8-25-08 M What is "Western Civilization"? Early Human Societies Paleolithic, meaning "old stone age", is the time period of about (c. 200,000 - 100,000) Neolithic, meaning "new stone age", is the time period of about (c. 10,000- 4,000 BCE) Bronze Age is the next age that follows. The Neolithic Revolution An explosion of culture and learning came from the Fertile Crescent during this period. This period is marked by many features such as the domestication of animals. People also became better at agriculture and learned to cultivate larger areas which led to large cities as people no longer needed to be nomadic to survive. Characteristics of Early Civilizations Urbanization Complex economics Centralized political authority Religion Writing Intellectual life Monumental structures Division of labor Ability to control their water source 8-27-08 W Ancient Mesopotamia Mesopotamia translate literally from Greek into "between the rivers place". It's the "cradle of civilization" or the area also known as the Fertile Crescent found between the Tigris and Euphrates River. The rivers are a source of life as well as danger as they can be used for agriculture but can also flood to dangerous levels. Sumer (c. 4,000-2350 BCE) Found near the southeast corner of Mesopotamia and is made up of 12 major cities. Estimated that each city had about 20,000 people which is large for this time period. Had ziggurats which are large step towers made for religious purposes which indicates a division of labor as well as a complex religious structure. People used cuneiform which is a wedge form of writing. In 2350, Sumer is conquered by Sargon I of Akkad who then establishes an Akkadian empire, though it falls in less that 200 years. (old) Babylon (c. 1700s BCE) Best known for its king, Hammurabi, who ruled (c. 1792-1750) Hammurabi is known for his code of laws called Hammurabi's Law Code He categorizes people into three categories: Free persons (seignior) Commoners Slaves His code of laws is where the phrase an "eye for an eye" comes from. Mostly deals with property rights and punishment for breaking a law based on ones social class Around 1400, the Hittites destroy the Babylonians. Assyria (c. 900-612) Found at the apex of Mesopotamia. It's capitol place is Nineveh. Violent people who took war to a new ferocity. The Assyrians eventually conquer most of the Fertile Crescent. Sennacherib ruled from c. 704- 681. Ashurbanipal ruled from c. 680- 626. Nineveh is destroyed in 612. Chaldean Babylon (New Babylon) About 1100 years are between the old and new Babylon. Their most famous ruler is Nebuchadnezzar. The new Babylon is famous for also having the Hanging Gardens. The ability to construct something of this nature made Nebuchadnezzar appear to have an immense amount of power. The Babylonians are also known for being great astronomers and having large amounts of literature. Mesopotamian Mythology Mostly about people's efforts to survive in harsh environments. People wanted to keep the gods happy. A good example of Mesopotamian Mythology is the Epic of Gilgamesh. General Conclusions About Mesopotamian Civilization They had the ability to write. They had forms of government. They had complex religions. 8-29-08 F Ancient Egypt Old Kingdom Famous period in which the pyramids at Giza were built. King Khufu, also known as Cheops, had the Great Pyramid at Giza built for his tomb. Middle Kingdom Hyksos (meaning "rulers of the foreign countries") are what the Egyptians called a group of foreigners that came in and managed to become Egypt's rulers in its troubled times. New Kingdom Tutankhamen ruled during this time period. Hatshepsut is the female pharaoh who ruled. Amenhotep IV tried to unite the country as a monotheistic country worshiping the sun. Nefertiti is his wife. Ramses II ruled during this time period as well. Egyptian Mythology Osiris- the god of the dead Horus- guide to the underworld Isis- Osiris's wife Amon-Re- the sun god Anubis- jackal headed god that deals with death 9-1-08 M : No Class 9-3-08 W Minoan and Mycenaean Civilization Crete and Minoan Civilization Not much is known about the Minoans. The island of Crete is thought to be home to Minoan Civilization The Palatial Period (2000- 1450) brought about the construction of many palaces. The palace at Knossos was over 3 acres and 3 or 4 stories high. The story of King Minos's son, the Minotaur, and the Athenian Prince Theseus comes from the belief that this palace had a maze in which people were fed to the Minotaur who lived within it. Arthur Evans (1851- 1941) goes to Crete in the late 19th century to find any truth to the tale. He is the one who named the civilization and the people who lived there as Minoans, after the King Minos. Evans also found clay tablets with script on it that he called Linear A. No one has been able to decipher it to this day. Mycenae (1600- 1100 BCE) The end of Minoan civilization brings about the start of the Mycenaean civilization. Sometime around 1600, people stopped using Linear A and started using Linear B. Michael Ventris learns to decipher Linear B and it is ancient Greek. This proves that the Mycenaean's were in fact Greek and not a separate group of people. From their arts and burial grounds, we can learn that they are war-like. The Mycenaean people lived in the Peloponnesus, or southern Greece. Some of the cities include Mycenae, Tiryns, and Pylos. Heinrich Schliemann (1822-1890) goes to Greece to find the legendary city of Troy. He wants to find proof of the Trojan War, the Troy that was ruled by Priam around 1200 BCE. He found a layer of ash and some pottery and gold. He calls it Agamemnon's Treasure after one of the hero's of the war. Agamemnon was from Mycenae so Schliemann went there as no city had been built over the ruins because it is considered to be cursed. He found a shaft grave there and found a golden mask which he calls the Mask of Agamemnon. Scientist later prove the mask comes from the 1600s. He also found a tholos, which is an underground beehive shaped grave. 9-5-08 F Bronze Age and Archaic Greece All of the Ages for Greece Bronze Age Minoan Palatial (2000-1450 BCE) Mycenaean (1600-1100 BCE) "Dark" or Iron Age (1100-800 BCE) Archaic (800-480 BCE) Classical (480-323 BCE) Hellenistic (323-31 BCE) Imperial (31- ) Archaic Period (800-480 BCE) Poems of Homer had a great impact. According to Homer, the Greeks lived by a heroic code which governed their actions. Heroic Code Fame Honor Excellence in Battle Rich/Powerful Handsome At the end of the Iron Age, people live in polis, which is a city surrounded by farmland. By the end of the Archaic Period there are over 1000 polis. The Greeks in this time are ruled by aristocrat, which means "ruled by the best". This is the aristocratic ideal. A threat to the aristocrat ideal is tyranny, which means a single person is ruling. Example of a good tyrant would be Peisistratus of Athens The Greeks adopt a phalanx fighting system made up of hoplites. A phalanx is also a threat to the aristocratic ideal because it makes people want to be heard. There were too many people living in Greece at this time so they began colonization. From the Phoenicians, they have taken an alphabet. 9-8-08 M The Persian Wars : 500-479 BCE Persia and the Greeks Herodotus is our main source of information about the Persian Wars. Herodotus is sometimes called the "Father of History". He uses proof in his writings to make his readers believe him. This is called autopsy, which means see with your own eyes. He said the Persian Wars started because of Croesus, the king of Lydia (560-547 BCE), and Cyrus, the King of Persia (558-530 BCE). Croesus is a very rich king who conquered all of Asia Minor including Ionia where Greeks live. Ionia is located in Asia Minor. The Oracle at Delphi told him that if he chooses to attack Cyrus then a mighty empire would fall. Croesus is defeated by Cyrus so Cyrus now has control over all of Asia Minor including the Ionian Greeks. Ionian Revolt (499-494 BCE) Cyrus dies and is succeeded by Darius. Greek city-state Miletus decides to revolt against the Persians to gain control of Ionia and asks Sparta for some help. Sparta declines. Athens, however, sends 20 ships as help for the revolt. Persia puts down the revolt after five years. The Persians are now angry at Athens for aiding in the revolt so Darius decides to send an army to Athens. The Persian Wars (Part 1) The Persian troops arrive at Marathon in 490 to camp and start preparing their attack on Athens. Athens sent a runner to Sparta who tells them of the Persians preparing to attack. Sparta is having a religious holiday and agrees to help after a few days. Miltiades, a young Athenian, says that they should attack the Persians because they would not expect it and they soon decided to attack. One morning as the Persians are getting ready the Athenians attack and kill hundreds and hundreds of Persians. Those who live sailed back. Marathon is 25 miles from Athens and they quickly make haste make to Athens as they realize there is not many people protecting the city. Legend says a runner by the name of either Phedippides or Eucles ran back to Athens from Marathon to tell the citizens that they won the battle and then collapsed and died. Between the Wars Xerxes is now king of Persia and is getting his men ready to attack Athens. In Laurion, they discovered silver and Themistocles convinces them to build a navy. Themistocles is the "Father of the Athenian Navy". They build 200 trireme, and 40,000 men are needed to man those ships. Athens at this time has the most impressive and powerful navy in the world. The Empire Strikes Back: The Persian Wars (Part 2) In 480 the Persians are back for war. According to Herodotus, this time a million Persians had come and the Greeks know that they are coming. Sparta tries valiantly to keep the Persians from passing through Thermopylae but Spartan king Leonidas and 300 Spartans all fought to the death and lost. Athens was evacuated to Salamis and the Persians destroyed Athens. Themistocles and the Athenian navy destroy the Persian navy, which also supplied the Persian army. Now as their food and supply source was destroyed the Persian army wondered Greece during the winter and was destroyed by the Spartan army. Ionia was liberated from Persian rule and Persia gave up trying to conquer and destroy Greece. Cultural Consequences of the Persian War The Greeks look at non-Greeks as barbarians. Becomes the archetype of west-east conflicts Conclusions about the Persian War Solidified notions of Greekness and non-Greekness. Athens became the most powerful city in Greece. Greeks gained an immense amount of confidence in their own superiority. 9-10-08 W Athens and Sparta Archaic Athens Athenian democracy excluded half the population; women and slaves are not included as well as resident foreigners. Athens has the most amount of people than the other Greek city-states. The Archon is the head chief magistrate of Athens. Archaic Athenian Rulers and Archons Cylon (630 BCE) tried to become a tyrant but failed because he didn't have the support of the people. When Draco (622 BCE) was Archon he created a set of laws that were very harsh so they did not work well. Solon (594 BCE) becomes Archon and sets out to settle down Athens as it was divided with economic issues and political issues. He made it possible so that political offices were open to everyone. He was also a war hero and a poet. Solon's Reforms: Got rid of selling Athenians off into slavery to pay off a debt Established property qualifications for political office However, he did not settle to debt so neither side was happy with it. Athenians promised to observe his laws for 10 years but they divided again after a few years. He divided the classes based on how much money you had. Peisistratus (561-527 BCE) is known as the Tyrant of Athens. He came into power three times and fell from power once. He did a lot of beautify Athens. As democracy got going and more people believed in it, the idea of a tyrant is offensive to Athenians. He was a benevolent tyrant. Cleisthenes (508 BCE) becomes Archon and creates a council of 500 Athenians to do day to day work. He chose these people by dividing Athens into 10 groups and every year 50 people were chosen from each group. Pericles (495-429 BCE) introduced radical democracy. Every single law was passed by the members of the assembly. He embodies this great age of Athens. The only place he kept elected officials was the military. He runs Athens as an elected general. His rhetorical skills were great so he was able to persuade the assembly to do things. The Pnyx The pnyx is the assembly place where people listened to speakers before they voted on ideas. Ostracism A process in which they can vote to exile an Athenian for 10 years. The maximum amount of people they can exile per year was one person. Ostraka is a word that means "broken pottery". This is called ostracism because they cast their choices for the person to exile on pieces of broken pottery. 9-12-08 F: This is a continuation of Wednesday's notes. Athens and Sparta (continued) Sparta Sparta controls the lower Peloponnesus. The area where Sparta is located is also called Laconia which means "closed mouth". Spartan Living Helots are people in slavery who are hereditary slaves. They are tied to the land. Perioikoi literally means "those who live around" and these are the people who live in areas around Sparta who do whatever the head of Sparta tell them to such as make weapons. Spartiates are the elite class of fighting people in Sparta. They are Spartan citizens. Spartans lived very simply and really only trained for war. Spartans had the attitude that too many words were a waste of effort. They believed that deeds are better than words. Women had a lot more rights than Athenians as the men were often training for war or at war. 9-15-08 M The Golden Age of Athens The Growth of Athens Athens formed the Delian League. A lot of Asia Minor is in it. It’s a naval league. It is centered on the island of Delos. Some of the cities in the League are so small that they cannot afford to build their own trireme so they pay Athens to do it. Its goal is to punish the Persians for the war and protect themselves. Athens now had a lot of money coming in as they were receiving more money to create a navy so they were becoming more powerful. A lot in Athens was built and created from this exploitation. Eventually some of the cities decided they no longer wanted to be in the League but ended up being forced into it as they helped Athens build this great navy that they could use against them. Athens eventually transformed the Delian League into its own private empire. "Classical" Greece Athens used the money given to it from other cities to beautify the city. There is poetry and drama. This is also the high times of democracy as they had the money to pay people to do things and speak. Drama at Athens There are different types of drama that is popular in Athens: Tragedies which were sad stories that dealt with myth in Athens. Comedies were very lewd and sexual. Satyr-Play which were a combination of tragedies and comedies but only one has survived since ancient times. Groups of plays, usually nine, were played once a year at Dionysia and Lenaia. The Theater of Dionysus was able to hold 17,000 people. A lot of the money from the League went to paying for construction for these theaters and plays. Pericles largely orchestrated these projects. Projects to Beautify Athens Some of the building built from this money: The Propylaea (started in 437 BCE) The Parthenon (447-432 BCE) Temple of Hephaestus (449-415 BCE) Temple of Poseidon at Sounion (ca. 444 BCE) All of these were paid for mostly by the money brought in from the League. Sparta's Response to this Growing Power Sparta was growing alarmed as Athens was becoming more powerful. This is the cause of the Peloponnesus War. The war finally broke out in 431 BCE. Thucydides wrote about the beginning of the war. It was finished by Xenophon. The Peloponnesian War (431-404 BCE) Sparta would invade Athens for 6 years and burn down some of Athens over and over again. The Athenians would see them coming and go into the huge city walls. Pericles told the Athenians that they could not win a war on land but if we ignore them long enough we can probably win. The Spartans could never stay long as the Helots would probably revolt back in Sparta. Unfortunately, the plague hit and thousands and thousands of Athenians die. Thucydides even gets it. Pericles dies from the plague in 429 BCE and his strategy goes with him. The Athenians starts fighting the Spartans and in 425 BCE they managed to capture over 100 Spartiates in the Battle of Sphacteria. They are held for 10 years and threatened to kill the Spartiates if the Spartans try to attack again. So they agree to stop. The Peloponnesian Wars Part 2 Sparta wants to call a truce and get their men back but Athens refused. Three years later Sparta wins a great victory over the Athenians at the Battle of Amphipolis. The war finally comes to a stop in 421 as they signed a peace treaty called the Peace of Nicias. The Athenians at this time want to capture the island of Sicily and they get help from some other Greek cities in 415 BCE. This ends in disaster for the Athenians as they lose the army that they send. The Decelean War (413-404 BCE) The Spartans realized that the Athenians were weak now so they started the Decelean Wars and they build a fort in Athens territory. Athens tries to recover after losing their army and a lot of their navy in Sicily but it doesn’t work out. Athens was unable to defend the city in 405 BCE and was forced to surrender at the Battle of Aegospotami. The Spartan commander is Lysander and now has a navy which was funded by the Persians. Sparta managed to win the war as Athens is never able to fully recover. Consequences of the Peloponnesian War This war ends the Greek civilization in the classical sense. Athens is never as powerful as they once were and the Delian League is destroyed. This war ended the Golden Age of Athens and the Athenian Empire. Sparta briefly take over for 30 years but Greece is permanently weakened after this war. Thebes, Sparta, and Athens all fought for power amongst themselves leaving themselves vulnerable for capture by the Macedonians in 338 BCE. 9-17-08 W The Rise of Macedon The Aftermath of the Peloponnesian War Between 404 and 368 BCE, Greece fell into intense instability as many city-states fought for power. "Hegemony" means the amount of time one is in power for and "hegemon" means leader. Greeks fought to become the hegemon and have a long period of hegemony. Sparta was seduced by power so after defeating the Athenians they attempt to control Greece. The Spartan military met the Theban army led by Epaminondas in 371 BCE and were easily destroyed by the Thebes. Thebes had the support of the "Sacred Band" which is a group of 300 hand picked, strong soldiers who fought side by side with their homosexual lovers as the belief was that they would fight harder for those they loved. Thebes is now in control and captures some of the area outside of Sparta and freed a lot of helots. They move towards Sparta and attack and defeat the Spartans but Epaminondas dies in the battle in 362 BCE. Athens is also trying to resurrect themselves and reestablish their power by creating the Second Athenian League but they are not trusted so they never gain enough power to ever up seat Sparta or Thebes. Macedon Macedon is very rich in resources so Athens tries to take over Macedon to have their lumber for their triremes. When Thebes had control of Greece, they told Macedon to not give Athens lumber and they captured Phillip II, the prince at the time, and help him to make sure they don't. Phillip II is in his teens and is housed with Epaminondas and learns from him. When he goes back to Macedon and becomes king in 360 BCE he uses what he learned from Epaminondas to rule. Phillip's Achievements He strengthened Macedon Militarily Domestically Foreign Relations He equipped their phalanx with sarissa's which are 18ft long spears while normal phalanx use spears that are 6ft long. Eventually he is pulled into a war as the Athenian leader Demosthenes doesn't like Phillip II. They fight at Chaeronea in 338 BCE and Phillip's 18 year old nephew, Alexander, leads the Macedonian army who destroys the Greek's army. All 300 men in the "Sacred Band" were killed in the battle at Chaeronea. This is significant because now Phillip II has control over Greece. Phillip II gets the Greeks at a meeting at the isthmus at Corinth and formed the League of Corinth in 337 BCE and the League's goal is to destroy the Persians. Phillip II makes plans to attack Persia but he is assassinated in 336 BCE at a theater. Alexander Becomes King 20 year old Alexander becomes king in 336 BCE. Phillip had left plans to attack Persia before his death. The Illyrians, who were under Macedonian rule, believed Alexander to be weak and attempted to revolt so Alexander went there to quell the revolt. He learns at this time that the Athenians thought he was dead so he decides to march his army down to Athens. On the was he burns and destroys most of Thebes. Demosthenes and the Athenians are wary of Alexander now and Alexander chose not to destroy the city-state. Conquering Persia Alexander probably had about 43,000 in his infantry and 6,000 cavalry. He jumps into battle at Granicus in 334 BCE and defeats them mostly because it was a surprise attack. In 333 BCE, the Macedonian army goes to Issus and again Alexander's army triumphs. Persian ruler Darius II runs from there. Alexander continues his conquest and attacks at Giza and wins the battle although he gets injured. Tyre is a city in two parts; part of the city is on land, the other is on an island. Alexander captured the land part of Tyre and wants the island as well so they built a causeway to the island during a seven month siege so he could capture it as well. He subdues Egypt easily as they do not like the Persians and they make him Pharaoh. He fights Darius II in a decisive battle at Gaugamela in 331 BCE. The area is also called Arbela. 9-19-08 F Alexander and the Hellenistic World (356-323 BCE) Alexander's Death Alexander died from either an illness or was poisoned. His four generals divided his empire to rule it. Ptolemy took over Egypt. Seleucid took over Asia Minor. Alexander's wife Roxanne was pregnant with a boy at the time of Alexander's death but they were both killed 10 years later. Alexander's Legacy He spread Greek culture (Hellenism) Cities, language, trade, athletics, etc. were all influence by Alexander's rule. Many cities he named Alexandria, the most famous one is in Egypt. Hellenistic culture is a Greek-like culture as it is a mixture of the existing culture of the city/nation combined with Greek culture. The Hellenistic World Decline of Greek civilization as no one is strong enough to unite the area after his death. Mathematics and science flourish. Hellenistic Literature The Library of Alexandria was a huge library in Alexandria that Ptolemy invited famous people to contribute to or visit. It supposedly held 70,000 scrolls. The library was burned by the Christians and the Muslims during the Crusades. Philosophy also flourishes with new ideas such as epicureans, cynicism, and stoicism. Hellenistic scholars were responsible for canonizing the culture of the 5th century. 9-22-08 M The Roman Republic: Constitution and Society Mythic Foundations Romulus and Remus were twins sent away for their safety and was cared for by a she-wolf until a man found them. They founded Rome, according to the myth. Romulus killed Remus as they were always competing since they did not know who was older. By tradition, April 21, 753 BCE is when Romulus founded Rome. Roman Rule From 753-509 BCE, Rome had kings, but they did not have absolute power. The senate is a deliberate body as they advise the king and have power. The senate doesn’t have the power to make laws but they are so powerful that whatever they recommend becomes law. The king does have some powers: Imperium- the right to command an army in a certain geographical area Auspicium- signs of the gods indicating the future by counting birds in the sky All of Rome is divided into two groups of people: Plebeians and Patricians. Patricians are aristocratic in nature and you have to be born a patrician to be one. Plebeians are everyone that is not a slave that’s a common citizen. The plebeians want more rights as the monarchy comes to an end and the republic begins. Patron-client relationships are very important to the Roman people. This is where a more powerful Roman, the patron, takes care of a less powerful Roman, the client. They help each other out as the client gets protection and the patron gets prestige. Pietas is a word that means loyalty to ones family and country and its ones observance of decorum. Dignitas is your standing or your reputation which is also very important to the Roman people. The Roman Republic The aristocrats rose up and overthrew the monarchy and established a republic. In a democracy every person has a voice while in a republic people are chosen to represent large groups of people and speak for them. Consuls and praetors also have imperium and these officials are elected. The senate is not really democratic as they are not elected. Once one was done being a consul or a praetor and had enough wealth, they enter the senate for life. Occasionally the Romans elected censors who chose who could be in the army and their rank. The censors also had the power to kick someone out of the senate. Rarely, Rome would elect a dictator to take over in times of trouble. A dictators rule lasted 18 months although they could get re-elected. The Romans had four assemblies: Curiate assembly- the oldest Romans could join this assembly. Centuriate assembly- the army voted in blocks in this assembly. Tribal assembly- there are 30 tribes and people can vote within their tribe. Plebeian assembly- all of the plebeians can vote in this assembly. All of the assemblies has the power to pass laws over all Roman citizens. Wars of the Republic The Etruscans are a powerful group of people in Italy. Their king is Lars Porsenna and they have come in contact with the Greeks before. The Etruscans are going down to conquer Rome so the guards at one of the Roman bridges ran except for one who told everyone to burn the bridge down and leave him fighting on the other side. He eventually jumps into the river and swims back to the Roman side once the bridge is destroyed and he became famous because of his pietas. His name is Horatio Cocles. The Etruscans camp out on the other side preparing to take over Rome while Rome sent an assassin to kill Lars Porsenna. His name is Mucius and he killed the wrong person and is captured. They decided to burn him to death and to prove he was not afraid he stuck his right hand into a flame burning it off. Lars Porsenna is so amazed that he has his men just let him go free. The Romans then call him Mucius Scaevola which means "lefty". Later the Romans fight Veii in 406-396 BCE, a city in the north for 10 years. Marcus Furius Camillus led the army. The Gaul's lived in present day France and they swept down and burned Rome in 390 BCE. Rome is deeply scarred from this and they now hate the Gauls. No foreign invasion would conquer Rome for another 800 years. The Romans eventually conquer most of Italy when they come across Pyrrhus and his army and fight from 280-275 BCE. They fight for 5 years and Pyrrhus won a couple times but his wins are so costly, it is almost like he has lost. This type of victory is called a Pyrrhic victory. 9-24-08 W The Struggle of the Orders and the Punic Wars Struggle of the Orders The Roman Republic is expanding its power. Rome controls the Italian peninsula, most of which is modern day Italy. The Struggle of the Orders is a series of negotiations between the patricians and the plebeians. The highest order in Rome is the consul. Once someone was elected consul their family becomes nobles. The plebeians gain more power in this struggle in Rome. 450 BCE, the 12 Tables were the original written set of laws in Rome. The plebeians demanded that the laws be written down to protect them as patricians had a lot of power even in the courts. 449 BCE, the plebeians stage a Secessio, in which all of the plebeians left the city and went outside the walls to let the patricians know that they need the plebeians. It was very powerful as they threatened to do it during times of war to leave the patricians to fend for themselves. Then they made the Assembly of Plebeians. The Tribunes of the Plebeians was then made which has ten elected members and they have the power to veto an act at anytime. The Tribune members are elected by the Assembly of the Plebeians. 367 BCE, Sexto-Lincinian Reforms were done with the most important one allowing a plebeian to be a consul if elected. 342 BCE both consuls could be plebeians if elected. 339 BCE at least one censor must be a plebeian. 287 BCE the Assembly of Plebeians laws were binding. 1st Punic War 265-241 BCE Carthage is famous for its strong merchant class and navy. It also owns Sicily, which was half island Greeks and the other half Carthaginians. Rome decides to fight to take over Sicily because the Greeks ask for help. Hamlicar Barca is the Carthaginian general in charge of its army. Rome is not a powerful sea force but has enough resources to continuously rebuild their navy until they win the first war. Regulus is commanding an army when he is captured by the Carthaginians and is sent to Rome to tell them to stop fighting. He tells the Romans to never give up and returns to Carthage on his honor and is tortured to death. His display of pietas was very important to the Romans. Rome comes to control Sicily which is really important because this is the first province they get and marks them as an imperial force. Rome made Carthage pay a lot of money so Carthage is very angry and not that weakened from the war which sets the stage for the next war. 2nd Punic War 218-202 BCE Hamlicar leads the Carthaginians to Spain and conquers it. Hamlicar dies and his son Hannibal takes over the army. In 218 BCE, Hannibal realizes another war with the Romans is coming so he decides to start it to have the element of surprise. They cross Gaul and went through the Alps before reaching northern Italy. The Romans sent two generals to Spain to help their allies while sending a consul with an army to fight Hannibal. The Battle of Cannae in 216 BCE is disastrous as the consul and 60-70 thousand Romans are killed. Hannibal marches up and down the countryside trying to get people to turn on the Romans but he never gets as many people as he hopes for. He settles in southern Italy, builds a wall, and stays there for 14 years. The Romans had a lot of commitment to fighting this war and despite devastating losses they are able to build army after army. Eventually Scipio, a Roman, has an idea and crosses into North Africa to attack Carthage. Hannibal quickly hurries his men back to Carthage where they meet Scipio at the Battle of Zama. Scipio defeats him and takes the name Scipio Africannus meaning the conqueror of Africa. 3rd Punic War 148-146 BCE Carthage did nothing to deserve this war because they are weak. Rome is still angry over the 1st and 2nd war and destroys Carthage. 9-26-08 F The Roman Revolution 2nd Century Crisis Small farmers are gone as they have been gone for 16 years fighting Hannibal so most leave their farmland and move to Rome. They can't be in the army now as a requirement is that they own land. The Senate buys a lot of this land called latifundia and uses slave labor. There are now angry poor people in Rome that make up the urban mob. 9-29-08 M The Roman Revolution, Caesar, and Augustus The Last Generation of the Roman Republic Pompey is a great general and gets imperium over the water to fight pirates. He is also called Pompey the Great. Marcus Licinius Crassus is the richest man in Rome. He also organized the first fire brigade in Rome but he charged people for putting out their fire. Gaius Julius Caesar (100-44 BCE) has held some positions before in Rome and his family is famous. Cato really believed that everything was for the state and had great pietas and dignitas. Pompey and Crassus recognize the greatness in Caesar and they formed what is called the Great Triumvirate. The First Triumvirate-60 BCE Cicero is an optimate and is the greatest orator of the ancient world and becomes consul. He fights to preserve the power of the Senate. This Triumvirate decide to run Roman politics. They money, power, and fame going for them and call in favors from their clients. In 59 BCE, Caesar was elected consul. Caesar's daughter eventually marries Pompey. Caesar is sent to Gaul in 58 BCE and subdues the entire area of Gaul and had some fabulous exploits. There is unrest in Rome while Caesar was gone subduing the Gauls. Crassus sets off to the east to fight the Parthians and is killed in 53 BCE. The End of the First Triumvirate. Pompey is alarmed at Caesar's growing power. By 49 BCE, Caesar wants to leave his army and stand for the office of consul but the Senate says that if he leaves his army he will be a normal citizen and will be tried for taking one of Rome's allies and helping them defeat another ally. Caesar said he will abandon his army if Pompey does but they refuse so he crosses the Rubicon with his army and marches on Rome. "The die is cast"- Caesar Caesar takes over Rome and Pompey runs as his army is elsewhere. Eventually they meet at the Battle of Pharsalus and defeats Pompey who runs to Egypt. Pompey is betrayed and is killed before Caesars gets down to Egypt and is upset to learn that his old friend is dead. Caesar stays in Egypt for a few months with Cleopatra before going to Asia Minor. He returns to Rome in 46 BCE and is appointed dictator. Caesar as Dictator He gives a lot of his veterans their land. He forgives his enemies and stops pursuing them. He reinstates the Julian calendar and does a lot of economic reforms. He also enlarged the Senate to about 900 members. He built a new forum and other buildings. He also does his best to settle things down in Rome and bring stability to Rome. He rules as dictator and is then voted to be dictator for life in February, 44 BCE. He is assassinated in March of 44 BCE by people he trusted and did not believe were enemies. The Republic was never the same after this. Octavian (63 BCE- AD 14) Caesar adopted Octavian and he is 18 when Caesar died. He doesn't want to go back to the Republic and he goes back to the Senate. Marcus Antonius is the leader of the Populous and agrees to give Octavian a chance as he believes he will be easy to control. When Caesar died he left money for all of the Romans but Marcus Antonius, or Marc Antony, took the money so he borrowed the money and paid all of the Romans. It was a smart move because all of the Romans now love him. Second Triumvirate Marc Antony, Octavian, and Lepidus make this up. It was formed to defeat Caesar's killers. Crassus and Brutus are defeated in the Battle of Philippi in 42 BCE. Octavian is not a good military commander but luckily Marc Antony was. Octavian and Antony talk about settling down Rome by themselves and this goes on for several years. It becomes evident that they don't like each other even though Antony is married to Octavian's sister. So Antony leaves to go take over land to try to return like Caesar did. He goes to Egypt and meets up with Cleopatra and Octavian is angry because Antony is married to his sister. In 31 BCE in a navel battle called the Battle of Actium, Cleopatra and Antony are defeated by Octavian's forces and they commit suicide. Octavian's Rule He restores the allusion of the Republic. He has himself voted consul and tribune all the time to make the people believe the Republic was back in place although it really wasn't. In 31 BCE, the Senate rules to call Octavian, Augustus and he rules until 14 AD. He reforms the provinces and reforms the Senate and brings a peace to Rome called the Pax Romana which means the "Roman Peace". The Pax Romana lasts for about 200 years. Octavian may have been a bad commander but he was a great administrator. 10-01-08 W The Julio Claudian's and the Five Good Emperors The Empire After Augustus Augustus (31 BCE-14 AD) rules for a long time and settles down Rome. For 200 years they have the Pax Romana which was ushered in by Augustus. Rome is an empire now yet some wanted to return to the republic. There is a succession problem in Rome. A problem choosing a new leader, a legitimate heir vs. a capable ruler Octavian becomes emperor at 18 years old after Caesar's death. The Julio-Claudian's Tiberius (14-37 AD) He becomes emperor and is Caesar's stepson. He did not really want to be emperor because he was used to being a soldier in Rome. The Senate did not like Tiberius because they want to bring back the republic. He eventually retires from being emperor. Caligula (37-41 AD) His name means "little boots", was loved by the soldiers. He becomes emperor and becomes sick a few months in. When he recovers he is crazy and becomes a crazy tyrant. He loved having twisted things done to people and had incestuous relations with three of his sisters. He is eventually assassinated by a soldier with a lisp that he often took advantage of. Claudius (41-54 AD) Was also supposedly crazy, becomes emperor next. He did a fairly good job at being emperor for 13 years. Nero (54-68 AD) He is fairly crazy himself and becomes emperor when he is 16 years old. Nero is not a good administrator and neglects his duties. He listens to his mother and Seneca all the time. In 59 AD, he had his mother killed and forced Seneca to commit suicide in 62 AD. He blames Christians of making a fire in the city where he eventually built a palace and would tie them to a stake and light it on fire. The people of Judea revolt and Nero sends one of his generals to quell the revolt. In 68 AD, Nero commits suicide. The Year of the Four Emperors After Nero, the emperor is chosen from the army. Soldiers became very loyal more to their commanders than the state. In 69 AD, there were four commanders who were elevated to the rank of emperor. The Flavian dynasty starts bringing in emperors from the army. Vespasian (69-79 AD) becomes emperor and dies so his son Titus (79-81 AD) becomes emperor. Titus dies during his reign from illness so his brother Domitian (81-96 AD) becomes emperor. During his reign Mt. Vesuvius erupts and destroys the city of Pompeii and two others. He doesn’t get along with the Senate and his wife plots to have him assassinated for wanting to divorce her. He had the coliseum built near the giant statue of Nero. The Five Good Emperors This time the Senate steps in and chooses Nerva (96-98 AD), a senator, to be emperor. Under Trajan (98-117 AD), the empire reaches its largest point. Hadrian (117-138 AD) didn’t want to expand any further so they built a wall to mark the outermost points of the empire. Example, in Britain today there still stands part of that wall. They built it to let the people know that they wouldn’t expand past that point. Antoninus Pius (138-161 AD) brings in the Antonine Age which brought about a lot of art, and philosophy, and culture to the empire. Marcus Aurelius (161-180 AD) was a philosopher, a general, and eventually the emperor. Marcus doesn’t adopt a successor but chooses his own son Commodus (180-192 AD) who actually does a pretty bad job as emperor. 10-03-08 F There were no notes today. We went over the midterm review which can be found online on ANGEL. We also discussed documents and took a quiz on the documents for the week. 10-06-08 M The Rise of Christianity The Five Good Emperors (continued) The five good emperors were so good because they hand picked their successor based on ability. Hellenistic Religions At the time of Alexander the Great, they are creating cities almost everywhere that they go. There is a development of community type religion called syncretism which is the blend different religions. Their god is Serapis. There is also the new cult called mithras which has Persian influences. To join the mithras cult, one had to buy a bull, kill it, and be baptized in the blood of the dead bull. The cult of Orpheus is a cult that also emerged but it was about a writer who has been to the afterlife and has come back. People liked these religions because it gave them extra knowledge and a sense of community. Zoroastrianism is a very prominent religion from Persia that included fire. People are looking to reestablish the ties they had in their old communities as they are now living in the new cities made by Alexander the Great so they looked to religion to try to reassert their roots. "Conversion", Religion, and Philosophy Many philosophers lived during the Hellenistic period. "Covert" to philosophy, not religion. Philosophical ideals- virtue, morality, and wisdom. The third century was a rough time for the Roman Empire. There were invasions, economic problems, and domestic issues. These hard times had people turning for good news and for answers to problems. The Spread of Christianity Has roots in Judaism and is about a man who lived, died, and rose again. Its monotheistic and early Christian rites are secretive. Its private nature made it appear to be a mystery religion. Since they believed that you were either a Christian or not, this turned some people off to it. Herod dies in 4 AD so it is believed that Jesus lived in this time. His apostles spread the early religion. And this spread throughout the cities and the early world. Pagan has to do with someone from the countryside but today carries a new connotation. Christians, believers, live in the cities, while Pagans, nonbelievers, live on the countryside. Christianity is still a small movement as of now. Why Was Christianity Successful? Christianity offered a clear cut road to salvation. It is open to everybody. Even slaves, women, criminals, soldiers, outcasts, the poor, etc. They have a moral code. It offered a promise of a better world. It also offered a sense of community, a sense of belonging. It appeals to people's religious needs and also their philisophical beliefs. It fit into the ideals of the Hellenistic text. Why Was Christianity Unpopular? It started with no tradition and to the Romans tradition was very important. While Romans were okay with worshipping more than one god, Christians would only worship one and called the Romans wrong for believing what they did. The Romans feared that the Christians refusing to worship the gods for only one instead would upset the gods and cause them all problems. In the beginning the Christians were very secretive so people were very suspicious of the religion. 10-08-08 W The Third Century Crisis and the Fall of the (western) Roman Empire The Rise of Christianity (continued) Justin Martyr wrote many apologys. Apologys to ancient Greeks meant literally to speak in defense of. He defended Christianity and tried to portray Christianity as the only true philosophy. Irenaeus wrote a book called against heresy which was about heresy. Tertullian addressed how a Christian could live in a pagan world. Clement of Alexandria wrote a booklet that said that selling what you own doesn’t refer to your worldly possession but your sins. He rationalized the earlier teaching to make it sound good to his contemporary audience. Origin is responsible for cultifying Christianity. Gnosticism has to do with extra knowledge that was supposed to help you out in the afterlife. Donatism is the belief that if you denied being a Christian, it should be very hard for you to be allowed to be one. Arianism is the most pronounced of the non-orthodox traditions. They believed that Jesus was not equal to God since God came first; therefore, Jesus must be slightly inferior. This is not orthodox because the orthodox believe he is one and the same with God. Third Century Crisis The Sassins take over Trajan's holdings in the east. The Goths, the Franks, are invading from the north. Persecutions of Decius Decius believes they have strayed to far from the mos maiorum so he persecuted Christians. This is why Christianity wasn't popular during the third century. They were being blamed for causing so many problems because they refused to worship the other gods. Diocletian comes along in 284 AD and fixes problems but they don’t last long. He sets up the Tetrarchy and divides the empire into the eastern empire and the western empire. He sets it up there is an Augustus, who is the emperor, and a Caesar, who is second in command. They choose people based on ability. The Caesar would then become the Augustus and choose a new Caesar. Diocletian became Augustus for the east and picked someone else for the west. They divided the empire into 13 dioceses. He also enacts many reforms, strengthened the army, and stabilized the currency. He tried to mandate occupations based on what ones father does but it doesn’t work. Galerius is Diocletian's Caesar. He passes the an edict that makes it illegal to be a Christian and confiscated church land. It goes on for a decade and is ended by Constantine. Constantine and the Byzantium Empire The Edict of Milan reverses Galerius's reforms. Eventually Constancius is Augustus and he chose someone to be Caesar. Constantine is his son and wrecks the Tetrarchy when he takes command after his father dies instead of the Caesar. He marches on Rome and sees a cross in the sky claiming he will win the battle, which he does. He takes over the Roman empire in 308 AD but he pretty much ignored the western half. He doesn’t make Christianity the official religion but he does make it prominent as all of the rulers who follow him, except one, are Christians. He sets up a city called Constantinople where Byzantium once was. He creates ecumenical councils where the Christians and clergy can get together and hammer out their differences. He uses Christianity to bring the empire together. He really only controlled the Eastern half since he ignored the other half of the empire. 10-10-08 F The Fall of the Roman Empire Collapse of the Roman Empire (Western) There are four events that are often referred to as the end of the Roman Empire. In 378 AD the Goth's were starving to death and the Romans were selling them food at extremely high prices. At the Battle of Adrianople, Valens, the Roman emperor, was killed by the Goths. This was very bad because it showed that the barbarians can even destroy the emperor. In 395 AD, the empire was divided into east and west. In 410 AD, Alaric the Visigoth attacks and sacks Rome. It has been 800 years since the last time someone sacked Rome. Two barbarians actually fought for Rome. Alaric the Visigoth fought against Rome while Stilicho the Vandal fought for Rome. In 476 AD, Romulus Augustus is the last western emperor and he abdicates his position. The eastern part of the empire, eventually the Byzantine Empire, lasts until 1453 AD. They claim to be the Roman empire although Rome is not part of their empire. Reasons for the "Decline and Fall" of the Roman Empire Succession problems are never worked out. Economic breakdown as succession problems cause political instability. The barbarians are invading continuously. You can't tell the difference between "barbaric Romans" and the "actual Romans". People are moving out of the cities. Afterlife of the Roman Empire Charlemagne claims to be the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. Napoleon tries to revive the empire in the 1800's as well. Our Senate is based off the idea of the Senate in Roman times. The word Caesar became synonymous with leader. The Russians call their leader the "Tsar" after Caesar while the Germans do the same thing calling their leader "Kaiser" after Caesar. The ideals of Rome last for a very long time and are evident in a lot of places today.