Psych 2102 Julie Tuttle Friday 12.5. Two Types of Mood Disorders: Unipolar disorders: emotional extremes at ONE end of the mood continuum ( depression Bipolar disorders: emotional extremes at BOTH ends of the mood continuum; individual cycles between depression and mania Mania is characterized by extreme excitement and elation (DSM Criteria for Major depression First criterion A. sadness or B. anhedonia: diminished interest or pleasure in unusual activities Pass first criterion + least FOUR of the following: Significant weight or appetite change Sleep disturbances Insomnia [trouble sleeping] or hypersomnia [sleeping all the time] Psychomotor retardation or agitation ? reaction times are slowed, speech can be slowed Feelings of worthlessness or excessive guilt ? internal attribution of catastrophic thinking ? ?everything is my fault? Diminished ability to concentrate or indecisiveness Suicidal ideation or behavior Symptoms must be present persistently for at least 2 weeks (DSM Criteria for Bipolar Depression First criterion: An abnormally and persistently elevated expansive or irritable mood Pass first criterion + THREE [or more] of the following: Inflated self esteem or grandiosity Decreased need for sleep Rapid speech [talkative] Acing thoughts/flight of ideas Highly distractible Increase in ?goal-directed activity?/grandiosity ? gambling all of their money and belongings because they feel so strongly that they will win. Involvement in ?pleasurable but dangerous activities? Read ?an unquiet mind?; ?night falls fast? Etiology of Depression Genetics Neurotransmitters Structural abnormalities of the brain Prefrontal cortex Amygdala Hippocampus and neurogenesis Cognition Aaron Beck?s negative cognitive theory of depression Interpersonal skills Stress
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