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The kind and amount of food consumed each day.
softens and dissolves in water
cause of lactose intolerance?
the body lacks the digestive enzyme lactase
What are some risk factors for heart disease?
genetics, smoking/drinking, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, sedentary life, stress, men, low fiber, high fat intake
Metabolic syndrome (syndrome X)
A condition marked by high blood pressure, cholesterol, and abdominal fat deposits, along with insulin resistance
To provide food or other substances necessary to sustain life and support growth.
What functions in the human body are an act of nutrition?
Without intake of _____ signs and symptoms of deficiency occur
What is an energy producing nutrient?
The unit used to measure energy
It is the preferred fuel for body to burn and enables fat metabolism
What are the categories of biological classification?
k, p, c, o, f, g, s
The protein rich jelly that fills the spaces of the cytoplasm
contains enzymes that break down glucose
Name three sugars that are monosaccharides
G, F, G
What are the three sugars classified as Diasaccharides
S L M
What are the two forms of starches?
A and A
Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range
T or F
Starch is a polysaccharide
body fat/overweight increases cancer risk
-plant based diet emphasized, alcohol in moderation
-Breaking down of big nutrients into smaller ones.
-Involves acids, enzymes and hormones
Example: Saliva secreted and changes starch into sugar molecules.
-Big food pieces into smaller ones.
-Involves muscles and nerves
-Example: Chewing your food or Stomach churning
gallbladder- stores bile
pancrease-makes enzymes and neutralizes stomach acid for when it goes into intestine.
-ingested protein enters stomach
-protein is denatured by hydrochloric acid so it can be read
-Pepsin breaks protein into several small amino acids
-protein leaves stomach and is absorbed and transported to distal cells
sequence of 20 amino acids
polypeptide strand folding and interacting
example of globular proteins
blood, mucous, milk protein, egg white
Eric weighs 90kg and ate 88g of protein and 3000 calories in one day. What is his DRI for protein?
Weight(90kg) x DRI for protein (0.8)= 72g
Eric weighs 90kg and ate 88g of protein and 3000 calories in one day. What percent of DRI for protein did he consume?
grams of protein eaten(88) / his DRI for protein (72g) x 100= 122%
How to calculate P:S ratio
PUFA / grams of SFA=
Then that number given is to take place of PUFA and the number 1 is to take place of SFA
what is kwashiorkor
protein deficiency that presents as peripheral edema. person does not look malnourished
what is marasmus
protein energy deficiency. Individual looks boney and undernourished.
Anything greater than _____ % of DRI intake of protein is considered protein excess and is not good!
Protein excess increases risk of
liver and spleen enlargement
accelerated kidney aging
heart disease and cancer
loss of calcium and zinc
1lb of muscle contains....
How many grams of protein is in 1lb of muscle?
process by which plants make carbohydrates
What 3 things are required for plants to make carbohydrates?
CO2, H2O, sunlight
What is dietary fiber
undigested portion of carbs remaining after food is exposed to digestion
Is cellulose a dietary fiber?
Categories of fiber
soluble and insoluble
sources of soluble fiber
fruits, veggies oats
does not soften or dissolve in water
food sources of insoluble fiber
whole grains, celery and apple peels
DRI for fiber for men and women?
Vegetable sources of fiber
Legumes (very high)
broccoli, cauliflower, corn, beans cabbage (high)
carrots, green pepper, celery, onion, lettuce (good)
1c veggie juice (low)
Fruit sources of fiber
apple, banana, orange, peach (high)
watermelon, honeydew, cantaloupe (good)
1c fruit juice (low)
eating fiber in diets allows ____ to be excreted from body by attaching to ____ rather than being absorbed.
____ _____ slows the rate of glucose absorption
Negative effects of too much fiber
gas, bloating, GI block,
the enrichment act 1942 made is so....
some nutrients have to be added back into bread that are lost when processed.
What nutrients (according to enrichment act 1942) are added back into bread?
iron, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folic acid,
How to figure fiber intake a person should consume
calories consumed / 100calories x 1.4=
How to find percent of calories from protein?
grams of protein x 5 / 150 x 100=
Glucose is stored in
liver and in muscle
glucose is stored in muscle as
Brain, CNS and RBC's all require ____ to function
DRI for carbs
130 grams a day
Function of glycogen in liver...
maintain blood sugar levels
What two hormones produced in the pancreas regulate blood sugar levels?
Insulin and glucagon
Insulin increases or decreases blood sugar?
glucagon increase or decreases blood sugar levels?
Process of what happens in body when carbs are ingested?
Intake of carbs->blood sugar rises->elevated blood sugar stimulates pancreas to release insulin->insulin stimulates cells to take in glucose from blood
Lactose intolerance cycle when ingested
Dairy is eaten, lactose is in GI tract, no lactase enzyme is present, water flows into GI tracts to try and even out balance, leads to cramping and diarrhea.
What is a lactose allergy?
allergy is an immune reaction that involves antibodies and antigens.
3 types of hypoglycemia
What is spontaneous hypoglycemia
liver stores of glycogen are depleted and the ability to maintain blood sugar is diminished. This happens to everyone in between meals or when food has not been consumed.
when too much insulin is produced after a meal
What is drug induced hypoglycemia
low blood sugar from a drug reaction or improper insulin use. Anti inflammatories and thyroid meds can cause this.
Physiology of Diabetes....
-Antibodies attack insulin producing cells of pancreas
-no insulin is made
-blood sugar levels stay high
-liver and muscle cells can't take up glucose because there is no insulin to bind to receptor to tell cells to take glucose out of blood
Most common type of diabetes is
Diabetes Mellitus (Type 2)
Fasting glucose level of greater than ____ is an indicator of diabetes
A glucose level greater than ____ 2 hours after eating is an indication of diabetes
What index can help insulin response?
Glucose is assigned the number ___ on the glycemic index
Foods high in protein, fat, and fiber are high or low on glycemic index?
Glycemic index greater than ___ is considered high.
#1 cause of death in america
2nd leading cause of death in america
3rd leading cause of death in america
hat is atherosclerosis
hardening of arteries
120-139/80-89 is considered
140-159/90-99 is considered
Stage 1 hypertension
160 or greater/100 or greater is considered
Stage 2 hypertension
What are 3 ways to reduce blood pressure
DASH (dietary approach to stop hypertension)
healthy body weight
Why do women start to catch up to men for risk of heart disease when they are around 45??
Because Estrogen has protecting properties against heart disease and when women enter menopause they lose estrogen and hence those protective properties.
__ hour(s) of aerobic exercise a day decreases risk for heart disease
t/f VLDL's and chylomicrons are high in triglycerides
Is there a food source for LDL or HDL's?
no. It is just how the liver packages the cholesterol
Serum cholesterol consists of
LDL and HDL
Less than ____ mg of triglycerides is normal in the blood
___mg of triglycerides in blood is like pumping ketchup through veins.
Increased levels of ____ _____ thickens blood
AHA recommends cholesterol intake to be
Nothing more than 240mg
AHA recommends LDL cholesterols to be
no more than 190mg
AHA recommends HDL cholesterol levels to be
No more than 60mg
SFA intake _____ LDL's
PUFA intake ____ LDL and HDL
MUFA intake ____ LDL's
Cholesterol intake ____ LDL
Olive oil is a ____ fatty acid
Canola oil is a _____ fatty acid
Sunflower oil is a _____ fatty acid
Soybean oil is a _____ fatty acid
Corn is a ____ fatty acid
Peanuts are a _____ and _____ fatty acid
Polyunsaturated and monounsaturated
Lard is a ____ fatty acid
Butter is a _____ fatty acid
Palm oil is a _____ fatty acid
Coconut oil is a _____ Fatty acid
The TLC diet helps control.....
Exercise added to TLC diet will cure
What prevents fats from oxidation?
vitamin E, C, beta carotene, zinc, copper and iron
Processed foods contain a high level of
Trans fatty acid
The double bonds of MUFA and PUFA are removed by adding
Omega 3 fatty acids help to decrease
blood clotting, blood pressure, blood cholesterol, inflammation
AHA recommends intake of ___ to ____ of omega 3 a day
an amino acid in high amounts can lead to heart disease
Folic acid, B6, B12 prevent..
High doses of Niacin ____ HDL
Wine or grape juice _____ HDL
Aerobic exercise _____ HDL
Soluble fiber _____ LDL
Soy protein ____ HDL
Process of Carcinogenesis
Normal cell is exposed (initiated)
becomes abnormal cell
Cell then is damaged and divides (promotion)
Cell then grows out of control (Progression)
Cell is now full blown cancer
___% of cancer deaths are diet related
What is P:S
Polyunsaturated vs Saturated ratio
IF P:S is greater than 3:1 then risk of _____ increases
IF P:S ratio is less than 0.33:1 than risk of _____ _____ increases
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