Lecture 13 Initiation, Ritual, Ceremony Karl Marx (1818-1883) Jenny von Westphalen (1814-1881) Dialectic of history: history propelled by contradictions Who are the bourgeoisie? Mercantile class of late deudal and early mordern Europe, whose power, unlike that of the aristocracy and nobility, was not predicated on the ownership of large tracts of land, nor on the institution of the Church. For marx, it is a revolutionary class. King (court, nobility) Aristocracy (landed estate ? hereditary rank) Clerical class (administrative rank ? priest, bishop, cardinal, etc.) Peasants (unfree class ? serfdom, slavery) Marx?s conception of historical rupture Feudalism > master -- slave ( no freedom) Capitalism > bourgeois capit ? proletarian (freedom from feudal bondage alienation of labor power) Socialism > state owns means of production (state regulates value of labor, state becomes society) Communism > stateless, classless society Labor itself becomes a commodity Capitalism = alienation of labor Capitalist relation of production Capitalist bourgeois > owner of means of production (e.g. the factory owner) Proletarian >forced to sell his/her labor power (e.g. the assembly line worker) Commodity (Ware) use-value exchange-value value Labor Commodity ( ( commodity ( ( commodity All commodity has 1 thing in common: produced by human labor. Some kinda of universal exchange possible has to come in such as money Fetish character of commodities derives out of the commodity form Profit Surplus value > surplus labor Money Money is the ?God amongst the commodities? and seems to be the substance of all value, instead of being understood as the expression of value (this misrecognition constitutes the ?magic of money?). Marx Das Kapital Ch. 1 Boiler Room by Ben Younger, 2000 with Giovanni Ribisi, Vin Diesel, Ben Affleck, Nia Long, Nickey Katt pure idea of getting at money. Desire of money for use-value. Money ? end in itself. Lecture 14 Victor Turner (1920-1983) Do societies have structure? How does structure inhere in societies? Rites of passage ?state,? ?transition? and ?structure? separation > detachment liminality > insterstructural position, invisibility, ambiguity aggregation > reincorporation in transformed state, obligations of ?Structural? type >> passage consummated/completed Ritualization: states, transitions, and transformations birth, puberty, marriage, death war, harvest, good health/bad health, mental, life-crises, etc Liminality mast (from India) means happy, lusty, proud, carefree Permanent liminal states Kalara Barti Bapu Performed zikr all day Was considered dangerous (magically potent) North Gujarat, 1996 Intoxicated through Love Hydaid Ali Shah Bapu Ascesis (( Ecstasy Carnival excessive expenditure danger & risk liminality inverted world suspension of normative morality transgression Structural invisibility of liminal personae No longer calssief/not yet classified Symbols used to classify the unclassifiable Metaphors of dissolution applied to the neophyte or initiand death, decay, bodily effusions, menstrual blood, corpse, the undead, filth, dirt, etc. NO LONGER CLASSIFIED Metaphors? Gestation (period of development of offspring during pregnancy?) Liminality Unstructured Destructured Prestructured Instead of contradition it is = the unbounded, the limitless, the infinite [Turner] Lecture 15 Possession, Magic, Witchcraft Ghost Rape & murder ( inter-communal conflict ?honor-killing? (murder) ( intra-familial conflict ( impasse: control over unmarried women?s desire/sexuality Mahabali Dargh (1995-2008) shrine that specializes in spirit exorcism (mostly women who prostrates & throws fits) Master exorcist ( ?head? of shrine (Akbar Shah Bapu) Sufi Pir Indian form of Islam Another form of shrine ( dome people wail around Mir a Datar Dargah ( woman w/ loose hair (marriage problem) Expiation rituals prevalent in India ( elite (educated) deny but still practice superstition ( remnants of outdated religions or archaic practices called superstitious by cahtolics in 13th century Witchcraft Haxan: witchcrat through the ages (1922) Benjamin Christensen 1968 verson. Lecture 16 Magic science religion ?magi? ? zorostrian priest, old Persian: power, ability English ?might? Magical efficacy Jews accused of sorcery, missing children among Christian peasants blamed on jewish cannialism Accusation of witchcraft ( ritual blood murder Magic & the other ( medieval Eur ( rejection, but efficacy of ?Jewish magic? - acc. Of rit murder, regular pogroms ( medieval Eur ( rejection, but efficacy of ?Jewish conspiracy? - modern anti-semitism, genocide (holocaust) instrumental rationality ( staffs, wands movie: absolute other as lost valued (extra-terrestrial in form of father) Sir Edward Evan (E.E) Evans-Pritchard (1902-1973) Movie: Witchcraft Among the Azande Lecture 17 Movie: Trobrian Cricket: an ingenious response to Colonialism Lecture 18 Ideology, Domination, etc Godelier ? the making of big men classic ethnographic monograph off the Bariya tribe (approx. 2000 members), Papua New Guinea study of over 30 eyars, longterm research in one place new guinea in 60s investigating exchange & domination in pre-capitalist society (vs. large-scale society structured by socio-economic class) Marxist vs. Structuralist approach (to anthropology) Combined approach: Marxist conception of society + insights of strucuralism (symbolic systems, systems of classification, etc.) superstructure ( dialectic ( infrastructure (basis) marx: ?Being determines conscious not conscious being? causuality ( superstructure: state, religion, art, science, ideas about the world ( ideology ( infrastructure: economic relations of production ( causality i.e. Jesus classified as revolutionary vs. Him as a conservative figure Godelier sexuality as primary structure altogether 1st structure of domination: relations of domination b/w men vs. women (an older men vs. younger men) Baruya men rule society not w/o women but against women i.e. women cooperate in their own domination + ideology: dominant way of thinking that obscures, denies, or distorts actual? + conception of sex reproduction: man?s water (semen) + women?s (blood) boy f semen prevails? girl if semen fails + sexual taboo in Baruya when/where to make love superiority & inferiority b/w male/female part/role in reproduction Myth Exoteric ( [SUN] man/male ( [MOON] female/wife Esoteric ( [SUN] man/male ( [MOON] younger brother (secret) Baruya myths are acts of violence Exclusion from? ownership of land means of production the use and manufacture of weapons trade means communication with the supernatural world appropriation of children/separation from sons male appropriation of female reproductive capacity (i.e. power) Movie: To Find the Baruya Story: an anthropologist ?. Lecture 19 Michael Foucault, power/knowledge Ruth stein, sexuality and excess Frozen angels, Documentary Correction! It?s not Henry Louis Morgan but LEWIS HENRY MORGAN Age of Repression Subjugating sex in language? while proliferation and explosion of discourses concerned with sex Multiplication in the fields of power Multiplication of discourses concerning sex: ?institutional incitements? >> demography, biology, medicine, psychiatry, psychology, ethics, pegagogy, and political criticism >> transforming sex into discourse (systems of knowledge) Deplyment of? Alliance > kinship > homeostasis of the social body > reproduction Sexuality > body > controlling populations in increasingly comprehensive ways > intensification of the body (exploitation as an object of knowledge) New type of individual: the single woman? Alison rose, ?how I became a single woman? Sexually active Longterm sexual/emotional attachments outsde of marriage Demythologization of sexuality, reproduction, pleasure Care of self EXCESS Phenomenological Explanation Experience-near approach Sex as enigmatic, poignant, excessive excess of excitation excess of the other excess of the forbidden object of desire excess that shatters psychic structures excessive cosmic energy as continuity against inevitability of death To bring sex into discourse means to control it Governmentality ? government + mentalite (does not equal governance) The art and techniques of power that render populations governable Lecture 20 The Colonial Encounter Claude Levi-Strauss (1908-2009) Elementary forms of kinship, wrote n witchcraft and space Founder of strucuralism (dead) took Boaz?s torch; inspired post-structuralism to Foucault TODAY: Colonialism and Mimesis The Hauka spirit cult in West-Africa Filmmaker Jean Rouch Modern colonialism expectation of resources (gold); recent form identified with modern capitalism First world, Second world -- Global North Third world ? global south > before 1989 > after 1989 classificatory practices: e.g. Hindus and Muslims in india a) def of religion > faith versus practice b) exclusive > either/or c) seriality > uniting or separating through abstraction Postcolonial theory Frantz Fanon (1925-1961) psychiatrist author and philosopher from Martinique tried to understand the psychopathology of colonization psychoanalysis of racial dynamics and the colonized subject?s internalized sense of inferiority relevance of language in the co of colonialism and theory of revolutionary (transformative) black skin, white masks the wretched of the earth Edward w. Said (1935-2003) Christian Palestinian, father of post-colonial studies Relation of western discourses (power/knowledge) to imper.. imaginings and colonial projects Mahatma Gandhi ? father of India (1868-1948) The Hauka annual ceremony, spirit possession emerged in 1927 banned by respective colonial authorities in the entire region (by british as well as French)
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