9/23/09 Science of Psychology = An approach to knowledge Evidence Objectivity Psychology as a Science Theory: Accounts for diverse observations by proposing a framework that ties them all together. Allows us to generate predictions. We can test these predictions! Hypothesis: A testable prediction. Theory = general explanation Hypothesis = specific prediction Communalism Sharing findings with everyone to increase knowledge within a field of knowledge Scientific community Allows studies to be replicated Disinterestedness Objectivity in research Cannot have biased, personal stakes in research (such as financial incentives) Bias Confirmation Bias: Seek out Evidence that supports hypothesis Ignore evidence that contradicts hypothesis Self-fulfilling prophesy ( Only looking at what makes you look right! Belief Perseverance Sticking to beliefs despite the evidence ?I don?t care what you say, I?m right!? na´ve realism ? belief that we see the world exactly as it is common sense is often right, often adaptive, but not ALWAYS so Scientific Skepticism evaluating claims with an open mind, but requiring persuasive evidence before accepting claims not pathological skepticism: cynicism, close-mindedness (disconfirmation bias) Oberg?s Dictum Keep your mind open, but don?t let your brain fall out! Keep the balance Critical thinking = scientific thinking 6 Principles of Critical Thinking Extraordinary claims, extraordinary evidence Falsifiability Replicability Occam?s Razor Rule out rival hypotheses Correlation vs. Causation
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