concussion, contusion, laceration, transection, hemorrhage, damage to blood vessels that supply the spinal cord, and fractured vertebrae
Which region of spinal cord injuries will lead to respiratory problems?
C3 and up
What is the level of injury assessment for a cervical injury?
paralysis/weakness of all extremeties
What is the level of injury assessment for a thoracic or lumbar injury?
paralysis/weakness or lower extremeties
Diagnostic tests used for spinal cord injusries
X-rays, CT scan, MRI, and arterial blood gases
Medications for spinal cord injuries
1)corticosteroids(within 8 hours of injury for 23 hours) 2)vasopressors(bradycardia and hypotension) 3) Histamine H2 receptor antagonist to prevent stress ulcers 4) anticoagulants if not contraindicated
What us a COMPLETE spinal cord injury?
Motor and sensory pathways completely transected, total loss BELOW level of injury
What are some persistent cardiovascular changes after spinal shock resolves?
Orthostatic hypotension, bradycardia, decreased peripheral resistance, loss of muscle tone leading to sluggish circulation and decreased venous return, and risk for thrombophlebitis
What is tetraplegia(formerly qudriplegia)?
Injuries that affect the cervical segment of spinal cord, upper extremities affected
What is a paraplegic?
paralysis of thoracic, lumbar, or sacral portion. Impairment of sensory and motor function