1/15/10 2:03 PM Macromolecules Carbohydrate glycogen cellulose lipids (fats & oils)- long term energy storage metabolism: retrieving energy from molecules. proteins: made up of hundreds of little molecules- called amino acids. Structure & enzymes. Proteins that regulate chemical reactions are called enzymes. nucleic acids: really important in genetics. DNA & RNA. Inherit DNA from mom & dad. biology- the study of life. require energy grow reproduction- if you?re alive you reproduce (may require assitance) respond to changes (stimuli) if a car honks, you notice and run. Don?t all agree when death occurs. Genetics Notes 1/22/10 Review of Notes so far? Quark- building particles on subatomic particles. Come together to form individual atoms. Molecules macromolecules then those create parts of cell call cell organelles. Cells are alive and living. No individual organelles are alive, but cells ARE. Cells go to tissue organs organ system Organism (individual; YOU) population. Human population, butterfly population, etc. community (all the different populations, so humans, plants, animals, biosphere (all the communities on the earth) only biosphere none is earth. Gregor Mendel: Austrian Monk who became interested in plant heredity. Grew pea plants that all looked different. He performed experiments on plants, and published a paper in 1866. 1900- birth of genetics. Part of biology. Mendel is known as father of genetics. Pre-mandelian genetics: in ancient evidence. Books that show ancient civilization Indirect evidence: people who bred dogs is an example that humans have known about genetics, but it was never necessarily written down. Direct evidence: disease involves your blood Hemophilia: bleeders disease ? physician would call a person with this a hemophiliac. Treatments for this began in the 1950s or 1960s. Inhereitence is related to your sex? women can?t pass on to their daughters but they carry the gene and pass it to their sons. Jewish religion: Old Testament was written, and another book was used called the Talmud, in which they talk about ritual ceremonies. It has to do with new born males. They must be circumcised. Said if a women has a baby who bleeds to death from circumcision, then the next son she has should not be circumcised. How did they figure it out? They could see the patterns. 1/15/10 2:03 PM BSC 170 Notes 1/29/10 p: smooth (SS) x wrinkled (ss) F1: smooth (Ss) F2: 75% smooth 25% wrinkled Monohybrid: Ss x Ss offspring F2 plants Gamete: half will have large S, and half will have the little s S s S s Top box, (SS), Top right box (Ss), Bottom left box (Ss), bottom right box (ss). Phenotypic ratio 75% to 25% ¾ to ¼ Genotypic ratio: 3:1 Created a test cross: mate the unknown genotype to someone who is homozygous recessive. Third law- with texture and color P: smooth yellow x wrinkled green F1: smooth texture & yellow color 1/15/10 2:03 PM F2: smooth & yellow (9/16), some smooth & green (3/16), some wrinkled & yellow (3/16), and some wrinkled & green (1/16) BSC 170 Notes 1/27/10 Seed texture: p- smooth x wrinkled Smooth plant- female, produces egg Wrinkled plant- male Reciprocal crosses So when P: smooth x wrinkled Offspring~ or first filial? F1: smooth F2: smooth or wrinkled There exists a single unit of heredity controlling seed texture. Single unit of heredity: known as ?gene? Each plant has 2 copies of a gene. Individuals having 2 different alleles will only express one allele. dominant allele ? expressed recessive allele- not expressed Words and phrases which will be used rest of semester: -phenotype: one/s appearance or characteristics. -genotype: one?s alleles G P E homozygote: have 2 identical alleles (homozygous) heterozygous: have 2 different alleles (heterozygote) aka hybrid Law of Segregation: Everybody has 2 alleles but you reproduce, you only pass one of the two on. Only one is randomly chosen. 1/15/10 2:03 PM 2/1/10 Ss Yy x Ss Yy dihybrid cross 9:3:3:1 phenotypic ratio 1:2:1:2:4:2:1:2:1 genotype ratio Mendel?s Laws: important not so much as in traits of a pea plant but because they apply to traits in all kinds of plants and animals. Easliy recognizable traits in humans that are explained by his laws. Humans earlobes: attached earlobe and free earlobe E free (dominant) e attached (recessive) Ee free EE free ee attached tongue rolling: there is a third allele found? multiple alleles. Produces even more nerve cells at the end of tongue even if have the dominant. u: roller - : non-roller Rroller r non-roller RR roller Rr roller rr non-roller Others: freckles (dominant allele) lack of freckles (recessive) dimples (dominant) no dimple (recessive) hair color dark hair (dominant) blonde (recessive) red (recessive) eye color dark eyes (dominant) 2/1/10 2:03 PM light (blue) ?(recessive) 2/3/10 BSC 170 notes Albinism is usually a heterozygote, but must have gotten it from their parents. If it was due to a dominant allele, at least one parent would have the disease too, but this is not true. Iptheosis: really dry skin, like the scales of a fish. Need special medication from a physician to fix it. Primarily found in males. 1. Large (many genotypes & many individuals) 2. Secret adoptions in the family tree could mess things up illegitimate births: baby from a different father? no one would know. 3. Variable expressivity- describes certain genotypes that vary in their degree of expression. Some may be severe and some may be average symptoms, or mild expression. incomplete penetrance: the ability of the genotype to produce the phenotype you expect. Aa= 90% look dominant and the other 10% recessive. Demonstrates incomplete penetrance. Exam 1 is Wed Feb 10th
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