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What was thereligion of the first recorded conscientious objector in America?
· Richard Keene = Quaker covert whorefused training in Maryland militia and was fined and threatened
What happened tothe first Quakers to come to America?
· Two women missionaries
· Within two months expelled
What was the roleof intellectuals in European policies of warfare, colonialism, and slavery?
· Rationalizing these acts
· Expanding them
What did ThomasJefferson think (and do) about slavery and about black men?
· Owned slaves
· Believe all men created equal
· Black men less equal
What was the linkbetween support for slavery and support for war?
· People who owned slaves promoted war
· Abolitionism and nonviolence went handin hand
What didphilosopher John Locke think about European countries seizing land by force inthe new world?
· Strong enthusiast
· Involved in establishment of Carolina
· Invested in Bahamas and Royal AfricaCompany
· Europeans used land better thansavages = rightfully theirs
· Europeans had power to punish others(life &death control)
How did theQuaker-controlled legislature in Pennsylvania deal with Indians in the region?
· would not fight them
· independently negotiated peace andfriendly relations
What did theCherokee in North America do in response to threats from Europeans and whateventually happened to them?
· Went to court and removal act was found illegal
· Treaty signed with few Cherokee andforced removal against 17,000 (Trail of Tears)
· Those who signed treaty put to death
What did theleader of the Maori people of New Zealand do in response to the actions ofwhite settlers?
· Proposed a treaty that whites couldstay and Maori would remain with properties
· Fled to Parihaka
· Came with lots of ploughs and refusedto stop
What are thelessons about going to war and what happens to those who oppose war when thefirst shots are fired?
· Easier to promote war than peace
· Easier to end peace than end war
· First shots = those opposed arebranded as traitors
In colonialAmerica what was the difference between the way the upper class and the lowerclass typically acted against the British?
· Upper class = wrote pamphlets andnegotiated
o Opposed acts of destruction
o Tried to keep street protests orderly
· Lower class = cart around effigies ofofficials at demonstrations before hanging, burning, or beheading them.
o Angry and not always nonviolent
o Attacked and destroyed homes ofofficials
What did theBritish do in response to the Boston Tea Party and how did the colonists dealwith this response?
· Massachusetts Government Act 1774
o Removed right of electedrepresentatives to have say in appointment of judges and removed power toremove corrupt judges
· Stopped court from coming to sessionand formed a convention that took over closing courts and freeing prisoners
o Only 1,000 out of 6,000 were armed
According to theauthor, was a war necessary for America to achieve independence from theBritish?
· British withdrawal could have beenachieved by continuing protest and economic sabotage
If a shooting waris not necessary for a revolution to succeed, what purpose does a shooting warserve?
· Shooting war is not necessary tooverthrow the established power but is often deemed necessary to consolidatethe revolution itself
How werecivilians treated during the Revolutionary War?
· Bitter feuds and abuses betweencivilians and between military and civilians
· High percentage of death
· Homes of women and children targeted
· Homes were sacked
· Women were raped
· Fear of either army
What did ThomasJefferson think about rewriting the constitution over time?
· Believed in the perfectibility ofhumans and the constitution should be rewritten in every generation to avoidhaving society remain under the regimen of their barbarous ancestors
Who was David LowDodge and what did he do?
· Considered the first American peaceactivist
· New York merchant
· Devout Presbyterian
· Formed the New York Peace Society =the first nonsectarian peace organization in American history
What was the linkbetween the nonviolence movement and the anti-slavery movement?
· William Lloyd Garrison
· Most abolitionists did not believeviolence could be used in a good cause
· Nonviolent approaches to stop slaveryor slaves rebelling
What did thedevelopment of the European sugar beet have to do with the end of slavery inthe Caribbean?
· Alternative4 to Caribbean sugar canefor whose production that the slave system had been created
Who was JohnBrown, what did he do, and what eventually happened to him?
· White abolitionists who believed inpower of violence and persuasive force of fear
· Operated station in UndergroundRailroad
· Raid army arsenal in Harpers FerryVirginia and lead an insurrection of liberated slaves with captured weapons
· Convicted of treason and hanged
What wasLincoln’s position on entering the Civil War to free slaves?
· For freedom of slaves
How many slaveswere freed by Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation?
When the CivilWar ended what did Southern states do regarding the rights of freed slaves?
· Passed laws to depriveAfrican-Americans of rights of economic opportunities including “black codes”,laws under which a former slave could be arrested if unemployed and ordered topay larger fines
· Made slaves again in order to pay offfines
· Children forced to work unpaid
· Barred from owning land
What did a groupof writers think would happen if European countries merged to form one largecountry?
· There would be no wars
· Europe would be at peace
What did KarlMarx believe about the use of violence or force?
· Violence was inevitable
· Irrelevant to the outcome
· Depended on socioeconomic conditions
What was MarkTwain’s view of the Spanish-American War?
· Praying for victory is praying forkilling
Why had theBritish relied on an all-volunteer army rather than a draft until World War I?
· The armaments that had developed inthe industrial age
· Up against more technological weapons
After Americaentered World War I what happened to Americans who opposed the war?
· Sentenced to as much as 25 years inprison
· 142 sentenced to life
· 17 sentenced to death
· Never carried out
What wassignificant about the book All Quiet on the Western Front?
· Veterans were telling the truth aboutthe war they fought and hated
· Best antiwar novel ever written
Before World WarII what was the relationship between Hitler and American corporations inGermany?
· General Motors, ITT, and Ford havingplans protected by Hitler
How did thenumber of conscientious objectors in World War II compare with the numberduring World War I?
· 3 times as many men hadconscientious-objector status
· 4 times as many went to prison ratherthan serve in the military
· 42,973 men refused to fight
What did conscientiousobjectors in prison have to do with the civil rights movement?
· Cause of prison racial integration
· Strikes to integrate prison mess hallsamong first acts
Did nonviolencework to save Jews from the Nazis?
· No, responses resulted fairly quicklyin their deaths
What did thepeople and government of Denmark to in response to occupation by the Nazis?
· Submitted passively to Germanoccupation
· Hid almost entire Jewish populationfrom Germany
What does theauthor believe about the argument that World War II was fought in part to stopthe Holocaust?
· The Holocaust was not stopped by the war
· It was started by it
How has thepercentage of war casualties that are civilians changed over time?
· WWI = 20%
· WWII = 66%
· Iraq = 90%
What did Ghandithink about nonviolent resistance versus inactive pacifism?
· Rather see someone incapable ofnonviolence resist violence than not resist at all
· Had utter contempt for nonactive pacifism
· Feeling strongly about the distinctionbetween nonviolent resistance and pacifism
· Absence of a proactive word for hisbeliefs
· Satyagraha = truth force
Did Gandhi rejectall violence?
· Supported British in WWI
What kinds ofthings did the British do to subdue the Pathans? How did the Pathans respond?
· Shelled Pathan villages
· Bombed from the air
· Sent expeditions
· Pathans joined Gandhi’s nonviolencemovement
· Shot down in large groups
What led Dr.Martin Luther King, Jr. to change his thinking about the use of nonviolence?
· Attending a lecture about the work ofGandhi at Howard University by Mordecai Johnson
How did thedevelopment of nuclear weapons change the nature of war?
· Did not end warfare
· Ruined concept of total war
· Nuclear war has no victor
· Limiting war
How did theStudent Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) change its views aboutviolence?
· Enduring countless beatings andimprisonments
· Dr. King was taking all the bows whilethey had all the ideas and took the punishments
· Began emphasizing Black Power
· Self-reliance and principle of meetingviolence with violence
What was theposition of the Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) regarding the use of violenceto bring about change?
· Organizing campuses against Vietnam
· Nonviolence as a tactic is always tobe preferred
· Violence as either a treat or a realthing becomes inevitable in certain oppressive situations and has contributedto political or social change
· Refrained from violence when attacked
· Planned to terrorize corporateestablishment with a series of bombings
Why wouldgovernment opponents of nonviolent groups try to plant the seeds of violence inthose groups?
· Violence is a virus that infects
· If someone proposed violence thatperson was immediately suspected of being an undercover agent
What was the“Vietnam Syndrome”?
· Healthy hesitance to go to war
· Still exists in military
What were tworuthless regimes overthrown by nonviolence toward the end of the 20st century?
· Soviet Union
How does theauthor rate the success of violence in the Middle East?
· Complete and enduring failure
What about theexperience of Vietnam veterans has been helpful in working with the post-traumaticstress felt by veterans of the Korean War and World War II?
· Vietnam veteran open about experience
· Not celebrated and nothing to hide
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