1 Disclaimer The nutritional and supplement recommendations in this education module are an expression of the author's expert opinion and are not meant to be interpreted as absolute scientific conclusions and are not necessarily the views of the NSCA and its officers or affiliates. The statements pertaining to the effects of nutritional supplements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. None of the author recommendations are intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease. Further more, The NSCA encourages the exchange of diverse opinions. The ideas or comments presented through this medium do not necessarily reflect the NSCA?s official position on an issue, nor an endorsement by the NCSA of statements made by any commentators, whether as fact, opinion or otherwise. The NSCA assumes no responsibility for any statements made by commentators. Body Composition and Weight Management Christopher R. Mohr, PhD, RD The Importance of Nutrition ? To keep healthy ? Reduce the risk of illness ? Reduce the risk of injury ? Adequate hydration ? Carbohydrate intake ? Pre-exercise/post-exercise nutrition ? Weight management & body composition ? Improve energy, endurance, power, etc Prevalence (%) of Overweight, Obesity, and Morbid Obesity 2 Determining Athlete?s Intake ? Dietary record inaccuracies ? Potential underreporting ? Resulting in a negative energy balance - weight loss (especially with female athletes) ? Potential overreporting ? Resulting in a positive energy balance - weight gain (inconclusive data) ? Female athletes consistently energy deficient ? Consequences ? decreased performance and health risk. Energy=Calories=Fuel Carbohydrate Protein Fat Basic Principles ? Carbohydrates are not the enemy ? Protein isn?t the answer to all fat loss or lean body mass gain needs ? Healthy fat IS necessary ? Supplements are not a quick fix Benefits of Carbohydrates ? Optimal source of energy ? Important fuel for brain and muscles ? Quality source of nutrients that cannot otherwise be obtained via the diet ? Carbohydrate quality should be the focus Carbohydrate Needs ? ~5-10 g/CHO per kg body weight As an example, for a 200 lb (91 kg) athlete, they would need approximately 450-900 g/CHO per day ? Note: individual needs vary greatly based on current weight, goals, type of athlete, etc. ? Strength athletes will be on the lower end of the spectrum, while endurance athletes are on the higher end. Carbohydrate Sources ? cereal ? pasta ? bread ? potatoes ? banana ? milk ?fruit ?juice ? sport drinks ?rice ? pancakes ? oatmeal ? beans ? vegetables 3 Benefits of Protein ? Crucial for rebuilding and repair ? Poor source of energy ? ?Expensive? source of energy ? Necessary to provide essential amino acids Protein ? Athletes need more than non-athletes ? Athletes who eat a restrictive calorie diet (e.g. wrestlers, gymnasts, etc.) may need additional protein ? Vegetarian athletes have the same protein needs but often have difficulty meeting their daily needs ? Young athletes have increased needs Increase Protein Intake g/kg/day ? Sedentary Individual 0.8 ? Athletes ? Strength 1.4-1.8 ? Interval Type 1.6-1.8 ? Endurance Athletes 1.2-1.4 Good Protein Sources ? Milk ? Low-fat yogurt ? Whole egg (or egg whites) ? Chicken, beef, or turkey ? Cottage cheese ?Fish ? Beans/Rice Benefits of Dietary Fat ? Crucial to provide essential fatty acids ? Required for optimal brain functioning ? Important in reducing risk of some disease ? Fat quality is most important Quality Sources of Fat ? 20-30% of diet for athlete ?Fish ? Raw mixed nuts ? Avocadoes ? Olive oil ?Egg yolks ? Flax seed/oil 4 Individuals need to decide whether they want to? fuel their muscles or feed their fat cells Dynamic State Energy Intake Quantity Energy Expenditure ExEE BMR TEF NEAT SCALE 0 150 300 An excess of energy intake relative to expenditure will lead to energy surplus and storage A deficit of energy intake relative to expenditure will lead to a loss of body energy What do we know about the role of diet? Weight Reduction ? If weight reduction is appropriate, the individual must be in a negative energy balance ? Weight loss strategies are most appropriate in the off season or early in the season, so the athlete?s performance is not significantly jeopardized Identify an Appropriate Weight Range ? Use body composition as a guide to establish an appropriate goal for weight loss ? Consider ? Athlete?s past and present weight and body composition ? Demands of training and the sport ? Gender % Body fat by sport McCardle, Katch & Katch, Exercise Physiology, 5 th edition 5 Evaluate Current Dietary Habits ? Are meals being skipped ? How many meals and snacks does the athlete consume? ? Where does the athlete usually eat (home, school, work, fast food, etc) ? Are the foods consumed nutrient dense? ? Is the athlete reliant on whole foods or sports drinks, energy bars, and other supplements? Sample of Food Plate Summary: Establish Energy and Macronutrient Requirements ? Use the recommendations for macronutrient intake to determine calorie needs for athletes ? Carbohydrate: 5-10 g/kg (needs vary depending on particular activity) ? Protein: 1.2-1.7 g/kg ? Fat: 1 g/kg ? Athletes need to ensure adequate carbohydrate for performance and protein for recovery, so fat is traditionally lower (~30% of total energy) References 1. Volpe S, Bernier Sabelawski S, Mohr CR. Fitness nutrition for special dietary needs. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 2007. 2. McArdle WD, Katch FI, Katch VL. Sports and exercise nutrition. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2005. 3. Benardot D. Advanced sports nutrition. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 2006. untitled
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