their
Early Woodland Indians practiced survival strategies that included
Which of the following important changes occurred among Woodland cultures around 4000 BP?
They incorporated agriculture and pottery into their hunter-gatherer lifestyles.
Agriculture changed Archaic cultures because it
encouraged the gradual establishment of permanent settlements and discouraged mobility.
Archaic cultures in the Southwest adopted agriculture in response to
Corn became a food crop for southwestern cultures around
Southwestern Indians became experts in
The emergence of the Mogollon culture was characterized by
pit houses and small farming settlements.
Hohokam settlements utilized irrigation canals
to plant and harvest crops twice a year.
Multistory cliff dwellings and huge pueblos are residential structures associated with the
Anasazi culture disappeared
because of a drought that lasted more than fifty years.
Burial mounds and chiefdoms are associated with
Archaeologists believe that the first ancient Woodland mound builders were organized into chiefdoms because
the impressive organization used in building the mounds and the artifacts found within them suggest that one person was able to command the labor and obedience of others.
Grave goods found in burial mounds at Hopewell sites indicate that, within that culture at least,
burial was reserved for the most important members of society.
Scholars speculate that Hopewell culture declined
Cahokia, near present-day St. Louis, Missouri, was
the largest Mississippian site.
The population of Native Americans in North America at the time of Columbus's arrival in the New World is prudently estimated to have been about
In 1492, the population density of North America was
Eastern Woodland peoples around the time of Columbus's arrival in 1492 clustered into which three major groups?
The League of Five Nations, which remained powerful well into the eighteenth century, was formed as
a confederation of the Iroquoian tribes for the purposes of war and diplomacy.
The Athabascan tribes—mainly Apache and Navajo—were
skillful warriors who preyed on the sedentary pueblo Indians.
By the 1490s most southwestern tribes acquired a significant portion of their food supplies through
Native North Americans in the 1490s obtained the majority of their food
The greatest similarity among the many tribes that inhabited North America at the dawn of European colonization was that
their distinct cultures had developed as adaptations to their social and natural environments.
Evidence indicates that before 1492 Native Americans
engaged in violent conflict and sometimes practiced cannibalism.
Native Americans related to the natural environment by
adapting to it while also changing it in a variety of ways that served their own interests.
By the 1490s, the empire of the Mexica
encompassed as many as 25 million people and covered more land than Spain and Portugal combined.
The Mexica used an extensive tribute system to redistribute wealth from
the poor, the commoners, and the conquered to the rich, the noble, and the conquerors.
Spanish conquerors exploited the weaknesses of the Mexican empire, which included
a belief among subject peoples that the Mexica were not legitimate or fair rulers.
Which Europeans founded a small fishing village on the tip of Newfoundland around the year 1000?
The major long-term consequences of the bubonic plague killing about a third of Europe's population in the mid-fourteenth century were that it
eased pressure on food resources and created new opportunities for advancement.
Factors that encouraged exploration and territorial expansion included
Some of the scientific and technological advances available to European explorers by 1400 included the
astrolabe and the compass.
The first European nation to attempt to break the Italian monopoly on trade with the Far East in the fifteenth century was
The most influential advocate of Portuguese exploration was
Prince Henry the Navigator.
The Portuguese adapted to the demands of longer ocean voyages by
developing a vessel known as the caravel.
In the 1460s, the Portuguese used African slaves to work sugar plantations on the Cape Verde Islands and became the first nation to
associate plantation labor with enslaved Africans.
Which of the following countries first navigated a sea route from Europe to Asia?
The discovery of a sea route to Asia impacted Europe in important ways, greatly influencing exploration and
destroying the monopoly that Mediterranean merchants had on Asian marketplaces.
The government of which country sponsored Christopher Columbus's 1492 exploration?
When Columbus first arrived in the New World, he believed he was in
the East Indies.
The Tainos shared which of the following traits with Europeans?
When Columbus returned to Europe in 1493 Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand were
overjoyed to hear that he had discovered new lands.
If you were a statesman in the early to mid-1500s and followed the news of Columbus's discovery, you might argue that his most important contribution was
proving that it was possible to sail from Europe to the western Atlantic and return to Europe.
The 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas between Spain and Portugal
drew an imaginary line down the Atlantic Ocean, with territory west of the line belonging to Spain and territory east of the line belonging to Portugal.
John Cabot was sponsored by the English monarch to search for a Northwest Passage to the East Indies. Which area did Cabot manage to reach and claim for England?
The Portuguese explorer Pedro Álvars Cabral accidentally made landfall on the coast of
In the early 1500s, Martin Waldseemüller was among the very first to understand that
the discoveries of Columbus, Balboa, and Cabral proved the existence of a separate landmass between Europe and Asia.
Magellan's circumnavigation of the globe left no doubt that America was separated from Asia by an enormous ocean. His voyage
The transatlantic trade of goods, people, and ideas between the New World and Europe is referred to as the
Contact and trade between the peoples of the Old and New Worlds
Hernán Cortés's conquest of Mexico was most significant because it
served as a model for future colonization and made Spain the most powerful monarchy in Europe.
A fourteen-year-old native girl named Malinali provided invaluable assistance to Cortés by
serving as an interpreter and a cultural broker
Cortés was eventually able to defeat the Mexicans in 1521 by enlisting the help of
tens of thousands of Indian allies who favored the destruction of Mexico.
The largest treasure found in the New World before 1540 was held by the
The conquistador who spent three years looking for rich, majestic civilizations in southeastern North America was
Hernando de Soto.
When Francisco Vásquez de Coronado ventured into the Southwest and Great Plains of North America, he was searching for
the Seven Cities of Cíbola.
During the 1500s, the New World was primarily dominated by
Spain, because it had more colonial possessions than did other European countries.
The distribution of conquered towns, the right to rule the Indians and the land in and around their towns, and the right to exact tribute and labor from the Indians were all part of the system of
The Spanish introduced encomienda as a way to
reward conquistadors who had conquered territory in the New World.
The most important treasure the Spanish plundered from their New World holdings was
forced Indian labor.
When Catholic priests such as Friar Bartolomé de Las Casas complained to the Spanish government about the brutal treatment of Indians, royal officials
In 1549, the Spanish government issued the repartimiento,
which reduced the autonomy and power of the encomenderos.
The system of coerced labor in New Spain grew directly out of Spaniards' assumption that
From Spain's viewpoint, the most important economic activity in New Spain after 1540 was
The approximately 225,000 Spaniards who settled in the colonies between 1492 and 1592 were made up primarily of
poor young men of common lineage who were artisans, laborers, soldiers, and sailors.
The gender and number of Spanish settlers in New Spain created a society in which
Children born in the New World to parents who had emigrated from Spain were referred to as
A child born to a Spanish man and an Indian woman in the New World would have been considered part of which social class?
Like many other European colonies in the New World, New Spain developed a pattern of social organization in which
Europeans became a dominant minority in a society stratified by race and social origin.
Within eighty years of the arrival of Europeans in the New World,
90 percent of the Indian population had died, primarily from the harshness of colonial policies and from diseases inadvertently transmitted by Europeans.
The deaths of millions of Indians affected Spain
greatly, as the lack of natives created a labor shortage that led the Spanish colonists to begin purchasing African slaves.
The first permanent European settlement within what would become the United States was
St. Augustine, Florida.
In 1598, the Spanish founded a settlement in present-day New Mexico for the primary purpose of
In 1517, Martin Luther publicized his criticism of the Catholic Church. The theological differences between Luther and the Catholic Church centered on
how salvation could be gained.
In the 1500s, the British and the French
sent explorers into the New World but were unable to sustain thriving colonies.
The Cathay Company sent Martin Frobisher to the New World in order to
open trade with China.
King James's land grant to the Virginia Company of more than six million acres in North America was in essence a(n)
royal license to poach on Spanish claims and Indian lands.
Richard Hakluyt, a strong proponent of colonization, argued that English colonies would
provide a market for English goods and a place for the unemployed to find work.
The story of Pocahontas “saving” Captain John Smith from her father's death sentence illustrates
how inadequately Englishmen understood Indian rituals.
When Pocahontas intervened to save John Smith, she most likely was participating in an Algonquian ceremony that
expressed Powhatan's supremacy and his ritualistic adoption of Smith as a subordinate chief.
Only 38 of the 144 Englishmen who originally settled what would become Jamestown, Virginia, survived the first year. This high mortality rate is explained primarily by
malnutrition, disease, and a failure to let go of traditional notions of class and labor.
Powhatan and his people were suspicious of English intentions because the colonists
often resorted to violence in their interactions with Indians.
The majority of the early settlers who came to Jamestown and the Virginia colony were
gentlemen and their servants.
In exchange for the Indians' corn, Jamestown settlers supplied Powhatan's people with
The Virginia colonists might have better survived their early years in North America had they
been willing to learn how to farm.
Because of the success of the Virginia colony, Powhatan's people
were almost exterminated.
King James revoked the Virginia Company's charter in 1624 and made Virginia a royal colony. Factors contributing to this decision included
Powhatan's uprising and an investigative report showing that disease and mismanagement were responsible for high mortality rates among colonists.
Under royal government in Virginia, the colony's inhabitants could vote for
Under royal government in Virginia, the colony's inhabitants could vote for
The crop that turned Virginia into a stable colony was
If you wanted to become a highly profitable tobacco farmer in the 1600s in Virginia, the biggest obstacle you were most likely to face was
a lack of workers.
Most hired workers
earned in one year in Chesapeake tobacco fields what they might earn in two or three years of labor in England.
Headrights were initiated by the Virginia Company and continued by the royal government as an incentive to encourage settlement in the Virginia colony. A headright
granted fifty acres of land to every settler who paid his own transportation to the Chesapeake.
A servant labor system in the British colonies was created by
the New World's labor shortage and the poverty of Englishmen who were willing to work.
Seventeenth-century Chesapeake society was essentially a society of
servants and ex-servants.
After a servant served his or her indenture, an employer was required to give him or her
Indentured servants tended to be
poor, unskilled young men born in England.
The Chesapeake had many more men than women because
planters preferred male servants for field work.
were not permitted to marry until their servitude was complete.
Indentured servants could have their servitude extended by years if they
Indentured servants saw themselves as
free people who temporarily were servants.
Masters in the Chesapeake were so hungry for labor that they
did not hesitate to devise legal ways to extend the time their servants owed them.
The dispersion of settlements in the Chesapeake can be explained by the
marketing system of farmers and the acreage necessary to make a profit.
The availability of land and the profitability of tobacco propelled the evolution of Chesapeake society and shaped a
society with a degree of frontier equality and a pattern of settlement different from that of England.
A yeoman in the seventeenth-century Chesapeake was a
The decline in the price of tobacco in the third quarter of the seventeenth century contributed to the
end of the rough frontier equality within the Chesapeake population.
By the 1670s, the Chesapeake social structure was polarized. This social structure was based on which of the following criteria?
ownership of land, income, and degree of freedom
If one wanted to argue that there was less political equality in Virginia in the 1660s and 1670s than in the early years of the colony, one might use which of the following as evidence?
Mercantilism was a(n)
Bacon's Rebellion erupted in 1676 as a dispute over Indian policy and ended as a conflict between
Nathaniel Bacon distressed the royal government and the elite planters of Virginia because his demands
After Bacon's death,
royal officials removed Berkeley and nullified Bacon's Laws.
The social and political distance that had existed between planters and small farmers decreased between 1660 and 1700; factors involved in this change include
a decline in the number of indentured servants in the colony and a greater dependence on slave labor.
The Spanish colonial outposts in New Mexico and Florida
stagnated and primarily attracted missionaries.
Spanish missionaries considered European ideas about civilization to be
The order to “break up and burn the images of the holy Christ, the Virgin Mary, and the other saints, the crosses, and everything pertaining to Christianity” was issued by
The slave labor system that was introduced to the colony of Carolina was “exported” from
Which of the following British colonies brought in the greatest profit in the late 1600s?
By 1700, the English Caribbean annually exported nearly 50 million pounds of
It is important to study the economy and slave labor system of the Caribbean sugar islands because doing so helps us to better understand
that the West Indies had a direct influence on the development of slavery and plantations in the mainland British colonies.
The only seventeenth-century English colony to be settled principally by colonists from other colonies rather than directly from England was
The profitable export crop that depended on the expertise of slaves brought from West Africa to Carolina was
Until the 1670s, almost all Chesapeake colonists were English; by 1700, one out of eight persons in the region was
The shift from an indentured servant labor force to a slave labor force occurred for many reasons; one was that
For planters, one important advantage of a slave labor system over a servant labor system was that slaves
could be controlled politically.
Compared to slavery in Barbados, slavery in the Chesapeake
was more confining because slaves often worked alongside white servants and, in general, were subjected to more constant surveillance by white people.
The religious roots of New England Puritanism could be traced back to the
Protestant Reformation of the early sixteenth century.
King Henry VIII saw in the Protestant Reformation the opportunity to
make himself the head of the church in England.
Sixteenth-century English Puritanism
was a set of broadly interpreted ideas and religious principles held by those seeking to purify the Church of England and to remove from it what they considered the offensive features of Catholicism.
English Puritans rejected Catholic rituals and instead emphasized
introspection and a personal relationship with God.
The English monarchs James I and Charles I
enforced conformity to the Church of England.
When King Charles I dissolved Parliament in 1629, many Puritans
despaired at having lost their political voice and began preparing to leave England.
Puritans who described themselves as Separatists believed that
the Church of England was beyond redemption and sought to separate themselves from it permanently.
The charter of the Massachusetts Bay Company was unique because it
contained a feature that allowed the government of the company to be located in the colony rather than in England.
The Puritans who founded the Massachusetts Bay colony
According to John Winthrop's sermon aboard the Arbella, the Puritans had “entered into a covenant” with God, meaning that they
had been uniquely chosen to do God's special work of building a holy community as an example to others.
For the most part, the Puritans who settled the Massachusetts Bay colony
were farmers or tradesmen who came from the middle ranks of English society.
The migration to Puritan New England included
a greater number of complete family units than there were among immigrants to the Chesapeake.
The Puritan doctrine of predestination held that before the creation of the world, God had decided who would achieve salvation, that nothing one did could alter one's fate, and that
very few deserved or would achieve eternal life.
Puritan communities in the first half of the seventeenth century were characterized by
a high degree of conformity in community members' views on morality, order, and propriety.
Churches played no direct role in the civil government of New England communities because
Puritans did not want to emulate the Church of England, which they considered a puppet of the king rather than an independent body that served the Lord.
The New England town meeting
brought together a town's inhabitants and freemen in an exercise of voting and popular political participation that was unprecedented elsewhere during the seventeenth century.
The widespread participation of New England men in town meetings resulted in
a reinforcement of conformity to Puritan ideals.
The General Court of Massachusetts issued land grants to suitable petitioners but would not allow settlement until
the Indian inhabitants of the land agreed to relinquish it, often in exchange for goods.
Roger Williams was
Roger Williams's position on the Bible was that it
could be legitimately interpreted in a variety of ways.
Which colony attracted dissenters because of its embrace of the ideal of liberty of conscience?
Anne Hutchinson's emphasis on the “covenant of grace” stirred religious controversy in early Massachusetts because
it was feared Hutchinson was disrupting the good order of the colony.
In the seventeenth century, Puritan churches
experienced a growing number of divisions over doctrine and church government.
Puritans in England in the mid-seventeenth century
won a civil war, proclaimed England a Puritan republic, and ruled the nation from 1649 to 1660.
The seventeenth-century New England economy mainly consisted of
New England's population continued to grow steadily during the seventeenth century primarily due to
a relatively high birthrate coupled with a climate that helped many children survive into adulthood.
By the 1680s, New England's religious consensus had weakened to the point that
in some towns, only 15 percent of the adult males were church members.
The Halfway Covenant was a
measure instituted by Puritan leaders in 1662 allowing the unconverted children of visible saints to become “halfway” church members.
Members of the Society of Friends, or Quakers, believed that
God spoke directly to each individual through an “inner light” and that neither a minister nor the Bible was necessary to discover God's Word.
Puritans viewed Quakers as
Witch trials in seventeenth-century New England signaled
an enduring belief in the supernatural origins of evil and gnawing doubt about the strength of Puritan New Englanders' faith.
During most of the seventeenth century, New Netherland was
The colony of New Netherland was marked by a
In 1664, New Netherland
became New York when King Charles II presented it to his brother James, the Duke of York, as part of a larger grant of land.
When the English assumed control of New Netherland, they continued the Dutch policy of religious toleration because
The creation of New York led indirectly to the founding of which two other middle colonies?
New Jersey and Pennsylvania
William Penn aimed to
The Quaker maxim “In souls there is no sex” helps explain
the degree to which Quakers allowed women to assume positions of religious leadership in the seventeenth century.
Charles II made William Penn the proprietor of a new colony partly
to rid England of Quakers.
The Indian policy of seventeenth-century Pennsylvania
involved purchasing Indians' land, respecting their claims, and dealing with them fairly.
Among other things, religious toleration in Quaker-dominated Pennsylvania meant that colonists there
did not have to pay taxes to maintain a state-supported church.
The Navigation Acts of the 1650s and 1660s were designed to regulate colonial trade in order to
yield revenues for the crown and English merchants and divert the colonies' trade from England's enemies.
By the end of the seventeenth century, colonial commerce was characterized by
The Wampanoag Indians attacked settlements in western Massachusetts in 1675 because
New Englanders had been steadily encroaching on land the Indians needed to survive.
King Philip's War (1675–1676) left New England settlers with
a large war debt, a devastated frontier, and an enduring hatred of Indians.
In 1686, England created the Dominion of New England, a new government consolidation that
The Glorious Revolution in England in 1688 influenced American colonists to
rise up against royal authority (and the concept of the Dominion of New England) in Massachusetts, New York, and Maryland.
After Massachusetts became a royal colony in 1691, the defining characteristic of Massachusetts citizenship became
King William's War, an attack by French forces from the Great Lakes and Canada on villages in New England and New York, demonstrated to the American colonists that
The English colonies established in North America in the seventeenth century demonstrated that
The most important change in eighteenth-century colonial America was
its phenomenal population growth.
In eighteenth-century America, the main sources of population growth and diversity were
Due to eighteenth-century immigration patterns, the people of the American colonies had a distinctive
The colonial economy in the eighteenth century was unique because
While New England's population grew sixfold during the eighteenth century, its growth lagged behind that of other colonies because
most immigrants chose other colonies due to the inhospitable Puritan orthodoxy and the relatively high ratio of people to land in New England.
Because of the colonial New England practice of “partible inheritance” in land distribution, by the eighteenth century lands could no longer be subdivided, as the plots had become too small for a family to make a living. Partible inheritance means that lands were subdivided
By 1770, New Englanders had only one-fourth as much wealth as free colonists in the South, in large part because
their farms did not produce huge surpluses of cash crops in quantities necessary to become wealthy.
The eighteenth-century New England economy could be characterized as
a diversified commercial economy.
The commercial economy of New England was dominated by
Compared with the poor in England, the least wealthy eighteenth-century New Englanders
lived more comfortably.
Why were there so few slaves in New England during the eighteenth century?
New England's family farming was not suited for slave labor.
By 1770, the middle colonies had a uniquely diverse immigrant population; the largest number of immigrants were
German and Scots-Irish.
Most of the Scots-Irish who came to the colonies were farm laborers or tenant farmers who were leaving behind
droughts, crop failures, high food prices, and/or high rents.
Many Germans and Scots-Irish without passage money arrived in Philadelphia as “redemptioners”; redemptioners were
persons who had obtained money for passage from a friend or relative in the colonies or by selling themselves as servants once they arrived.
Which colony was known as “the best poor Man's Country in the World”?
In the middle colonies of the eighteenth century, slaves
were not much needed on wheat farms, which operated mostly with family labor.
An early Pennsylvania policy encouraging settlement was
to negotiate with Indian tribes to purchase land, which reduced frontier clashes.
Economic growth in the middle colonies, particularly in Pennsylvania, arose from
A result of the comparatively high standard of living in rural Pennsylvania and the surrounding middle colonies between 1720 and 1770 was that
the per capita consumption of imported goods from England more than doubled.
The dominant group in eighteenth-century Philadelphia society in terms of wealth and political power was
Poor Richard's Almanack mirrored the beliefs of its Pennsylvania readers in its glorification of
The defining feature of the southern colonies in the eighteenth century was
From 1700 to 1770, the black population in the South increased almost three times faster than the white population of the region; by 1770, blacks made up
40 percent of the southern population.
In which southern colony did the black population outnumber the white population almost two to one?
The huge increase in the slave population in the South during the second half of the eighteenth century can be attributed to
natural increase and the Atlantic slave trade.
Southern planters tended to buy newly arrived Africans in small groups because
small groups of slaves ensured that the newcomers could be trained by the planters' seasoned slaves.
A “country-born” slave was one who
was born into slavery in the colonies.
South Carolina planters favored slaves from the central African Congo and Angola regions because
linguistic and cultural similarities allowed them to communicate with other African slaves from the same region, thereby easing newcomers' acculturation to slave life.
The purpose of “seasoning” slaves was to
Why did slave owners encourage their female slaves to bear many children?
Southern masters preferred black slaves over white indentured servants because
slaves served for life and could be disciplined more harshly.
The Stono rebellion proved that eighteenth-century slaves
could neither overturn slavery nor win a fight for freedom.
Newly imported African slaves usually arrived alone. How did they develop kinship relationships in the existing slave communities?
Established slave families often adopted new arrivals as fictive kin.
Poor whites in the South displayed little hostility toward the gentry because they saw them as
similar by virtue of belonging to the “superior” white race.
As the eighteenth century progressed, tobacco, rice, and indigo made the southern colonies
the richest in North America.
In the eighteenth century, the Southern slaveholding gentry dominated
both the politics and the economy of the South.
Members of the eighteenth-century southern gentry typically
gambled, entertained lavishly, and cultivated a life of leisurely pursuits.
Although the three regions of British North America became more distinct in the latter part of the eighteenth century, they still shared several unifying experiences, such as
agricultural roots, a lessening reliance on religion, and a realization of their British colonial identity.
An increased supply of items such as tobacco and sugar in eighteenth-century colonial America led to
a drop in prices and a resulting increase in the purchase of luxury goods by ordinary people.
The increasing presence of English goods in the colonial market in the eighteenth century
The largest group of non-Christians in eighteenth-century North America was made up of
In eighteenth-century New England, the Congregational Church
was supported by taxes paid by all residents.
Prominent colonists in the plantation South and in cities such as Charleston, New York, and Philadelphia belonged to the
In colonial America, deists
were usually educated and followed the ideas of European Enlightenment thinkers.
Most eighteenth-century colonists went to church
The Great Awakening can best be described as a(n)
In addition to their competition for land, colonial settlers and Indians engaged in conflicts over
the fur trade.
In the eighteenth century, Spanish officials decided to build forts and missions on New Spain's northern frontier to
block Russian access to present-day California.
Colonial governors had difficulty gaining the trust and respect of influential colonists because
their terms of office were often less than five years, and they had little or no access to patronage positions.
During the eighteenth century, colonists in America
thought of themselves as both British subjects and colonists.
The Seven Years' War resulted from
The Albany Plan of Union, as proposed by Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Hutchinson, was
not approved by the colonies or by England.
The representatives of the Iroquois Nation at the Albany Congress
The turning point of the Seven Years' War was most likely William Pitt's
willingness to commit massive resources to the war.
The terms of the 1763 Treaty of Paris included
England receiving lands east of the Mississippi River and Spain receiving lands west of the Mississippi River.
As a result of the Seven Years' War,
Indians lost their land and had to face colonists moving west.
What effect did the Seven Years' War have on England's national debt?
After the Seven Years' War, the Earl of Bute decided to keep several thousand British troops in America, ostensibly to
maintain the peace between the colonists and the Indians.
The Proclamation of 1763 was meant to
The Proclamation of 1763 was also meant to
keep the peace between Indians and colonists.
Growing colonial resentment of British authority during the 1760s could be attributed to
increased taxation and increased intrusion by Britain.
In 1764, in an effort to generate income for England, George Grenville initiated the
An important difference between the Sugar Act and the Stamp Act was that the latter
was an internal tax.
George Grenville claimed that the colonists had “virtual representation” because
the members of the House of Commons represented all British subjects, wherever they were.
The Virginia Resolves suggested that
Virginia alone had the right to tax Virginians.
The Virginia Resolves, authored by Patrick Henry of Virginia, were a response to the
The Stamp Act of 1765
set an ominous precedent in the eyes of the colonists.
The Virginia Resolves were
The Sons of Liberty, protestors against the Stamp Act, organized a large demonstration that showed colonists
American opposition to the Stamp Act took the form of
burning an effigy of a stamp collector, breaking windows, and ransacking an official's home.
The Stamp Act Congress, held in New York in 1765,
advanced the notion of intercolonial political action.
In response to the colonial reaction to the Stamp Act, the British government
repealed the act but reaffirmed parliamentary power by passing the Declaratory Act.
The Declaratory Act showed Britain's refusal to compromise on Parliament's power to tax because it
asserted Parliament's right to legislate for the colonies “in all cases whatsoever.”
As chancellor of the exchequer in 1767, Charles Townshend
favored imposing taxes that would help pay off England's war debt and make the colonists pay the cost of maintaining British troops in America.
In 1767, Charles Townshend enacted the Revenue Act, which
placed new duties on imported items such as tea, glass, lead, paper, and painters' colors.
The Revenue Act of 1767
directed that some of the revenue generated from its application be used to pay the salaries of royal governors.
Which of the following statements best characterizes the nonimportation agreements of 1768–1769?
By 1769, merchants from New England to Charleston were supporting the boycott.
The Daughters of Liberty urged women to participate in public affairs and protest the Townshend duties by
Many women demonstrated their patriotism during the anti-British boycott by
Mounting tensions between Bostonians and British soldiers in early 1770 led to the Boston Massacre,
a skirmish in which five people were killed.
Which of the following statements best characterizes the Boston Massacre of March 5, 1770?
It was over in minutes, and the British regiments were then moved to an island in the harbor for their protection.
John Adams, cousin of Samuel Adams, represented British captain Thomas Preston and the soldiers who were involved in the Boston Massacre to
In the early 1770s, several incidents brought the colonies' conflict with England into sharp focus, including the
The Gaspée incident in 1772 caused many towns in Massachusetts and in other colonies to set up a communications network of standing committees known as
According to the British, the major purpose of the Tea Act of 1773 was to
boost sales for Britain's East India Company.
Dissenting colonists believed that the real goal of the Tea Act of 1773 was to
generate increased revenue to pay the salaries of royal governors and judges—a reminder of Parliament's taxation and legislative powers.
Bostonian reaction to the Tea Act culminated in December 1773 with the
dumping of thousands of pounds of tea into Boston harbor.
The Coercive Acts, passed by Parliament to punish Massachusetts, included
a law closing Boston harbor until the destroyed tea was paid for.
The Quebec Act affronted many Americans because it
gave Roman Catholic Quebec control of the Ohio Valley.
The Coercive Acts (or Intolerable Acts) spread alarm among the colonists, who feared that
their liberties were not secure.
Delegates to the First Continental Congress
sought to identify their liberties as British subjects and debated possible responses to the Coercive Acts.
The First Continental Congress
denied Parliament's right to tax and legislate for the colonies but acknowledged its authority to regulate their trade.
The First Continental Congress created the Continental Association, whose purpose was to
enforce a staggered and limited boycott of trade.
Early in 1775, as royal authority collapsed in Massachusetts, General Thomas Gage
realized the seriousness of the situation and requested twenty thousand additional troops from England.
General Gage planned a surprise attack on an ammunition storage site in Concord
because he was ordered to quell the dissenters before they became more organized.
The first shot at Lexington was fired by
Following the battles of Lexington and Concord, Lord Dunmore, the royal governor of Virginia, issued a proclamation
promising freedom to defecting able-bodied slaves who would fight for the British.
Northern slave Phillis Wheatley used bitter sarcasm in a 1774 newspaper essay exposing the hypocrisy of local slave owners; her accomplishments included
Slaves were aware of the colonies' evolving political struggle with England; some slaves tried to promote their bid for freedom by
stashing away ammunition for a planned uprising.
About a month after the skirmishes at Lexington and Concord, delegates from all of the colonies met to discuss their course of action at the
The initial goal of the Second Continental Congress was to
raise and supply an army and negotiate a reconciliation with England.
John Dickinson of Pennsylvania defined the moderate position on the political spectrum of delegates at the Second Continental Congress while cousins John and Samuel Adams of Massachusetts exemplified
The most radical delegates at the Second Constitutional Convention came from
In 1775, most of the delegates to the Second Continental Congress remained reluctant to break with Britain because they
worried about the loss of Britain's military support, the effect on their economies, and political stability.
The delegates to the Second Continental Congress chose George Washington as commander in chief because
picking a southerner would show England that there was widespread commitment to war beyond New England.
Continental dollars were
The battle of Bunker Hill
was a costly victory for the British.
When George Washington took control of the Continental army, he found
enthusiastic but undisciplined troops.
The Olive Branch Petition of July 1775
affirmed loyalty to the monarch, blamed Parliament for all the troubles, and asked that American colonial assemblies be recognized as individual parliaments.
The author of the radical pamphlet Common Sense
called for independence and a republican government.
Revisions to the Declaration of Independence included those made by the delegates from Georgia and South Carolina, who removed
When New York delegates endorsed the Declaration of Independence on July 15, 1776, it meant that
One of the main obstacles the British army faced in the Revolutionary War was
the logistical problem of supplying an army with food and supplies across three thousand miles of water.
The British goal in fighting the war for America was to
regain colonial allegiance, not to destroy the colonies.
To raise the necessary troops for the Continental army, the congress
Women served in the Continental army by
performing domestic tasks and nursing the wounded.
As manpower needs in the Continental army increased,
free blacks were welcomed into service in the northern states.
One of the many weaknesses of the Continental army was that
it was inexperienced and undermanned.
The American strategy in the war with Britain was to
turn back the British and defeat their invading armies.
The British strategy in the war in America was to
recapture the thirteen colonies in a divide-and-conquer approach, with loyalist help.
The American effort to capture Montreal and Quebec early in the war
In the fall of 1776, the British hired 8,000 Hessian mercenaries and
In one of the early battles of the war, the battle of Long Island,
British troops led by General Howe forced the Americans to retreat to Manhattan Island.
The Continental army enjoyed its first victory over the British on Christmas night in 1776, when the Americans
crossed the Delaware River to surprise the Hessians at Trenton.
In the first year of the Revolutionary War, what really saved the American army may have been
British reluctance to follow through militarily when they had the advantage.
At the time of the war with Britain, white women
began to participate in politics through discussion and fundraising.
The most visible and dedicated loyalists (also called Tories by their enemies) were
During the Revolutionary War, Indian tribes
Treasonable acts, as defined by state laws in 1775 and 1776, included
supplying the British army with food or ammunition.
During the Revolution, punishment for a treasonable act might include
house arrest, suspension of voting privileges, and confiscation of property.
During the Revolution, the Continental Congress and various states issued paper money, which resulted in
Well into the Revolutionary War, the Continental Congress was forced to procure supplies and labor and to pay soldiers by
offering land-grant certificates and issuing certificates of debt.
In 1777, the British moved large numbers of troops into Quebec in an effort to
When British troops under General Howe captured Philadelphia in September 1777, the British government
proposed a negotiated settlement that did not include American independence.
Continental army morale during the winter of 1777–78 was
Relationships between Americans and Indians during the Revolutionary War were increasingly characterized by
hostility and violent anti-Indian campaigns.
Burgoyne's defeat at the battle of Saratoga was a decisive moment in the Revolutionary War because it
After the American victory at Saratoga, France allied with the Americans because it
saw an opportunity to defeat England, France's archrival.
What immediate impact did the Americans' alliance with France in 1778 have on the British?
A British troop commander argued for an immediate negotiated settlement, and the commander of the British navy argued for abandoning the war.
In their campaign in the South, beginning in 1778, the British
In the final phases of the Revolutionary War, the British
attempted to recapture the southern colonies and place loyalists in power.
News of Benedict Arnold's treason
inspired renewed patriotism in America.
After Gates's defeat and Arnold's treason,
After Cornwallis achieved the upper hand in Virginia, the picture changed dramatically because
the French gave military support to Washington.
The most decisive factor in ending the Revolutionary War at Yorktown was
the French forces taking control of the Chesapeake Bay, thus commanding the coast of Virginia.
By the terms of the Treaty of Paris of 1783,
the British acknowledged that the United States were “free Sovereign and independent States.”
For the Indians, the peace that began in 1783
The British lost the Revolutionary War partly because
of America's alliance with France, which provided artillery and ammunition, fresh troops, and naval support.
The war for independence took five and a half years to fight, and the subsequent peace negotiations and British evacuation took an additional
Under the Articles of Confederation, the confederation government lacked
an executive and judicial branch as well as the power to levy taxes.
Under the Articles of Confederation,
The Articles of Confederation were finally approved in 1781 when all the states agreed to surrender their
claims to western lands.
The Articles of Confederation were finally approved in 1781 when all the states agreed to surrender their
claims to western lands.
After 1776, the Continental Congress was located in several cities, including
Baltimore and New York.
Between 1776 and 1780, the states attracted the allegiance of citizens and the attention of politicians because
the states were sovereign and familiar.
A shared feature of all the state constitutions drawn up during the American Revolution was
the conviction that government rests on the consent of the governed.
In devising their new constitutions, most states
Virginia's constitution was the first to
include a bill of rights.
Property qualifications for voters and candidates in the new states
Writers of the new state constitutions believed that voting requirements should
include property ownership because only property owners possessed independence of mind.
Which state allowed free blacks and women to vote in the early years of the republic?
Some states were reluctant to include “equality language” in their bills of rights and constitutions because
they were afraid the words could be construed to apply to slaves.
In the quarter century after 1775, legislatures provided for the immediate or gradual abolition of slavery in
most northern states.
In the deep South, immediately after the Revolution,
Factors leading to the postwar depression that began in the mid-1780s included
huge state and federal war debts, private debt, and rapid expenditure.
Robert Morris proposed increasing the revenue of the confederation government by
passing a 5 percent import tax (called an impost).
While Robert Morris's tax proposal didn't take effect and the Bank of North America did not resuscitate the economy in the 1780s, the confederation still had the potential to obtain wealth
In the land ordinances of 1784 and 1785, Congress
set out a rectangular grid system for surveying land and established township perimeters.
Under the Ordinance of 1785's guidelines for land sales in the Northwest Territory, land would be sold
by public auction at a minimum purchase price of a dollar per acre and in minimum parcels of 640 acres each.
The Northwest Ordinance of 1787
prohibited slavery in the Northwest Territory.
Shays's Rebellion of 1786–1787 was the result of
Massachusetts responded to Shays's Rebellion with
the dispatch of a private army of militiamen.
The major legacy of Shays's Rebellion was
the realization that the Articles of Confederation were inadequate and thus a reworking of national government was needed.
The two men who were instrumental in calling for a meeting in Philadelphia in May 1787 to discuss revising the Articles of Confederation were
Two-thirds of the constitutional convention's delegates were
The delegates to the constitutional convention in 1787 generally
were concerned about the weaknesses in the government under the Articles of Confederation.
The fundamental issue raised at the constitutional convention was
how to balance the conflicting interests of large and small states.
At the constitutional convention, the proposal to create a two-chamber legislature, with representation in both houses based on each state's population, was known as the
The major objection to the Virginia Plan by the smaller states at the constitutional convention was
that the representation of the states in both houses of the congress would be based on population.
The New Jersey Plan proposed at the Constitutional Convention
The New Jersey Plan departed from the Articles of Confederation by
creating a plural presidency to be shared by three men elected by the congress from among its membership.
The constitutional convention deadlocked over the issue of
As a part of the Great Compromise, delegates at the Philadelphia convention agreed
on a lower house whose seats would be apportioned on the basis of population, and an upper house—the Senate—that would have two senators per state.
At the Philadelphia convention, which of the following was the compromise reached on the issue of who counted as population for the purpose of deciding representation?
Slaves were counted under the three-fifths clause.
When the Constitution was drafted, slavery was
not named, but its existence was recognized and guaranteed.
In a new distinction between democracy and republicanism, the delegates to the constitutional convention
gave direct voice to the people only in the House.
To create a presidency out of the reach of direct democracy, the delegates to the constitutional convention
devised the electoral college.
Before the Constitution could go into effect, it had to be ratified
by ratifying conventions in nine of the thirteen states.
The Constitution most clearly shifted the balance of power in favor of
national over state governments.
Opposition to the Constitution came from substantial majorities in three of the most populous states,
Virginia, Massachusetts, and New York.
Pro-Constitution forces called themselves
The first state to ratify the Constitution was
Antifederalists were united mainly by
their desire to block the Constitution.
The core of Antifederalists' opposition to the Constitution centered on
fear that distant power might infringe on people's liberties.
The fight over ratification in Virginia proved to be very close because the influence of George Washington and James Madison was countered by Antifederalist arguments from
George Mason and Patrick Henry.
Antifederalism in New York centered on
the state's size and power in relation to the new federal government.
The authors of the series of essays known as The Federalist Papers originally wrote them
In essay number 10 of The Federalist, James Madison maintained that the constitutional government would
prevent any one faction from subverting the freedom of other groups.
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