AIS 101: Geographical Areas Arctic: -Main reliance on fishing, hunting, and sea mammals -Small nomadic bands -Adaptation to harsh environment Subarctic -Relied on hunting and fishing -Small semi nomadic groups -Travelled by canoes -Small lodges -Clan structures *Dene, Cree, Innu. NW Coast -Temp. rainforest, poor soils -Small semi nomadic groups, similar to NE -Travelled by canoes -Highly populated coastal village -Salmon, whaling, trout, sea mammals -Use territories for fishing/hunting -Stratified hierarchical kinship *Not a single leader -Acquire enough gifts to have a potlatch, where accumulated goods are given away -Multi family plank houses with totem poles are the norm -Only area with totem poles Plateau -Semi and environment, with many rivers -Gathered by river for fishing cycle -Spearing/netting salmon Great Basin -Nomadic hunting *Deer, elk; hunt by fire -Gather seeds and nuts -Semi-sedentary in base camps -Seasonal water availability, wetlands *Pinion: pine nuts and coffee California -Perfect Mediterranean climate for diverse agriculture and gathering -Coast for fishing -Huge diversity of tribes, mostly small and self-sufficient -Art is centered on plants (basketry) Eastern Plains -Major river valleys, flood plains -Tall prairie grass -Semi sedentary farming *Corn, beans, squash are all stored underground -Seasonal hunting/gathering Mississippian -Mound builders -City dwellers -Mesoamerican similarities *food plains farmers (corn) *temple mounds *art styles -Long distance trade *ritual, prestige, and goods *Traded between chiefs as tokens of friendship Western Plains -Big game (bison) hunters -Nomadic hunting on foot (within territory) -Ritual emphasis on hunt -Less social stratification based on family lineage, not superiority Southwest -Adopts corn agriculture, early along the streams -Irrigation later, Athabascans adopt and migrate -Adaptation to desert with flexible movements and technology (irrigation) -Trade with Mesoamerica (Aztecs traded with Mexico) -Sedentary multi-room villages *Hohokam: ?vanished one? -Migrated from Mexico -Incredible irrigators -Anasazi: master basket-weavers *Nomadic to sedentary lifestyle *What happened to them? Southeast -Extensive agriculture and vegetable gardens (farming) -Reliance on shellfish -Large towns -Some mound builders -Fixed villages -Culturally divers Northeast (eastern woodlands) -Eau Claire on margins -Fixed villages and seasonal camp areas -Culturally diverse -Family lodges and longhouses -Seasonal cycles of hunting, fishing, and gathering -Some sedentary farming
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