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Retaining more nitrogen that excreting.
Losing more nitrogen than taking in.
Lowered levels of obesity, cancers, heart disease...
Glucose, fructose, galactose
Lactose, maltose, sucrose
Acts like a sponge and removes fat from body.
A LOT OF HEALTH BENEFITS
Contains four main parts:
Germ, Endosperm, Bran, and Husk
enriched= took everything out
Average body mass people
Autoimmune disorder - lose ability to produce insulin. body has attacked pancreas so it can't do it anymore.
Lose sensitivity to insulin
obesity underlies many cases
Preventable and fixable depending on situation
Controlling blood glucose is key
Control body fat/ good eating patterns
Nutrients are delivered from the intestines through the circulatory system
to the cells by
transport through the blood to the liver for chemical altering to make the
better suited for use by the tissues.
The major function of the kidneys is to:
excrete wastes from the body in urine.
During the fight-or-flight reaction to stress the nervous system reacts by:
releasing stored glucose from the liver.
Chronic, low-grade inflammation in chronic disease is of interest because:
it foretells of the risk of death from the disease.
When given a choice between tasting a snack of cookies, potato chips, or dill pickles,
most people would:
select the cookies because of our preference for sweet tastes.
The digestive juices in the digestive tract include:
pancreatic juice, which neutralizes stomach acids reaching the small intestine.
You have just consumed a meal very high in fat. As a result, hormonal messages will
tell an organ to send _____ in amounts matched to the amount of fat present.
As food moves through the digestive tract it spends the most time in the:
large intestine because of the need to partially digest fiber and absorb water
Glycogen is stored in the body for future use. If it is drawn upon it will:
provide energy for cell activities during extended between-meal intervals.
The disaccharides include:
Which of the following is not an effect of fiber?
a. promotes weight gain and feeling of fullness
b. prevents constipation and hemorrhoids
c. reduces the risks of heart and artery disease
d. prevents appendicitis and diverticulosis
Digestion of most starch begins in the:
Which of the following terms would you look for on a bread label to choose the most
The extent to which a food raises the blood glucose level and elicits an insulin
response as compared with pure glucose can be measured and ranked on a scale
A friend complains of blurred vision, cravings for sweets, weakness, and excessive
thirst and urination. These symptoms are suggestive of:
Characteristics of type 2 diabetes include:
1.insulin resistance of the body’s cells.
2.blood glucose levels that rise too high.
3.blood insulin levels that rise too high.
It can be said that the energy we obtain from foods comes from the sun. This is
light energy from the sun is used in photosynthesis to create chemical energy
in the plant.
Fiber has been recommended in the diet for its possible benefits in reducing heart
disease by lowering blood cholesterol. How is fiber thought to play its role in
lowering blood cholesterol?
fiber binds with bile in the intestine and is excreted in feces
How would you respond to someone who states that white bread is just as nutritious
as whole-wheat bread?
1. White bread is just as nutritious because it has been enriched with iron, niacin,
riboflavin, thiamin, and folate.
2. Whole-wheat bread is preferable because it is likely to contain several nutrients
not added to white bread.
Lactose intolerance can cause nutritional complications because:
inadequate calcium intake from avoiding dairy products can affect bone development.
1. protects the body from temperature extremes
2. cushions the internal organs from physical shock
3. provides the major material from which cell membranes are made
The role of bile in fat digestion is to:
emulsify fats in the small intestine.
The main dietary factor associated with elevated blood cholesterol is:
high saturated fat intake.
To protect yourself from consuming too much _____, you would limit your
consumption of swordfish, king mackerel, and shark.
Which snack would a long-distance hiker prefer to carry as an energy-dense snack?
granola bar, roasted peanuts, dried apricots (250 calories)
What does the term “point of unsaturation” mean?
the area on a fatty acid chain where a hydrogen is missing from the bond
To determine whether the main type of fatty acid in a fat is saturated or unsaturated
the following guidance can be used:
oils that are solid at room temperature are saturated.
A woman who is pregnant is concerned about eating fish because of its potential
contamination with mercury. What would you tell her about the need for essential
fatty acids in her diet?
it is important for her to find alternative sources of omega-3 fatty acids to
provide DHA and EPA for growth and development of her fetus
What is the most accurate statement to make about the process of hydrogenation of
liquid vegetable oils?
oils that have been hydrogenated are more resistant to oxidation that will
spoil them and make them rancid
How many amino acids are considered to be essential amino acids?
The stomach lining is protected from the very strong acid of the stomach by:
a coat of mucus.
Negative nitrogen balance occurs in:
a surgery patient.
The strategy of combining two incomplete plant protein sources so that the amino
acids in one food make up for those lacking in the other food is called:
Which of the following provides amino acids that are best absorbed by the body?
The calorie-deficiency disease resulting from chronic starvation is known most
A person who lost a large amount of weight during an illness has been advised by a
health food store employee that he should add amino acid supplements to his diet
to help in weight gain. What would you tell this person?
if he needs additional protein for recovery it should be as whole protein
because the digestive system can handle that form better
A child suffering from protein deficiency has edema. This is an example of protein’s
maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance.
An adolescent girl has decided to adhere to a vegetarian diet and has selected a tossed
green salad, whole-wheat crackers, and apple juice for lunch. What would you
advise her about her complementary protein sources?
adding garbanzo beans to her salad would provide the protein combination
Examples of complimentary protein combinations include
1. rice and beans
2. whole wheat cereal and almonds
3. peanut butter and jelly on whole-wheat bread
What are some reasons that food producers use high fructose corn syrup so readily?
a. it mixes easily and stays in solution
b. it makes things stay soft long after they normally would, increasing shelf life
c. it reduces freezer burn, so things last longer in the freezer
What type of vegetarian would eat eggs and milk, but exclude all flesh from their
an ovo-lacto vegetarian
If we were trying to choose the lowest amount of fat while standing in the meat aisle,
which represents the lowest fat meat selection?
In the decision matrix of energy use, which represents the correct order?
a. eating at home vs. at restaurants
b. substituting apple sauce for oil in recipes
c. chose unsaturated fats
Why is there so much current debate about giving children vaccines?
because vaccine schedules sometimes coincide with autism development
-55% fructose/45% glucose: since human state buds highly sensitive to fructose, mix tastes sweeter than natural 1:1 mix of sucrose.
- Is produced very cheaply from cornstarch, so most companies switched to HFCS in the 1980s.
· Annual sugar consumption 152lbs per adults in US.
· Consumption of soda up 200% in 30 years: HFCS primary sweetener in regular soft drinks. (high fructose corn syrup)
· No organic foods have high fructose corn syrup
Dairy has naturally occurring sugars (lactate)
Sugar and processed food
· ½ cup corn: 3tsp sugar
· 12 oz cola: 8tsp sugar
· 1tbs ketchup: 1tsp sugar
Why so heavily used: easy for food producers
· Mixes easily –fruit juice (stays in solution)
· Extends shelf life by 20% by inhibiting microbial spoilage –yogurt
· Taste extra-sweet (we crave sugar)
· Helps prevent freezer burn-ice cream
· Helps bread brown and keep it soft- hot dogs buns and English muffins
· Results in soft-texture- chewy cookies and protein bars.
· HFCS is now (corn sugar)
Problems with HFCS
· Causes flatulence and diarrhea
· Sugar uptake transporter in human gut transports 1 glucose + 1 fructose; is slow in taking up extra fructose
· Hfcs has 1 extra fructose
· 30% of us population suffer from some “fructose malabsorbtion” (results in diarrhea and flatulence)
· Diarrhea can lead to mineral deficiencies (iron, magnesium, calcium, zinc)
· Mercury- caustic soda used to separate corn starch from the kernel (high mercury level in HFCS)
· Increased triglyceride levels (leads to more fat)
· Increased dental cavities
· Interferes with oral contraceptive efficiency
Possible link to obesity:
· Unlike glucose, fructose does not enhance production of hormones insulin (regulates blood glucose levels and signals satiety- stops you from eating)
· & does not signal leptin (does not signal satiety- fullness)
the breakdown of the sacs at the end of the joints and then the painfulfeeling of bone rubbing on bone
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