4/5/10 9:09 AM Russian Revolution Duma- provisional govt. promised to hold elections March 1917; recognized their illegitimacy. Constituent assembly. Purged govt. to govt. that would respect human equality under the law. Middle class men , professionals; govt. could have succeeded but insisted on continuing with the war, winning. Should have, could have gained favor by majority of Russians. There should have been dramatic land reform St. Petersburg is now called Petrograd. Name was changed by Tsar Nicholas II at the beginning of the Great War-believed St. Petersburg sounded German. Large scale meetings began to occur-attended by workers, disgruntled soldiers, Marxian socialist intellectuals, and other socialists less extreme Began to be called the Soviets-many, except just one in Petrograd Petrograd Soviets-most powerful of them all Army Order Number One-put the Russian Army in the power of elected committee?s of enlisted men. Picked out who the leaders would be. Not obeyed universally in the Russian army, but there were areas where the soldiers were already radicalized. These committee?s were chosen-ordered the executions of their own officers. All discipline broke down, refused to fight, deserted army for home. Stopped at various larges estates, killed Nobles and seized land. Russia is bordering on a state of Anarchy- no legitimate govt., armies breaking down. Marxian Socialists=Bolsheviks wanted to take power Lenin supreme motivator of people living in exile in Switzerland while all of this was going on. Did not dare come back to Russia because he was a know revolutionary. Intellectual-lawyer Followed Karl Marx Older brother was also a revolutionary and was arrested because he was plotting to assassinate Tsar Nicolas II. He was executed by the govt. Lenin believed that in the summer of 1917 there was a strong possibility that a Marxian style revolution could be possible in Russia-he planned to lead it. Contacted the German govt. and asked for help to get himself and his followers back to Russia. German were delighted to undermine the Russian war effort. They supplied a special train that carried Lenin, wife, and 20 people entourage to the train station in Petrograd. Called for all power to the Soviets- NOT the provisional govt.-he called them middle class govt. All land to the peasants-total redistribution of land (peasants and soldiers already doing that). He was popular with the masses. He said ?stop the war now?-what the majority of Russians wanted to hear. Became new head of govt. when Bolsheviks took power Leon Trotsky brilliant, intellectual, public speaker. Spoke to the Petrograd Soviet and reported that there was a plot on the part of the German govt. to take over the Russian govt. from within-stage a coup. Convinced the Petrograd Soviet that this was an emergency situation and that it should establish a military, revolutionary committee and should make him the leader/chairman of the committeethus began the November Bolshevik Revolution Convinced soldiers and othe rmiltants that the Germna plot had infiltrated the provisional govt. and he had all of the members of the govt. arrested and thrown in jail. All govt. building had been taken over by his committee-Bolsheviks. ALL power passed to the Petrograd Soveits Announced Lenin was the new head of the govt. Elections would now be held for a constituent assembly (very same promise made by provisional govt.) Joseph Stalin in Russia, had been active during revolution of 1905. Writer, not the best public speaker. Had been admitted to an Orthodox Russian Seminary as a student-studied for priesthood-realized he didn?t believe in God-began behaving badly and was expelled Became attracted to Marxian Socialism-Bolshevik He had distinguished himself by robbing banks-he turned all of the proceeds to the Bolshevik Party-Lenin admired this Had been exiled to Siberia-made him a hardened and ruthless man **Test starts with Napoleon and ends with Bismarck and German Empire HIST 102 4/5/10 9:09 AM 4/5/10 9:09 AM
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