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T or F. The primary purpose of the inflammatory response is to remove the injurious agent?
-True. It is to remove the agent and limit the damage
T or F. Whenever the inflammatory response is activated, the immune response must be activated as well?
-False. The body can activate the inflammatory response and NOT activated the immune system
T or F. Which of the following are components of the vascular response to inflammation?
T or F. Which of the following are components of the vascular response to inflammation? Vasodilation of the arterioles and venules?
T or F. Which of the following are components of the vascular response to inflammation? Increased capillary permeability?
T or F. Which of the following are components of the vascular response to inflammation? -Influx of neutrophils?
-False. That’s part of the cellular response, not the vascular response
T or F. Which of the following are components of the vascular response to inflammation? -Influx of monocytes?
-False. Part of the cellular response, not the vascular response.
Which WBC arrives first at the site of inflammation?
Which WBC is most associated with allergies?
An increase in the size of cells.
An increase in the number of cells?
A decrease in the size of cells?
The reversible replacement of one cell type for another, sometimes less differentiated cell type?
Abnormal changes in the size, shape, and org. of mature cells?
T or F. Viruses cause cellular injury by producing tumor necrosis factor
-False. They interfere with protein synthesis of the host cell.
What is the most important activator of the inflammatory response?
Name one substance that is released by degranulation of the mast cell.
-Histamine and Prostaglandins
The process by which leukocytes are attracted to bacteria is called what?
T or F. Which of the following are true about complement?
-It consists of at least 10 proteins?
T or F. Which of the following are true about complement?
-Once activated, it participates in every inflammatory response?
T or F. Which of the following are true about complement? The last few proteins kill microorganisms directly?
T or F. Which of the following are true about complement? -It can only be activated by an antigen-antibody complex?
T or F. T helper cells can only process an antigen that has MHC Class 1 on its surface?
What class MHC does it have to have on its surface?
-MHC Class 2
T or F. Complement is a specific mechanism of defense.
T or F. Pavementing is the movement of the WBC to the border of the blood vessel in preparation for leaving to go to the site of injury?
-False. Pavementing is not the MOVEMENT. Movement is margination. Pavementing is the appearance of the WBC as they line up.
The doctor orders a differentiated WBC. What does that mean?
-specific count of all 5 types of WBCs
Chronic inflammation is characterized by which two types of WBCs?
-lymphocytic and macrophagic infiltration
Pus is composed of which dead WBC?
T or F. In SLE, the most characteristic autoantibodies are produced against nucleic material?
Which blood test is used to diagnose SLE?
-Trick question. Lupus is not diagnosed with a blood test
T or F. Which of the following are clinical manifestations of SLE? Arthritis?
T or F. Which of the following are clinical manifestations of SLE? -Vaculitis and rash?
T or F. Which of the following are clinical manifestations of SLE? -Renal disease?
T or F. Which of the following are clinical manifestations of SLE? -Severe infections?
T or F. HIV is a retrovirus that carries its information on RNA?
This virus primarily affects which lymphocyte?
The human form of HLA is called what?
Natural killer cells are part T and B lymphocytes. T or F?
-False. NKS are neither T or B lymphocytes
Tell me if it’s part of T or B lymphocyte immunity..-Humoral immunity. T or B?
Tell me if it’s part of T or B lymphocyte immunity..Cell-mediated immunity? T or B?
Tell me if it’s part of T or B lymphocyte immunity..-Processed in the thymus gland. T or B?
Tell me if it’s part of T or B lymphocyte immunity.. -A form of this cell stops the immune process. T or B?
-T. It’s suppressor T lymphocyte. It stops the immune process
Tell me if it’s part of T or B lymphocyte immunity.. -This lymphocyte forms antibodies. T or B?
T or F. In Opsonization, a substance covers the bacteria like a M&M so it can be more easily phagocytize.
It’s the principle antibody in the allergic response.
-Information on its function is limited
-Is responsible for most of the antibody functions
-Constitutes 80-85% of circulating Ig
-Prevents attachment and invasion of pathogens through mucosal membranes?
An elevated ESR means what is happening in the body?
-inflammation or infection
T or F. Which of the following are functions of the antibodies? -Activates T memory cells?
-False. Antibodies do not activate T memory cells
T or F. Which of the following are functions of the antibodies? -Activates components of the inflammatory response?
T or F. Which of the following are functions of the antibodies? Neutralizes bacterial toxins.
T or F. Which of the following are functions of the antibodies? -Neutralizes viruses?
T or F. Which of the following are functions of the antibodies? -Opsonizes bacteria?
What type of cancer occurs in blood forming organs? Blood forming organs?
What type of cancer occurs in blood forming organs? -Epithelia tissue?
What type of cancer occurs in blood forming organs? -Lymphatic tissue?
What type of cancer occurs in blood forming organs? -Central nervous system tissue?
What type of cancer occurs in blood forming organs? -Connective tissue?
T or F. One problem of malignant cells is that they grow in tight junctions which increase cellular communication.
-False. It’s just the opposite. Malignant cells do not grow in right junctions.
T or F. In cancer terminology, autonomy refers to the loss of differentiation of cancer cells.
-False. Autonomy is cancer cell’s independence from normal cellular controls
Tumor cell markers are not used to diagnose cancer. Why not?
-Many non-malignant diseases are also associated with increases tumor cell markers.
What is the chief value of tumor cell markers clinically?
-They can be used to monitor effectiveness of cancer treatment
Anemia is defined as a deficiency of erythrocytes and what other substance is deficient?
-Bleeding is the usual cause. What type of anemia?
-This is the most common type of anemia r/t Vitamin B 12 deficiency.
-This type of anemia is caused by defective gastric secretion of intrinsic factor.
-This anemia may result from an infiltrative disorder of bone marrow.
In this type of anemia, the nails become brittle and spoon-shaped
T or F. Clinical manifestations of multiple myeloma includes renal damage.
-False. It’s decreased serum calcium
What is the abnormal immunoglobulin called in multiple myeloma?
-it’s called M-protein
Multiple myeloma is characterized by multiple malignant tumors involving which system?
Tell me what number of platelets are associated with that condition.
-If the count is below X, severe bleeding results
Tell me what number of platelets are associated with that condition. -Spontaneous bleeding can occur with counts between X and 20,000
-The emboil associated with pulmonary embolism most commonly originate from where in the body?
-Veins in the leg and pelvis
T or F. A pulmonary embolus without infarction means it doesn’t cause a heart attack.
Which 2 tests are used to diagnose pulmonary embolism?
-ABGs and Elevated levels of D-dimer in the blood with CT scan
With the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve, a shift to the left means what in terns of the release of oxygen?
-A shift to the left prevents oxygen release at the cellular level
T or F. The oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve is an explanation on why it is good to increase oxygen levels beyond 90%
-False. It’s just the opposite.
T or F. One cause of Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome is increased alveoli fibrosis.
-False. Injury to the lungs is a primary cause of ARDS. I made up the term alveoli fibrosis
Which of the following are classic signs/ symptoms of ARDS? -Marked Dyspnea?
Which of the following are classic signs/ symptoms of ARDS? -Decreased lung compliance?
Which of the following are classic signs/ symptoms of ARDS? -Respiratory alkalosis?
What is the most common cause of pulmonary edema?
T of F. Which of the following are clinical manifestations of pulmonary edema? -Barrel Chest?
T of F. Which of the following are clinical manifestations of pulmonary edema? -Atelectasis?
T of F. Which of the following are clinical manifestations of pulmonary edema? -Trapped air?
T of F. Which of the following are clinical manifestations of pulmonary edema? -Evidence of the increased work of breathing?
-Presence of air or gas in the pleural space?
-The presence of fluid in the pleura?
collapse of lung tissue tends to occur after surgery?
T or F. Asthma is a non-inflammatory disease characterized hyperresponsiveness of the alveoli.
With regards to asthma, a region on Chromosome 11 has been associated with an abnormal gene that encodes part of what substance?
T or F. The release of inflammatory mediators during as asthma attack helps to reduce and relieve symptoms associated with asthma.
-False. They make it worse.
In asthma, what condition signals the onset of respiratory failure?
T or F. In diagnosing asthma, pulmonary function tests (PFT) would reveal which results? There would be functional residual capacity?
T or F. In diagnosing asthma, pulmonary function tests (PFT) would reveal which results? -There would be increased total lung capacity?
T or F. In diagnosing asthma, pulmonary function tests (PFT) would reveal which results? -early respiratory alkalosis
-True. If respiratory acidosis is a late sign, then early alkalosis is an early sign BEFORE respiratory failure becomes evident.
Which type of emphysema involves the entire acinus with damage in the lower lungs?
T or F. Chronic bronchitis involves collapsed alveoli.
T or F. Chronic bronchitis is caused by air pollutants.
T or F. Chronic bronchitis exhibits a productive cough.
Tell me if it’s emphysema or bronchitis. Polycythemia?
Tell me if it’s emphysema or bronchitis. -Cor pulmonale?
Tell me if it’s emphysema or bronchitis. -Cyanosis?
Tell me if it’s emphysema or bronchitis. -Begins with destruction of the alveolar septa
Which bacteria cause the more serious infections in pneumonia?
What class of bacteria is the S. pneumoniae?
The most common cause of viral pneumonia is which virus?
Bronchiolitis most often occurs in part of the respiratory tract of infants?
Caseation necrosis is associated with which disease?
T or F. In 85% of the cases, croup is caused by bacterial invasion.
-False. Most cases are viral
In SIDS, infants should not be placed in what position?
T or F. In most children with asthma, both large and small airways are obstructed.
In severe asthma attacks, child have cyanosis, pallor and what other symptom?
How is Cystic Fibrosis transmitted?
It is not; it is inherited not transmitted
The most common cause of death in CF is related to problems in which system?
Which type of lung cancer is more common in men than women?
squamous cell (small cell)
This type of lung cancer is difficult to categorize as either squamous or adenocarcinoma. What type is it?
Large cell carcinoma
T or F. In sickle cell anemia, the cells sickle, that is they become small, round, red blood cells.
T or F. The primary presenting symptom of SCA is red, blotched skin.
False. The primary s/s is pain.
The ratio of packed cells to total volume.
The volume and size of each RBC?
Mean Corpuscular volume
Average percentage of Hgb saturation in the average RBC
The amount of Hgb by weight in the average RBC
pH= 7.38 CO2= 30 HCO3= 20. What am I? What is the compensatory mechanism?
Metabolic acidosis with Respiratory alkalosis compensating
pH= 7.43 CO2= 47 HCO3= 30. What am I? What is the compensatory mech?
Metabolic alkalosis with Respiratory Acidosis compensating
pH= 7.39 CO2= 50 HCO3= 29. What am I? What is the compensatory mech?
Respiratory acidosis with Metabolic alkalosis compensating
What is the purpose of compensation?
Correct answer is to bring the pH back to normal
Central chemoreceptors primarily monitor what?
pH of the cerebrospinal fluid
What does FEV1 stand for?
Forced expiratory volume in one second
If a child is diagnosed with asthma you would expect the following pulmonary function tests results to be increased or decreased? FEV? Is it increased or decreased in asthmatic children?
If a child is diagnosed with asthma you would expect the following pulmonary function tests results to be increased or decreased? -Peak expiratory flow rate. Is it increased or decreased?
If a child is diagnosed with asthma you would expect the following pulmonary function tests results to be increased or decreased? -Functional residual capacity. Increased or decreased?
If a child is diagnosed with asthma you would expect the following pulmonary function tests results to be increased or decreased? -Inspiratory reserve capacity? Increased or decreased?
T or F. A strong cough is a s/s of impending respiratory failure in children with asthma.
A patient is brought into the ER with obstructive sleep apnea. What condition does she/he likely have (it’s ABG)
A patient is diagnosed with severe diarrhea. Which condition do they have (it’s an ABG)?
A patient has salicylate toxicity. Which ABG condition do they have?
This substance, generated by the extrinsic pathway, has a powerful, stimulating effect on the intrinsic pathway. What is it?
The terminal steps for both pathways is which factor?
T or F. Calcium is required in all but the first two steps of the clotting process. Patients with calcium deficiencies will have problems with coagulation.
The process by which a blood clot dissolves is called what?
Why are parents taught to kiss their babies?
identify Cystic Fibrosis
What are baby neutrophils called
Tor F. viruses cause cellular injury by accelerating their own metabolism.
T or F. Complement, once activated participates in every inflammatory response
Which form of HIV is most dominant in this country? HIV-1, HIV-2, or HIV-3?
HIV primarily infects which blood cell?
CD4 or T-helper
Which form makes memory cells?
B & T cells
T or F. Benign neoplasms invade and destroy tissue
For this type of anemia, bleeding is the usual cause. What type?
The most common cause of iron-deficiency anemia are what two factors?
pregnancy and prolonged bleeding.
What is the most common type of leukemia in children?
ALL (Acute Lymphoma Leukemia)
Philadelphia Chromosome occurs in which type of leukemia?
This type of cancer can occur as a result of being treated for another type of cancer,
T or F. Hodgkins primarily infects lymphoid tissue.
The cause of lymph node enlargement is the same for both Hodgkins and non-Hodkgkins lymphoma.
Infectious mono involves the B lymphocyte. T or F?
In mono, platelet counts are low. t or F?
What is the most notable characteristic of infectious mono?
Thrombocytopenia is defined as a platelet count below what?
What is the primary cause of Adult Respiratory Distress Syndromee?
injury to the lungs.
Which of the following are signs/symptoms of ARDS? rapid, shallow breathing?
T or F. The presence of air or gas in the pleural space is defined as pleural effusion.
Asthma is associated with which immunoglobulin?
If destruction occurs in the bronchioles and alveolar ducts, what type of emphysema is that?
T or F. In emphysema, there is increased mucus production.
Which factor is most predictive of SIDS?
There is no treatment for SIDS, but which position should you put your infant in?
This type of lung cancer is rarely operable.
In the pathology report it states that the cells are poorly differentiated. Are they more or less likely to be malilgnant?
T or F. It is not a problem to give someone with COPD 4 liters of oxygen. T or F?
ph = 7.2 CO2 = 50, HCO = 30. What am I?
Respiratory acidosis- metabolic alkalosis
pH = 7.5 CO2 = 32 HCO= 20
Respiratory alkalosis- metabolic acidosis
When a child with asthma is threatening to go into resp failure, which s/s will be displayed? Use of accessory muscles? T or F?
When a child with asthma is threatening to go into resp failure, which s/s will be displayed? Can only speak 1 or 2 words? T or F?
When a child with asthma is threatening to go into resp failure, which s/s will be displayed?Distant or absent breath sounds?
T or F. the clotting factors are numbered in the order in which they are activated
The extrinsic pathway is faster than the intrinsic AND it produces more fibrin.
This substance is an enzyme that dissolves clots by degrading fibrin and fibrinogen into fdp
If a wound has minimal tissue loss it is said to heal by what type of intention? Primary or secondary?
In Phase I of wound healing, this substance acts as a scaffold for cells that participate
These cells orchestrate the wound healing process.
These cells secrete collagen
True or false. The primary purpose of the inflammatory response is to remove the injurious agent and limit the extent iof the damage?
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