LA 250: Week 11-New Urbanism New urbanism: an alternative form of neighborhood and community development that works at a number of scales: Traditional neighborhood design/development: a development pattern that reflects the characteristics of small, older communities of the late 19th and 20th centuries; the focus of the community shifts from the automobile to the pedestrian. Mixed land uses Grid street patterns Pedestrian circulation Intensively-used open spaces Architectural character A sense of community Neo-traditional neighborhood design/development. Transit oriented development: the creation of compact, walkable communities centered around high quality train systems. Walkable design with pedestrian as the highest priority Train station as prominent feature of town center A regional node with a mixture of uses in close proximity including office, residential, retail, and civic uses. High density, high quality development within 10 minute walk circle surrounding train station. Collector support transit systems including trolleys, streetcars, light rail, and buses. Designed to include the easy use of bicycles, scooters, and roller blades. Reduced and managed parking inside 10 minute walk circle around town center or train station. Suburban/urban sprawl Low density ? increase in land use/capita Increased infrastructure costs ? roads, utilities Reliance on fossil fuels ? few transportation options Increased pollutions ? CO-2 emissions and water pollution Increased traffic and commute times and traffic fatalities Increased personal transportation costs ? car ownership, gas. Increased obesity ? less walking and biking Barriers to social interaction ? sense of community Goals of New Urbanism Reduce urban and suburban sprawl ? higher densities Improve sustainability ? at a number of scales Reduce dependence on automobile Green building technologies Increase open space Improve social aspects of living Sense of community Social equality ? spatial distribution of people and resource; access to resources. Greater good ? benefit all individuals, not just a privileged few (certain times private rights yield to common concerns). Principles of New Urbanism Walkability Most things within a 10 minute walk of home and work Pedestrian-friendly street design Buildings close to street Porches, windows, and doors Tree-lined streets On street parking Hidden parking lots Garages in rear Narrow, slow speed streets Connectivity Interconnected street grid network disperses traffic and eases walking A hierarchy of narrow streets, boulevards, and alleys High quality pedestrian network and public realm makes walking pleasurable Mixed-use and diversity A mix of shops, offices, apartments, and homes on site. Mixed-use within neighborhood, within blocks, and within buildings. Diversity of people ? ages, cultures, classes, and races. Mixed housing ? a range of types, sizes, and prices in closer proximity. Quality architecture and urban design Emphasis on beauty, aesthetics, human comfort, and creating a sense of place. Special placement of civic uses and sites within community. Human scale architecture and beautiful surroundings Traditional neighborhood structure Discernable center and edge. Public space at the center. Importance of quality public realm ? public open space designed as civic art. Contains a range of uses and densities within 10 minute walk Highest densities at town center; progressively less dense towards the edges. Increased density ? more buildings, residences, shops, and services closer together for ease of walking, a more efficient use of services and resources, and a more convenient, enjoyable place to live. Smart transportation A network of high quality trains connecting cities, towns, and neighborhoods. Pedestrian-friendly design that encourages a greater use of bicycles, roller blades, scooters, and walking as daily transportation. Sustainability Minimal environmental impact of development and its operations ? eco-friendly technologies, respect for ecology, and value of natural systems. Energy efficiency Less use of finite fuels More local production More walking, less driving Middleton Hills, Wisconsin Traditional neighborhood development. Neo-traditional ? incorporates past and present; captures a stronger sense of place through arrangements of open spaces, etc. More options for drivers as an attempt to avoid congestion. Street vistas. Many uses ? residential and commercial. 5 minute walk from homes to nearby services/resources. Mix of housing types to allow for all affordability. Conservation park that also can be used as stormwater management. Porches close to the sidewalks encourage social interaction. Design codes ? urban regulations, architectural regulations, landscape regulations, and design review process. Draws from prairie style. Parking behind buildings and on-street parking. Plaza and open space for farmers market. Narrow streets slow down speed of cars. Bungalow, craftsman, and prairie style residences.
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