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1. Define physical activity
· Illness related to lack of physical activity—hpyo – lack of
1. Describe the health consequences of inactivity
· Poor health, obesity, cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic lower respiratory disease
1. Define Sedentary death syndrome
· A state in which your mind is engaged in lively interaction with the world around you; implies that you can apply the things you have learned, create opportunities to learn more, and engage your mind in lively interaction with the world around you
1. Explain how to monitor activity
· Using a pedometer to count footsteps- some record, distance, calories burned, speeds, and time of activity,
· cardiovascular endurance
· muscular endurance
· muscular strength
· body composition
Know the 6 components of skill related fitness
· reaction time
a. We control process not product
b. Process- lifestyles and behaviors, actions
c. Product- fitness, wellness, health
· Assess an individuals medical readiness to begin exercise- if they say yes to any question needs to consult with doctor first
1. Explain the benefits of the warm up and cool down
· Warm up- prepare cardiovascular systems, metabolic system, muscoskeletal system--- The heart gets going, the metabolism gets cranked up and the muscles and joints get loosened up and ready for exercise, reduces risk of injuries
· Cool down- CV: reduces pooling of blood in extremities and improves circulation; Metabolic: promotes recovery by moving metabolic waste products out of blood (primarily lactic acid); Musculoskelatal: minimizes muscle soreness by relaxing and stretching tired muscles.
· an injury to the ligaments around a joint
1. Define different signs of heat illness
· 1st- signs of dehydration are muscle and abdominal cramps.
· 2nd- heat exhaustion. Person will experience chills, and dizziness. These are warning signs that the body is dehydrated.
· 3rd- heat stroke- very serious. The body stops sweating because of extreme dehydration so the skin will appear dry. Without evaporative cooling the bodies core temperature increases to dangerous levels and the person could become unconscious or even die.
· Heredity, age, gender, ethnicity, lifestyles, current fitness and health status, and a variety of other factors make each person unique at any point in time. The principle of individuality indicates that the benefits of physical activity vary from individual to individual based on each person’s unique characteristics.
· as you get fitter and fitter, you may not get as big a benefit for each additional amount of activity that you perform
· activity that uses 150 calories of energy per day, 1,000 calories per week
a. Level 1- all or most days moderate for 30+ min- physical activity
b. Level 2- 3-6 days – moderate to vigorous- 20+ min- aerobic, cardiovascular activity
c. Level 3- flexibility- 3-7 days- stretching- 15-60 sec 1-3 sets
d. Level 3- strength- 2-3 days- muscle overload- 8-12 reps 1-3 sets
e. Level 4- infrequent, low, short (sedentary)
a. Sedentary <5,000 steps/day
b. Active 10,00-12.499 steps/day
c. Highly active >12,5000
1. Assess CE through the five different protocols listed in the textbook
o 1.5 mile run test- using the time it takes to complete the run
o 1.0 mile walk test- take pulse
o step test- 3 minutes. A 15-second recovery heart rate is taken between 5 and 20 seconds following the test
o astrand-ryhming test- bicycle ergometer- heart rate taken every 6 minutes
o Duration also depends on intensity
o Two hours and 30 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic activity, 1 hour and 15 minutes of vigorous aerobic activity, or an equivalent combination of the two – 30 minutes 5 times a week of moderate; 25 minutes 3 time a week for vigorous
o Always be preceded by 5-10 minutes warm up and 10 minute cool down
a. As people breathe, part of the oxygen in the air is taken up by the alveoli in the lungs.
b. As blood passes through the alveoli, oxygen is picked up by hemoglobin and transported in the blood to the heart.
c. The heart then is responsible for pumping the oxygenated blood through the circulatory system to all organs and tissues of the body.
· 1. The heart pumps oxygenated blood to the muscles
· The heart receives de-oxygenated blood from the muscles
· The heart pumps it to the lungs.
· The oxygenated blood returns from the lungs and can then be pumped out to the rest of the body.
a. VO2max test is: a maximal test, which any test that requires the participant’s all-out or nearly all-out effort. For submaximal exercise tests, a physician should be present when testing higher-risk, symptomatic, or diseased individuals, regardless of the participants’ current age.
a. Step Test:
· Requires time and equipment (bench, metronome, stopwatch)
· The test take 3 minutes
· You take the 15 second recovery heart rate, then convert heart rate to bpm
a. 1.0 Mile Walk Test:
· used by individuals who are unable torun because of low fitness/injuries
· brisk walk for 1 mile that elicits aheart rate of 120 bpm at the end
a. 1.5 Mile Run Test:
· used most frequently
· based on the time the person takes to run/walk 1.5 miles
· is estimated based on the time the person takes to cover the distance
· Because of its simplicity and practicality, the Astrand-Ryhming Test is one of the most popular tests used to estimate VO2max in a laboratory setting.
· The test is conducted on a bicycle ergometer and, similar to the Step Test, requires only submaximal workloads and little time to administer.
1. Define the F.I.T. formula for aerobic fitness
a. Frequency: 3.6x per week
b. Intensity: HR in target zone—55/50-90% for max HR; 40-85% HRR
c. Time: at least 20 minutes
1. Know how to calculate maximum heart rate
a. MHR = 207 − (.7 × age)
a. amount of blood pumped by the heart in one minute SVxHR
a. VO2max = Q (cardio output) x CaO2-CvO2
· SVxHR x 5/15
a. absolute Vo2 max divided by body weight
· Expressed as milliliters per kilogram of body weight per minute
· Allows us to compare oxygen consumption (VO2 max) of different people
a. Resting- 5 mL per CC?—RHR x SV x 5 (a-v oz2 diff)
b. HR x SV x 15
c. 15-30% higher in men for vo2max
a. Exercise that requires oxygen to produce the necessary energy (ATP) to carry out the activity.
1. Clarify misconceptions about muscular strength
a. No pain- no gain
b. Make you ‘muscle bound’
c. Fat can be converted to muscle
d. Extra muscle turns to fat if not used
e. Has musicalizing effect on women
a. ability to exert maximum force against resistance
i. Determined by weight lifted in single effort
a. ability to exert submaximal force repeatedly over time
i. Number of repetitions or length of time
1. Identify factors that affect strength
a. neural stimulation, type of muscle fiber, overload, specificity of training, training volume, and periodization
1. S.A.I.D. principle
a. The SAID principle implies that if an individual is attempting to improve specific activity or sport skills, the strength-training exercises performed should resemble as closely as possible the movement patterns encountered in that particular activity or sport
a. strengths gains are specific to angle of muscle contraction; ex: gymnastics and static contractions, spinal stabilization musculature, healthy posture, core exercises
i. Holding a position against resistance for give period or pushing against immoveable object
§ F: every other day (3x per week)
§ I: 60-70% of 1 repetition maximum
§ T: 2-3 sets of 8-15 repetitions
§ F: every other day
§ I: moderate intensity (40-70% 1RM)
§ T: 2-5 sets with higher repetitions (15-25)
§ F: every other day (need time to rest)
§ I: maximum weight (about 80% 1RM)
§ T: 3 sets of 3-5 repetitions
1. Clarify the misconception regarding the terms “muscle tone” and “spot reduction”
a. you can not target a specific area
b. when fat comes off, it comes off the entire body and not just one spot
1. Know how to calculate relative strength
a. Weight lifted/weight of person
a. Type of exercise in which a constant resistance is moved through a joint’s full range of motion (dumbbells, barbells, and machines using a constant resistance).
1. Identify what percentage of strength gains come from the first set of training
a. Neural adaptions
b. first 8 weeks; 70-80%
a. a type of strength training in which the joint angle and muscle length do not change during contraction
a. A training approach that divides the season into three cycles (macrocycles, mesocycles, and microcycles) using systematic variation in intensity and volume of training to enhance fitness and performance.
b. Entails systematically altering training variables over time to keep the program challenging and lead to greater strength development. Periodization means cycling training objectives (hypertrophy, strength, and endurance), with each phase of the program, which lasts anywhere from 2 to 12 weeks. Training variables that can be altered include resistance (weight lifted), number of repetitions, number of sets, and number of exercises performed.
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