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-The body uses these to perform work (both internal and external)
-Excesses of energy-yielding nutrients result in increased body fat stores.
a. Energy is measured in calories.
b. If the body doesn’t release energy it obtained from food soon after absorption, it stores it, usually as body fat, for later use.
c. Too much of any food can contribute excess calories.
-Not a nutrient because it does not maintain or repair body tissue
-It does provide calories.
-Vitamins and minerals do not yield energy but play a role in the release of energy.
-they help control many other bodily processes.
-Vitamins fall into two categories: fat soluble (A, D, E, K) and water soluble (B vitamins and C).
-Minerals, besides performing vital regulatory functions, also contribute to the body’s structures (bone minerals).
-Water is the medium in which all bodily processes occur.
1. Substances needed to help regular body functions.
2. Elements needed in small amounts to form healthy bones, teeth, and regulatebody processes.
3. Very important part of the body.
-Multiply the grams of carbs by 4, fats by 9, and proteins by 4.
-Together they will equal the number of calories in a food.
-%s for each can be obtained by dividing the total number of calories into the calories for each energy nutrient.
heart disease, cancer, stroke, diabetes, and hypertension
--Today overnutrition, poor dietary habits, and environmental/lifestyle factors contribute to development of degenerative diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and liver disease.
#1: Increase quality and years of healthy life
#2: Eliminate health disparities
#3: Create social and physical environments that promote health
#4: Promote healthy behaviors across the lifespan.
1. Buy local, fresh foods in season.
2. Shop from a list.
3. Read the labels for ingredients and nutritional information.
4. Use product dating information.
5. Shop using the perimeter of the store.
How can I tell if a nutrition news story is noteworthy and a source of credible nutrition information?
1. The study is published in a journal that uses experts in the field to review research results.
2. Type of study: epidemiological or intervention.
3. How large the study group was (larger group = more significant results).
4. Has the study been retested?
a. Claims that medical establishment or government “is against” him or her.
b. Uses testimonials and anecdotes to support claims.
c. Used a computer-scored questionnaire for diagnosing “nutrient deficiencies.”
d. Claims product will make weight loss easy.
e. Product made with secret formula.
f. Treatment found in back of magazine, over phone, mail-order, or 30-minute commercials.
How can I check a nutritionist’s credentials?
1. Call the institution the person claims has awarded the degree.
2. Look for these credentials: registered dietitian (RD). They are professionals who have fulfilled coursework required by the American Dietetic Association and an internship that includes on-the-job training.3.Check on any RD by asking for that person’s registration number and calling the Commission on Dietetic Registration.
2. Lipids (fats)
-a crucial nutrient
-comprises about 60% of body weight
-Water acts as a medium for all cellular activity.
-all gasses, nutrients, and wastes are transported through an aqueous solution.
-About two to three quarts (liters) of water are lost, and must be replaced, daily.
Hunger: the physiological drive to find and eat food, unpleasantAppetite: the physiological desire to find and eat food, pleasant, often in the absence of hunger
How does the First Amendment influence nutrition in the media?
There is freedom of the press; writers cannot be punished by law for published misinformation unless it can be proved in court that the info has caused a reader bodily harm.
analyze data from various population groups to identify factors related to the occurrence of disease
-individuals are not asked to change their behaviors in any way
-change/intervene in diet or lifestyle
-strong design tests cause/effect
-something is acutally done to the population
Which of the following provides 7 calories per gram?
Which of the nutrients listed below does not provide energy for the body?
Which of the following are the water-soluble vitamins?
A double cheeseburger with bacon contains 44 grams of protein, 28 grams of carbohydrate, and 39 grams of fat. What percentage of calories in the sandwich comes from fat?
The acronym CARS can be used to determine the quality of information found on the Internet and includes which of the following terms?
If Sasha wants to consume 30% of her total calories from fat and she eats 2000 calories per day, what is the maximum number of fat grams she should eat?
An epidemiological study examines populations to determine food patterns and health status over time.
Where do most Americans look first for information on nutrition?
Even when people are served more food, they tend to eat the same amount.
- iron is an essential nutrient that your body loses daily and must replace continually via iron-rich foods.
-diet provides sufficient energy and enough of all the nutrients to meet the needs of healthy people
- calcium plays a vital role in building a strong frame that can withstand the gradual loss of bone that occurs with age
- 80/20 rule: eat low-fat, nutrient-dense foods at least 80% of the time, and you’re not likely to harm your health if you splurge the remaining 20% of the time
-eating any foods in moderate amounts- not too much or too little
The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI)
-a set of daily nutrient standards based on the latest scientific evidence regarding diet and health
-estimate the energy and nutrient needs of healthy people
-Separate recommendations are made for different groups of people.
-recommendations that apply to average daily intakes.
-may evolve over time as new scientific evidence indicates a need for re-evaluation.
-aims to prevent nutrient deficiencies in a population and reduces risk for chronic diseases (heart disease, cancer, or osteoporosis)
-the amount of a nutrient that is necessary to prevent deficiency for the average healthy person.
-To determine DRI involves Estimated Average Requirements (EAR), Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA), Adequate Intakes (AI), or Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL).
-Carbohydrate: 45%-65% of total calories
-Fat: 20%-35% of total calories
-Protein: 10%-35% of total calories
-To reduce the risk of chronic disease, spend at least one hour every day doing a moderately intense physical activity or 20-30 minutes four to seven days per week in a high-intensity activity.
They emphasize: Variety, Calorie control, Moderation, Nutrient density, and physical activity to help maintain weight
They also emphasize: Balance calories with physical activity to manage weight, Consume more nutrient-dense foods, Consume fewer foods with sodium (salt), saturated fats, trans fats, cholesterol, added sugars, and refines grains
Dietary Guidelines continued...
D. The guidelines are grouped into four general topics along with their key recommendations.
1. Balancing calories to manage weight
2. Foods and food components to reduce
3. Foods and nutrients to increase
4. Building healthy eating patterns
E. The guidelines incorporate two general themes:
1. Maintaining caloric balance over time
2. Consuming more nutrient-dense foods and beverages
-choose foods that are low in fat, high in fiber, and nutrient dense.
-A snack with a balance of carbohydrate, some fat, and some protein will satisfy hunger for a longer period of time than food with only carbohydrate or sugars (e.g., candy, soft drinks).
The MyPlate- six key components of a healthy lifestyle
a. Activity - regular physical activity
b. Variety - eat from all food groups and sub-groups.
c. Proportionality - different food groups should be consumed in different amounts.
d. Moderation - try to consume less of foods like solid fats and added sugars.
e. Personalization - choose foods that fit each individual’s needs and preferences.
f. Gradual improvement - take small steps to gradually improve one’s overall diet and lifestyle habits.
-name of food, name of manufacturer, net quantity, ingredient list, and Nutrition Facts panel.
-The ingredient list lists items in descending order of weight.
-The required nutrients are calories, calories from fat, total fat, saturated fat, trans fat, cholesterol, sodium, total carbohydrate, dietary fiber, sugars, protein, vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium, and iron (in that order).
a. An abundance of fruits and vegetables
b. Breads/other grains
c. Beans, nuts, seeds
d. Low-moderate amounts of cheese, yogurt, fish, and poultry
e. Small amounts of red meat
f. Moderate consumption of wine
g. Liberal use of olive oil
-Foods to reduce – sodium (<2300 mg/day; <1500 mg for those at risk for hypertension), saturated fat (<10% calories), cholesterol (<300 mg/day), trans fat (low as possible), empty calories (from solid fats/added sugars), refined grains, alcohol
-Foods and nutrients to increase – vegetables (especially dark green, red, orange, beans, peas), fruits, whole grains (≥50% of grain intake), fat-free/low-fat dairy, seafood, oils (in place of solid fats), potassium, fiber, calcium, vitamin D
a. Vegetables, fruits, high-fiber whole grains
b. Fat-free or low-fat dairy products
c. Seafoods, lean meats and poultry, eggs, soy products, nuts, seeds, and oils
d. Very few solid fats and added sugars and little sodium
the max amount of a nutrient that is unlikely to pose any risk of adverse health effects to most healthy people.
- not intended to be a recommended level of intake
Grains Group (oz.); Vegetables Group (c.); Fruits Group (c.); Dairy Group (c.); Protein Foods Group (oz.); Oils Group
Foods carrying nutrient content claims like “low-fat,” “low-calorie,” etc. must adhere to specific definitions spelled out by the FDA.
-statements that link the nutritional profile of food to a reduced risk of a particular disease
-The FDA has set forth very strict rules governing the use of such health claims.
-Manufacturers are allowed to imply only that the food “may” or “might” reduce risk of disease.
-They must note other factors that play a role in prevention of the disease and they must phrase the claim so that the consumer can understand the relationship between the nutrient and the disease.
All of the following are major goals from the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 except:
The Mediterranean Diet recommends eating meat a few times a week.
Phytochemicals do not provide energy or building materials.
Peaches are a food source of vitamins A and C. Why would a raw peach be considered a more nutrient-dense snack than a serving of peaches canned in light syrup?
Chinese food served in American Chinese restaurants usually is very similar to food eaten by rural Chinese people in China.
A diet that does not overemphasize any food type or nutrient at the expense of another is following which characteristic of a healthy diet?
The need for setting Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL) for nutrients is the result of more people using large doses of supplements and fortified foods.
Dry beans are fattening and should only be eaten occasionally.
For which nutrient is the current U.S. diet closest to meeting the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans intake recommendation?
Bill is trying to eat healthier now that he is going to college. He takes a nutrition class, does a diet analysis, and finds out that his salt intake is very high. Which characteristic of a healthy diet is Bill violating?
- begins digestion, mostly by chewing.
- passes food from the mouth to the stomach via:
a. Peristalsis - wavelike muscular contractions move the food along.
b. The entire GI tract is lined with smooth muscles that help propel food along the entire tract.
- stores and mixes the food with digestive juices - hydrochloric acid (forming chyme
a. It controls the passage of food into the small intestine.
b. A small amount of food called a bolus passes through the pyloric sphincter (a circular muscular band at the end of the stomach) into the small intestine when appropriate (based on signals received from the small intestine).
c. It usually takes three to four hours for an average meal to pass through the stomach.
- the major GI section for digestion and absorption of most food; A long tube about 20 feet in length.
a. The majority of digestion is chemical, accomplished by digestive enzymes and bile salts.
b. After digestion (breakdown), most nutrients are absorbed through the specially configured walls of the small intestine and delivered to the blood and lymph vessels.
c. The special lining is composed of villi.
multiple-folded, finger-like projections that greatly enhance absorption by providing a tremendous surface space that facilitates the absorption process (about the size of a tennis court!!)
1. Simple sugars and water-soluble vitamins are absorbed in the high end (near the stomach).
2. Other nutrients released or digested more slowly are absorbed further down.
-Fat and fat-soluble vitamins enter the lymph system and are transported to the liver.
-Carbohydrates, amino acids, water-soluble vitamins, and most minerals are carried through the blood and also delivered to the liver.
-receives the undigested food or waste products from the small intestine; passes these products to the rectum and eventually out of the body as waste
a. A small amount of bacterial digestion (mostly of fiber) occurs in the colon. Most of the nutrients released by this process are used by the bacteria themselves. Some vitamin K, minerals and water is produced or absorbed
b. The colon also experiences peristalsis to move the waste products to the rectum for elimination
- besides helping to control blood glucose levels, the pancreas secretes digestive enzymes into the small intestine that break down starches and other complex carbohydrates.
-Glucose is stored in the muscles and liver (which have a limited storage capacity) for later use (between meals)
-Amino acids circulate in the blood and are picked up by tissues that need them to build, repair, or replace cellular proteins.
-Fats (and glucose and/or amino acids converted into fats) are stored in fat cells that have a virtually unlimited fat storage capacity.
-the storage of glucose (glycogen) and fat insures that there will be energy available even when food is scarce (fasting and starving)
1. Catabolism - the breakdown of compounds designed to release energy. This process uses glucose, fatty acids, glycerol, and amino acids to provide energy for all of the body’s energy-requiring activities.
2. Anabolism - the reverse of catabolism; glucose, fat, and amino acids are used to build the structures and energy reserves necessary for normal body functioning
Catabolism and anabolism are both examples of energy metabolism
1- salivary glands 12- mouth
2- esophagus 13- tounge
3- stomach 14- airway to lungs
4- liver 15- small intestine
5- gallbladder 16- rectum
6- pancreas 17- anus
7- pancreatic duct
8- pyloric sphincter
9- bile duct
10- colon (large intestine)
The breakdown of body compounds; they usually release energy; example of energy metabolism
-the breakdown of compounds designed to release energy. This process uses glucose, fatty acids, glycerol, and amino acids to provide energy for all of the body’s energy-requiring activities
- amino acids
What does the term functional food mean?
foods that contain specific nutrients that may promote health and/or prevent some diseases.
As a fermented milk product, yogurt contains _____ that promote(s) GI health.
The digestion of which nutrient occurs in the stomach?
Hiccups are due to stomach spasms.
Joe finds himself troubled with gas after eating certain foods. Which is not true about intestinal gas?
Which of the following is not a possible fate for amino acids in the liver?
Lactose intolerance is not very common in the world and exists among a few populations.
To maintain a healthy digestive system, it is important to have a bowel movement daily.
Approximately how long does it take for a meal to empty from the stomach?
How does the type of food eaten influence stomach emptying rate?
The main site of digestion and absorption of nutrients is the _____.
the body's need for carbs
-provide the body with energy; for certain body systems, carbohydrates are the preferred energy source (primarily for the brain)- usually comes from plants; milk is the only animal-derived food with a significant amount of carbs
A. Complex carbohydrates include starch and fiber.
B. Simple carbohydrates include naturally occurring sugars in fresh fruits and some vegetables and in milk and milk products, and added sugars in concentrated form, as in honey, corn syrup, or sugar in the sugar bowl.
-All carbohydrates are made of simple sugars and are quickly converted to glucose in the body, except fiber.
-Green plants make glucose through a process known as photosynthesis.
-Some plants rearrange its atoms to form fructose, found mostly in fruits, honey, and as a part of table sugar.
-glucose, fructose, and galactose
The double sugars: disaccharides
-Disaccharides are two single sugars bonded together.
a.Sucrose (table sugar) = glucose + fructose
b.Maltose (occurs in sprouting seeds) = glucose + glucose
c.Lactose (sugar in milk) = galactose + glucose
2. Digestive enzymes (lactase) are necessary to split lactose into its two simple sugars.
3. Lactose intolerance occurs when some people lose the ability to digest lactose; they may experience a variety of gastrointestinal discomforts
a. They may tolerate lower-lactose foods or specially prepared milk products that have been treated with an enzyme to reduce lactose.
– a polysaccharide; complex carb; is made up of many glucose units bonded together,
-richest starch sources are grains, peas, and beans.
-Many countries have a primary or staple grain that provides most of their food energy; for the U.S., Canada, and Europe this is wheat, and for many Asian nations it is rice.
-The legume family is the secondary important source of starch, containing 40% starch by weight and abundant protein.
-Root vegetables such as yams and potatoes are another source of starch.
Refined, Enriched, and Whole-Grain Breads
-Grains supply much of the carbohydrates (starch)
-Know the meanings of the words that are associated with flours that make up the grain products you use: refined, enriched, fortified, and whole-grain.
-The kernel is the part of the wheat plant made into flour.
1. The germ, which grows into a new plant, is rich in protein, vitamins and minerals.
2. The endosperm is the soft, white inside portion containing starch and some protein.
3. The bran is a protective coating around the kernel rich in nutrients and fiber.
4. The husk or chaff is unusable (except for animal feed).
Most fibers are polysaccharides; complex carb; have different bonds between glucose units; these bonds cannot be broken by human digestive enzymes.
• Some fiber bonds can be broken by the bacteria found in the human digestive tract.
• Fiber comes in two forms: soluble and insoluble
Health Effects of Fiber
1. Consumption of recommended levels of fiber offers many health benefits.
2. Fiber is found only in plant foods, and has two forms - insoluble and soluble.
3. Both forms of fiber have different effects on the body, which is why it is important to eat a variety of high-fiber foods to get both types.
4. Wheat bran, mostly cellulose, has no cholesterol-lowering effect like the fiber in oat bran, legumes, and some fruits.
5. However, wheat bran is one of the most effective stool-softening fibers that may help prevent constipation and hemorrhoids
- holds water in the colon, increasing bulk, which stimulates muscles within the digestive tract and speeds up passage of food, shortening the time of exposure of the tissue to agents in the food that might cause certain cancers.
- the products of bacterial digestion of soluble fiber are absorbed into the body and may inhibit the production of cholesterol as well as enhance the clearance of cholesterol from blood, and also improve the body’s handling of glucose, perhaps by slowing digestion/absorption rate of carbohydrates so that blood glucose levels stay moderate.
-Choose naturally occurring sugars as found in fruits and dairy products.
-Choose most often the naturally occurring sugars present in nutrient-rich dairy products and fruits in order to minimize our intake of added sugars.
-The DRI committee sets the maximum intake for sugars at 25 percent of total calories or less.
-For most people, 3 to 12 teaspoons per day are suggested as part of one’s available empty calories.
– highly associated with the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, and defined by abnormal values of three of the following indicators:
a. Waist circumference
1. Men > 40 inches
2. Women > 35 inches
b. Fasting blood triglycerides > 150 mg/dL
c. Blood HDL cholesterol
1. Men < 40 md/dL
2. Women < 50 mg/dL
d. Blood pressure > 130/85 mmHg
e. Fasting glucose > 110 mg/dL
Metabolic syndrome can be combated by:
a. Count to three: Consume three or more ounce equivalents of whole-grain products daily.
b. Keep it varied: Different whole grains have different nutrients and different effects. Therefore, choose a variety of whole grains.
c. Check the label: Choose whole grains and whole-grain foods over highly processed grain products.
-made in the liver and muscles from excess glucose in the bloodstream. It can be broken down by the liver to maintain a constant blood glucose level
-Liver converts to glucose those carbohydrates that are not already in the form of glucose so that it’s transported to the cells. Cells then use it as energy or convert it to fat.
-occurs when blood glucose falls, glycogen reserves are exhausted, and you do not eat.
-Your body will shift into a fasting state, breaking down muscle to provide amino acids to the liver, which converts them to glucose to fuel the brain.
-You experience symptoms of glucose deprivation to the brain; your heart races to speed more fuel to the brain.
-True hypoglycemia is rare; symptoms of low blood sugar are easily treated by eating balanced meals and eating more frequently throughout the day
-occurs when blood glucose levels rise too high, glucose fails to get into cells, and blood glucose stays too high for an abnormally long time
-Insulin response is absent, slow, or ineffective in persons with diabetes.
-People with diabetes do best on a diet that is high in complex carbohydrate-rich foods, which is the same as for any healthy person.
-Type 2 diabetes is most common; is characterized by too little insulin, or cellular resistance to insulin
-Type 1 diabetes is less common; characterized by production of no or very little insulin, and requires insulin injections to control blood sugar levels.
-type 2 diabetes is increasing in children and adolescents
myths of sugar
-a direct link between sugar and tooth decay; there's no direct link to obesity, diabetes, heart disease, hyperactive behavior in children, or criminal behavior.
-Excessive sugar intake leads to excess caloric intake, and the extra calories are stored as body fat.
-Evidence shows that obesity rates increase in countries where sugar consumption increases.
-The goal to limit sugar doesn’t apply to all sugars
acesulfame-K, aspartame, saccharin, and sucralose.
The Simple Carbohydrates: Monosaccharides and Disaccharides
The most common of the single sugars is glucose; the sweetest, fructose. Galactose is the third. Each of the three double sugars (sucrose, lactose, and maltose) contains a molecule of glucose paired with fructose, galactose, or another glucose. Sucrose or table sugar contains both glucose and fructose(The source of energy from concentrated sweets such as sodas, cakes, and candy is sucrose). Lactose, or milk sugar, is made up of a molecule each of glucose and galactose. The third double sugar, maltose, is made up of two molecules of glucose.
The Complex Carbohydrates: Starch
The polysaccharides starch, glycogen, and fiber are composed of chains of glucose units. Starch is the storage form of glucose in the plant. Sources of starch in the diet include seeds, grains, and starchy vegetables. Dietary fiber is indigestible by humans.
Whole-grain breads are produced with flour made from the germ, bran, and endosperm of the wheat kernel, whereas enriched breads contain flour made from the endosperm only.
The Complex Carbohydrates: Fiber
Researchers note the beneficial effects of both insoluble and soluble fibers in the diet for reducing the risk of diseases such as atherosclerosis, colon cancer (possibly), diabetes, diverticulosis, and obesity. It is important to eat a variety of high-fiber foods to reap the benefits derived from both types of fiber.
Guidelines for Choosing Carbohydrates
It is recommended that people consume 45%-65% of their total calories from carbohydrates, preferably from complex carbohydrates such as whole grains. The Dietary Guidelines recommend consuming enough fiber-rich foods to provide 14 g fiber per 1000 calories while reducing the intake of calories from added sugars. The USDA’s MyPlate provides a framework from which to select carbohydrates in the diet.
-the biggest problem with sugar is that it is an “empty-calorie” food. That is, it contains calories and virtually nothing else. If a person consumes a lot of sugar, it may certainly crowd out other nutrient-dense foods, or may contribute to the over-consumption of total calories and therefore obesity. Sugar has been linked to increases in dental caries (cavities). A judicious diet includes some simple sweeteners, but no more than 10% of total calories from sugars (hopefully).
1. salivary glands
2. pancreas/small intestine
4. large intestine
Which of the following compounds is a monosaccharide?
Sue is concerned about her children's teeth after their first dental checkups. Her 2 year old already has a cavity and her 4 year old needs to brush better. What else should Sue's children do to prevent tooth decay?
All of the following foods lower blood cholesterol levels except:
If Steven needs 2100 calories per day to maintain his weight, how many grams of total carbohydrate should he consume daily to meet DRI Committee recommendations?
The primary role of fiber in the diet is to provide quick energy.
The greatest single source of added sugars in the American diet is:
Which of the following conditions is not a symptom of metabolic syndrome?
Soluble fibers help lower blood cholesterol levels.
One of the most effective stool-softening fibers is found in:
Martha is always trying to avoid sugar and believes it is responsible for making her overweight, giving her husband diabetes, and causing hyperactivity in her grandchildren. Which of the following conditions is sugar actually the cause of?
Functions of fat in the body are to:
a. Provide a concentrated source of energy
b. Serve as an energy reserve
c. Form the major components of cell membranes
d. Nourish the skin and hair
e. Insulate the body from extremes of temperature
f. Cushion the vital organs to protect them from shock
1. Fats provide about 60% of the energy needed to perform much of the body’s work during rest and slightly more during extended bouts of light to moderately-intense exercise
2. A pound of body fat is worth 3,500 calories, and a person’s body can easily carry 30 to 50 pounds of fat without appearing fat at all.
• About 95% of lipids in foods and in the human body are triglycerides.
• Other members are the phospholipids (lecithin) and sterols (cholesterol).
The Functions of Fats in Foods
1. Fat is a nutrient found in many foods and it contains more than twice as many calories as protein or carbohydrate.
3. High-fat foods deliver many unneeded calories.
4. Fats in foods provide satiety by slowing the rate at which the stomach empties. This is the reason why you feel fuller longer after eating meals that include fat. Fats contribute aroma and flavor.
5. Some essential nutrients are soluble in fat and therefore are found mainly in foods that contain them:
a. Essential fatty acids
b. Fat-soluble vitamins: A, D, E, and K
Saturated versus Unsaturated Fats
-Fatty acids differ in chain length and degree of saturation.
a.Chain length refers to the number of carbons that are hooked together in the fatty acid. It is significant because it affects solubility of fat in water.
c. Degree of saturation refers to the chemical structure - specifically to the number of hydrogens the fatty acid chain is holding.
-When a chain is filled to capacity with hydrogen, it is called a saturated fatty acid.
-A point of unsaturation is a place in the chain where hydrogens are missing. A chain that possesses a point of unsaturation is an unsaturated fatty acid.
a. Monounsaturated fatty acids have one point of unsaturation.
b. Polyunsaturated fatty acids have two or more points of unsaturation.
The human body can synthesize all the fatty acids except two - linoleic acid and linolenic acid.
a. They must be supplied by the diet and are considered essential fatty acids.
b. They are polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are widely distributed in the diet, especially in plant and fish oils.
c. They are readily stored in the body; however, deficiency symptoms can occur in a person deprived of these acids.
Omega-6 versus Omega-3 Fatty Acids
--Unsaturated fatty acids are classified as omega-6 or omega-3 fatty acids.
--Linoleic acid (omega-6) is also related to a whole series of other fatty acids.
--Linolenic acid (omega-3) also has a similar family of other fats. Omega-3s are of particular interest as they offer a protective effect on health.
-People who eat two to three fish meals a week tend to have lower blood levels of cholesterol and triglycerides and lower clot-forming rates. Other studies also show enhanced defenses against cancer and reduced inflammation in arthritis and asthma sufferers
-The amount of unsaturated fatty acids in a fat affects the temperature at which the fat melts.
1.The more unsaturated a fat, the more liquid it is at room temperature, whereas the more saturated a fat, the firmer it is.
-Oils become rancid when the unsaturated points react to oxygen because they are weak spots vulnerable to attack by oxygen.
Preventing spoilage of oils containing unsaturated fatty acids
-change chemically by hydrogenation (causes them to lose their unsaturated character and health benefits); hydrogen is forced into the oil, some of the unsaturated fatty acids accept the hydrogen, and the oil becomes harder
-A second way is to add a chemical that will compete for oxygen and protect the oil; this additive is called an antioxidant.
a. Such additives are BHA and BHT.
b. Natural antioxidants are vitamins C and E.
-Another way is to alter natural fats and oils by adding an emulsifier to allow fats and water to mix and remain mixed in a food product.
a. Products that use emulsifiers are mayonnaise, margarines, salad dressings, and cake mixes.
b. Mono- and diglycerides are good emulsifiers, as in the emulsifier found in egg yolk—lecithin.
-They serve as emulsifiers in the body, joining both water and fat so that they can help fats travel back and forth across the lipid-containing membranes of cells into the watery fluids on both sides. They are also important components of cell membranes.
-Phospholipids and a related molecule called lecithin are molecules consisting of fats (fatty acids) combined with a phosphate atom. These molecules are used to build the walls of all of the cells in our bodies. Additionally, they serve as emulsifiers that allow fat to be transported back and forth through the cell membrane.
1. Another emulsifier often listed on food labels as a food additive.
2. It is also an important component of cell membranes.
3. Lecithin is widespread in food and is also made by the liver in abundant quantities, and therefore most people’s diets contain adequate amounts.
-only in animal foods and is also made in the body
-It's part of bile, which is necessary for the digestion of fats.
-It's the starting material from which sex hormones and many other hormones are made.
-One of its derivatives in the skin is made into vitamin D with the help of sunlight.
-It's an important lipid in the structure of brain and nerve cells.
-It's a part of every cell, but it is also the major component of the plaque that narrows the arteries in the disease atherosclerosis.
1. The shortest free fatty acids pass by simple diffusion into the cells that line the intestine and enter the body’s capillaries; this is because they are somewhat water soluble.
2. The short-chain fatty acids are transported from these capillaries through collecting veins to the capillaries of the liver.
1. The glycerol follows the same path as the short-chain fatty acids because it is water soluble as well.
Long-chain fatty acids
1. The larger products of fat digestion (long-chain fatty acids, cholesterol, and phospholipids) are insoluble in water.
2. The longer-chain fatty acids reconnect with glycerol or with monoglycerides, forming new triglycerides.
3. Cells then package them for transport before releasing them into the lymph system.
4. The triglycerides and other lipids form and combine with special proteins to make chylomicrons.
1. There are 4 types of lipoproteins: chylomicrons, VLDL, LDL, and HDL.
2. Lipoproteins are of great importance because of the implications they have on the health of the heart and blood vessels.
The underlying cause of heart disease is atherosclerosis - the narrowing of the arteries caused by a buildup of cholesterol-containing plaque in the arterial walls.
-Another sign of high heart attack risk is raised LDL concentrations in the blood, because LDLs in the blood tend to deposit cholesterol in the arteries.
a. LDL-cholesterol is damaging to the artery walls once it has been oxidized.
b. The oxidized form of LDL catalyzes the process of atherosclerosis in the artery walls by attracting macrophages to the arterial area.
c. Foam cells burst and deposit their cholesterol in the damaged arterial walls, ultimately leading to plaque accumulation.
• Keep fat intake within 20%-35% of total calories.
• Eat no more than 10% of calories as saturated fat and as little trans fats as possible.
• Limit daily cholesterol intake to no more than 300 milligrams daily
A. The average American diet includes about 34% of its calories from fat, about 11% of calories from saturated fat, and 2.6% from trans fats.
C. Dietary guidelines recommend that total fat not exceed 20% to 35% of a day’s total calories, coming mostly from poly- and monounsaturated fats while keeping saturated fat intake to less than 10%.
The “Mediterranean Diet”
-has about 30% of total calories provided by fat.
-derives 8% of total calories from saturated fat, while the typical American diet derives 12% from saturated fat. Europeans use fats higher in monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats.
a. Olive oil is high in oleic acid that keeps the heart healthy.
b. It keeps HDL-cholesterol high and LDL-cholesterol low.
c. It contains more omega-3 fatty acids than omega-6 fatty acids.
d. However, it is still a fat and can promote overweight and obesity.
-lower “good” HDL-cholesterol in the blood; formed when margarine is produced through the hydrogenation process; Other foods are shortening, baked goods, certain brands of peanut butter, and commercial frying fats
-FDA requires that manufactures list the trans fat content on a separate line within the Nutrition Facts panel
-A product may be labeled trans fat free if it contains less than 0.5 grams of trans fats and less than 0.5 grams of saturated fats per serving.
Heart Disease Facts
• More than half the people who die in the United States each year die of heart and blood vessel disease.
• Heart disease costs the United States more than $60 billion a year in direct health care costs, lost wages, and lost productivity.
• The leading causes of heart disease are atherosclerosis and hypertension.
Lipids in the body function to maintain the health of the skin and hair; to protect body organs from heat, cold, and mechanical shock; and to provide a continuous energy supply. The breakdown of 1 pound of body fat supplies 3,500 calories to meet energy needs. In foods, fats and oils act as a solvent for the fat-soluble vitamins and the compounds that give foods their flavors and aromas.
A Closer View of Fats
-About 95% of the lipids in the diet are triglycerides; the phospholipids and sterols make up the other 5%.
-Linoleic acid (an omega-6 fatty acid) and linolenic acid (an omega-3 fatty acid) are the most important of the polyunsaturated fatty acids in foods. The body is unable to synthesize them; therefore, they are essential fatty acids. Deficiency symptoms of the essential fatty acids include skin rash, and in children, poor growth
Solid fats (which are mostly animal in origin) have a high percentage of saturated or trans fats, whereas liquid oils are mostly unsaturated. Food fats containing unsaturated fatty acids spoil easily. Hydrogenation makes these acids less susceptible to spoilage; but in partial hydrogenation, trans-fatty acids, which may have an adverse effect on health, are formed.
Foods that contain fat are found in the meat and milk groups and in fats themselves. Most of the saturated fat found in the diet comes from meat and other animal fats. Organ meats, shellfish, eggs, meats, and other animal fats contribute cholesterol to the diet. No plant product contains cholesterol. Vegetable and fish oils generally contain more polyunsaturated fats than do other animal fats.
1. mouth- some hard fats melt as they reach body temp
2. stomach- mixes fat with water and acid; stomach enzyme accesses and breaks apart a small amount of fat; fat is last to leave the stomach
3. liver, gallbladder, and small intestine- in small intestine, fat encounters bile; gallbladder quirts bile into the contents of the small intestine to blend the fat with the watery digestive secretions
4. pancreas- fat digesting enzymes from here enter small intestine; the enzymes can attack fat only after emulsification; they break down acids, glycerol, and monoglycerides
5. large intestine- some fat and cholesterol (trapped in fiber) is carried out of the body with other wastes
a. fats and water tend to separate; enzymes are in the water and cant get at the fat
b. bile (emulsifier) has affinity for fats and for water so it can bring them together
c. small droplets of emulsified fat. the enzymes now have access to the fat (which is mixed in the water solution)
Computations are based on a 2000-calorie diet:
Total fat per day (maximum):
2000 × 35% ÷ 9 = ________ grams fat/day
(round to nearest whole number)
Total saturated fat per day:
2000 × 10% ÷ 9 = ≤ _______ grams sat. fat/day(round to nearest whole number)
Hydrogenation makes unsaturated fats more saturated.
A desirable level of total blood cholesterol in adults is:
All of the following are correct about phytosterols except:
a. they may reduce blood cholesterol when consumed as part of a low-fat diet.
b. they are structurally similar to the steroid hormones.
c. they are found in all margarines made from vegetable oils.
d. they block the absorption of dietary cholesterol from the intestine.
Which of the following factors is the most powerful influence on HDL levels?
Foam cells play an important role in preventing heart disease progression.
All of the following are correct about hydrogenation of oil except:
High concentrations of high-density lipoproteins are associated with a high risk of heart attack.
Which of the following is not an effect of diets high in omega-3 fatty acids?
The bulk of the saturated fat in most North American diets comes from animal flesh or animal products.
A sizable body of evidence from around the world suggests that garlic may benefit health by
What Proteins Are Made Of
-Proteins contain nitrogen atoms (unlike carbs and fat) and are composed of amino acids, which are linked in chains. Nonessential amino acids can be synthesized in the body. The nine essential amino acids cannot be synthesized in the body or be made in amounts sufficient to meet physiological need. Since all body cells contain protein, routine maintenance and repair of body tissue requires a continual supply of amino acids to synthesize proteins. Growth of new tissue requires additional protein.
1. The body can make about half of the amino acids (known as nonessential amino acids) for itself.
a. The nonessential amino acids are: alanine, arginine, asparagine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glutamic acid, glutamine, glycine, proline, serine, and tyrosine.
There are some amino acids that the healthy body cannot make (known as the essential amino acids).
a. The essential amino acids are: histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine.
If the diet does not supply the essential amino acids, the body cannot make the proteins it needs to do its work.
1. Proteins can undergo denaturation, resulting in distortion of shape by heat, alcohol, acids, bases, or the salts of heavy metals.
a. For example, cooking an egg denatures the proteins of the egg and makes the egg firmer.2. Denaturation is useful to the body in digestion; the first step in the protein’s breakdown occurs in the stomach, where the acid opens up the protein structure, permitting digestive enzymes to cleave the peptide bonds.
The Functions of Body Proteins
• Protein is part of every cell; living tissue cannot be built without it.
• About 20% of our total body weight is protein.• Proteins come in many forms: enzymes, antibodies, hormones, transport vehicles, oxygen carriers, tendons and ligaments, scars, the cores of bones and teeth, the filaments of hair, materials of nails, and more
The Functions of Body Proteins
The major role of dietary protein is to supply amino acids for the synthesis of proteins needed in the body, although dietary protein can also serve as an energy source. Proteins act as enzymes, as well as perform many other functions in the body. They help regulate water and acid-base balance. Antibodies and some hormones are made of proteins. In the cell membrane, protein “pumps” enable the cell to take up and retain specific compounds while excluding others.
1. One function of dietary protein is to ensure the availability of amino acids to build the proteins of new tissue.
2. Protein helps replace worn-out cells.
a. An example: cells that line the digestive tract live for about 3 days and are constantly being shed and excreted.
b. Another example: cells of your skin die, rub off, and are replaced from underneath.
3. For all new growth, amino acids must constantly be re-supplied by food.
1. All enzymes are proteins, and are among the most important proteins because they are catalysts that help chemical reactions take place.
2. There are thousands of enzymes inside a single cell, each facilitating a specific chemical reaction: digestion of food, the release of energy from the body’s stored energy supplies, and tissue growth and repair.
3. Enzymes are specific for a particular reaction, due to the surface of the enzyme - contoured so that the enzyme can attract one or more specific chemical compounds and promote a specific chemical reaction.
4. Enzymes - worker’s hands in the production and processing of all substances needed by the body.
1. Hormones are similar to enzymes in the importance of their function, but they differ - not all are made of protein, and they do not catalyze chemical reactions directly but instead act as messengers that maintain a normal environment within the body.
2. Hormones regulate overall body conditions, such as blood glucose levels and metabolic rate.
1. Antibodies best demonstrate that proteins are specific for one organism - formed in response to the presence of antigens that invade the body.
2. Antigens (foreign proteins or other large molecules) may be part of a bacterium, a virus, or a toxin, or may be present in food that causes allergy.
3. When foreign substances invade the body, antibodies are manufactured to inactivate them.
4. The body cannot maintain its resistance to disease without sufficient protein to make antibodies.
5. Once the body has learned to make a particular antibody, it never forgets—immunity. The next time it encounters that same foreign substance, it will be equipped to destroy it even more rapidly.
a. Too much, it ruptures; and too little, it is unable to function.Proteins attract water; however, proteins cannot diffuse freely into and out of cells like water can. The water-attracting protein stores inside the cells help the cells meet their fluid needs
1. Normal processes of the body continually produce acids and bases (their opposite), which must be carried by the blood to the organs of excretion.
2. The blood must do this without affecting its own acid-base balance; to accomplish this some proteins act as buffers (maintain normal pH).
3. The acid-base balance of the blood is one of the most accurately controlled conditions in the body.
1. A specific group of the body’s proteins that specializes in moving nutrients and other molecules in and out of cells.
2. They can be switched on or off in response to the body’s needs, and often hormones do the switching.
3. Other transport proteins move about in the body fluids, carrying nutrients and other molecules from one organ to another.
a. Some examples: lipoproteins that carry lipids or other proteins that carry fat-soluble vitamins, water-soluble vitamins, and minerals
1. If insufficient fat and carbohydrate are eaten, protein will provide energy—amino acids are broken down, amine groups are incorporated into urea and sent to the kidneys for excretion.
2. The remaining components—carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen—are available for immediate energy use by the body.
3. Only when the protein-sparing calories from carbohydrates and fat are sufficient to power the cells will the amino acids be used for their most important function—making proteins.
4. If stores of amino acids are abundant, their amine group will be removed and excreted and then they will be converted to glucose, glycogen, or fat (for energy storage).
5. When there is a shortage of amino acids, tissues such as the blood, muscle, and skin are broken down and their amino acids are used to maintain the heart, lungs, and brain
How the Body Handles Proteins
1. Protein digestion is initiated in the stomach, and then moves into the small intestine as single amino acids, or strands of two, three, or more amino acids.
2. Digestion continues until almost all pieces of protein are broken into dipeptides, tripeptides, and more free amino acids.
1. Absorption of amino acids takes place all along the small intestine.
2. The cells that line the small intestine capture dipeptides and tripeptides on their surface, split them into amino acids on the cell surfaces, absorb them, and then release them into the blood stream.
3. Once circulating in the bloodstream, amino acids are available to be taken up by any cell. The cells can then make proteins for their own use.
Nonessential versus essential amino acids
1. Cells make protein strands from nonessential amino acids.
2. If essential amino acids are missing in the cell, the cells cannot complete the protein strand, and so protein building stops.
3. The cell cannot hold these partially completed proteins; therefore, they are dismantled and return into circulation, making them available to other cells.
4. If other cells do not soon pick up these amino acids and insert them into proteins, the liver will remove their amine groups for the kidney to excrete.
A complete protein supplies all the essential amino acids; a high-quality protein not only supplies them but also provides them in the appropriate proportions. Animal protein sources are generally of higher quality than vegetable protein sources, but diets composed of plant foods provide plenty of protein, as long as a variety of nutrient-dense and complementary protein foods are chosen.
The AMDR for protein is 10%-35% of total caloric intake. The RDA for protein for the healthy adult is 0.8 grams of protein per kilogram of desirable body weight.
a disease in which protein is lacking. It typically occurs in children after weaning, with the severest symptoms observed after the age of 2. Protein deficiency also can occur simply because calories are inadequate (marasmus). The deficiencies of protein and calories, which often go hand in hand, are together called protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) and are a worldwide malnutrition problem.
- energy deficiency
a. Similar to kwashiorkor symptoms. Both conditions result in loss of body tissues; however, the child with marasmus is just skin and bones.
b. The child is often sick because his/her resistance to disease is low, muscles are wasted (including heart), and the metabolism is so slow the body temperature is subnormal.
c. Occurs most commonly in children from 6 months to 18 months of age in all overpopulated city slums of the world.
d. Marasmus impairs brain development, since the brain normally grows to almost its full adult size within the first two years of life.
Types: Marasmus and Kwashiorkor
PEM is prevalent in Africa, Central America, South America, and Asia. PEM has also been recognized in many undernourished hospital patients, including those with anorexia nervosa, AIDS, cancer, and other wasting conditions.
There are many misconceived notions regarding protein in the diet; the most obvious being “more is better.”
a. American women eat about 60 to 65 grams of protein a day, notably higher than the recommended 46 grams a day.
b. Men average about 100 grams a day when young and about 75 to 85 grams as older adults, which is still higher than their recommended intake of 56 grams
Foods that supply protein in abundance are found within the Dairy Group and the Protein Group of USDA’s MyPlate
- dried beans, peas, and lentils - have been getting high praise recently.
a.The 2010 Dietary Guidelines recommend eating more beans. apart of the Vegetable and Protein Groups. low in fat and cholesterol free
Legumes are rich sources of:
2. The B vitamins
4. Minerals (especially iron and zinc)
• To obtain neither too few nor too many calories in order to maintain a healthful weight.
• To obtain adequate quantities of complete protein.
• To obtain the needed vitamins and minerals.
• To limit intakes of added sugars, solid fats, and sodium.
The prevalence of food allergy is greatest in the first few years of life and is believed to be the result of the child’s immature immune system. The immature digestive system may allow more intact allergen proteins to enter the bloodstream. Early exposure to certain foods can also play a role in development of food allergy in children.
Recent findings show that substances such as phytoestrogens and isoflavones, found in soybeans, can lower cholesterol and help prevent disease. Numerous studies attest to the role soy foods may play in reducing risk for certain forms of cancer, heart disease, and osteoporosis, in controlling diabetes, and in easing a woman’s transition through menopause.
1. Soybeans are legumes, members of the same plant family that includes other beans, peas, and lentils.
2. They are relatively low in carbohydrates and high in fiber compared to beans, peas, and lentils.
3. Legumes are high in protein, but soybeans supply all of the essential amino acids needed for health.
4. The amino acid pattern of soy protein is equivalent in quality to meat, milk, and egg protein, meaning it is the only vegetable food that contains complete protein.
Isoflavones are a type of phytoestrogen, a compound that has a weak estrogenic activity.
Soy sauce and soybean oil have no isoflavones.
Isoflavones may be one of the key factors in soybeans that have disease-fighting potential.
These foods have been consumed for hundreds of years, and are known to be safe.
Protein as a source of life’s variety:
In the first step of protein synthesis, each amino acid is hooked to the next.
A peptide bond connects one amino acid to another.The differing structures of proteins enable them to perform different tasks in the body.
proteins provide building materials (amino acids) for growth and repair of body tissues
proteins form vital parts of most body structures (skin, nails, hair, membranes, muscles, teeth, bones, organs, ligaments, and tendons)
-enzymes: proteins facilitate numerous chemical reactions in the body; all enzymes are proteins
-hormones: some proteins act as chemical messagers, regulating body processes; not all hormones are proteins
-antibodies: proteins assist the body in maintaining its resistance to disease by acting against foreign disease
-fluid balance: proteins help regulate the quantity of fluids in body compartments
-acid-base balance: proteins act as buffers to maintain the normal acid and base concentrations
-transportations: proteins move needed nutrients and other substances into and out of cells and around the body
Identify three important characteristics of dietary protein:
1. Should supply at least the nine essential amino acids.
2. Should supply enough other amino acids to make nitrogen available for the synthesis of whatever nonessential amino acids the cell may need to make.3. Should be accompanied by enough food energy (preferably from carbohydrate and fat) to prevent sacrifice of its amino acids for energy.
- contain ample amounts of all essential amino acids
1. Examples are meat, fish, poultry, cheese, eggs, milk, or many soybean products.
- limited in essential amino acids, low in one or more
1. Examples are plant-derived protein foods; a sound choice is to eat two or more incomplete proteins.
2. The limiting amino acid is the essential amino acid in shortest supply.
a. The limiting amino acid restricts the body’s ability to build its own proteins
The DRI Committee recommends that protein provide __10___ to ___35__ percent of total caloric intake.
The recommended protein allowance for a healthy adult is __0.8____ gram per kilogram of desirable body weight.
-plant foods and milk products only (no meat, eggs, fish, seafood)
-possible limiting nutrient: iron
top foods that cause reactions
Children with marasmus look very wasted, whereas children with kwashiorkor do not.
Maggie and her mom are in the supermarket shopping for dinner. Maggie wants to try soy burgers for dinner. Her mother doesn't want to try them and says, "What is the big deal about soy? Why should we try soy burgers?" Maggie has learned about the benefits of soy while taking a nutrition course and begins to explain to her mom why soy might be good for both of them. Let's see if you know as much as Maggie about soy by answering the following questions.
What is special about soy protein?
It is the only vegetable food that contains complete protein.
Which of the following is a good way to boost the isoflavone content of a meal?
The building blocks of proteins are called amino acids.
Which of the following foods is least likely to cause food allergies?
Which vitamin is most likely to be lacking in a vegan diet?
Which of the following is classified as being a cancer initiator?
a. Ultraviolet light
Vitamins fall into two categories:
1. Those that dissolve in water (water-soluble)
2. Those that dissolve in fat (fat-soluble)
-B vitamins—thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12, biotin, and pantothenic acid—and vitamin C.
a. The body excretes excess water-soluble vitamins so they rarely reach toxic levels in the body. In the body, water-soluble vitamins act as coenzymes- they assist enzymes in doing their metabolic work within the body. In foods, water-soluble vitamins are relatively fragile. They can be washed out or destroyed during food storage, processing, and preparation.
Fat-soluble vitamins include vitamins A, D, E, and K, which are found in fats and oils in food and are stored in the liver and fatty tissue in the body. Therefore, large doses can lead to toxicity if over-consumed.
The fat-soluble vitamins are absorbed along with fats in the digestive tract. Any disorder that interferes with fat digestion or absorption can precipitate a fat-soluble vitamin deficiency. Because they are stored in the liver and body fat, daily intakes are not usually necessary.
-“anti-oxygen” because they fight oxygen. There are chemical reactions necessary for the body’s ability to function that involve the use of oxygen; however, it results in the creation of highly toxic compounds called free radicals.
Vitamin C actually works with vitamin E to block damaging chain reactions that appear to promote heart disease and cancer.
Free radicals left unchecked can cause severe cell injury and ultimately may contribute to development of chronic diseases.
-unstable and reactive molecule with an unpaired electron in the outer shell
Vitamin C is also a powerful scavenger of environmental air pollutants. Smokers are encouraged to consume more vitamin C. Vitamin C makes collagen which holds the body together. It helps fight stress. Vitamin C boosts the body’s immune system. Vitamin C cures and prevents colds. SOURCES: oranges and other citrus fruits, broccoli, brussels sprouts, potatoes, cantaloupe, and strawberries.
a precursor for vitamin A. Sources (accounts for about 1/2 of the vitamin A in the U.S.): dark, leafy green vegetables, almost all fruits and vegetables brightly colored. may help prevent age-related macular degeneration and lower the risk of cataracts. Beta-carotene is converted into vitamin A. This happens very slowly; excess amounts are not stored as vitamin A but are stored in fat deposits instead. beta-carotene from foods poses virtually no risk of toxicity.
it helps with: vision, healthy skin and tissue, production of sperm and normal development of fetuses, the immune response, hearing, taste, and growth. Deficiency can cause vision impairment and night blindness and reduced resistance to infections. 90% of it stored in the liver. sources: dark green and orange vegetables, milk, cheese, butter, and other dairy products, eggs, and a few meats. Fat-free milk loses vitamin A during processing; in the U.S. and Canada the nutrient is fortified back into the milk.
These include folate and vitamins B12, B6, and K.
Folate (folic acid) is a coenzyme that makes DNA and red blood cells. Folate helps with pregnancy; folate reduces the risk neural tube defects. Deficiency: red blood cells misshapen and unable to carry sufficient oxygen (anemia), fatigue, irritability, forgetfulness, and headache. Sources: vegetables, legumes, seeds (lost when foods are overcooked, canned, dehydrated, or processed)
B Vitamins and Heart Disease
B vitamines serve to clear homocysteine from the blood and prevent its toxic buildup.
Vitamin B12 protect nerve fibers and work with folate to make red blood cells. Deficiency: folate is unable to build red blood cells so anemia develops, paralysis (permanent nerve damage). Extra folate can treat the anemia but not paralysis. Sources: animal foods, B12-fortified soy beverages, fortified cereals, or supplements. B12 can be treated by injections as well.
Functions as a coenzyme and helps make hemoglobin for red blood cells. It helps in protein metabolism. The requirement for B6 is based on the protein intake. Deficiency is rare and causes a multitude of symptoms, including weakness, irritability, and insomnia. Low levels may weaken the immune response and increase risk of heart disease. Sources are meats, vegetables, and whole-grain cereals.
Helps proteins involved in making blood clot. If blood-clotting factors are absent, blood cannot clot, and a person may have excessive bleeding if injured. sources: Intestinal flora, green, leafy vegetables and cabbage. Deficiencies & toxicity are rare (caused by long use of antibiotics). Newborns are given a dose because they dont have vitamin K synthesis or bacteria in the digestive tract. it works with vitamin D to make bone protein that helps regulate calcium levels in the blood.
Bones are made of living tissue based on the protein collagen (bone minerals—calcium and phosphorus—are deposited). When calcium intakes are low, hormones and vitamin D cause bones to release calcium into the blood, causing bones to become less dense and fragile. Besides calcium, other nutrients are needed for the growth and maintenance of a healthy skeleton: Vitamins D, C, & K
It helps with absorption of calcium & production of calcium and phosphorus in the blood. The body can synthesize it through the liver and kidneys with the help of sunlight and any disease affecting the liver or kidneys can cause bone deterioration. Sources: eggs, liver, fish, sunlight. Deficiency: rickets- children and osteomalacia- adults. Excess of it increases calcium absorption, which is deposited on soft tissue; likely to happen in the kidneys, causing calcium-containing stones to form.
It releases energy from carbohydrates and plays a role in processes that involve nerves. Deficiency: affects nerves, muscles, heart, and other organs. Severe deficiency (beriberi) causes extreme wasting, muscle tissue loss, body swelling, enlargement of heart, irregular heartbeat, and paralysis. Sources: meats, legumes, fruits, vegetables, and all enriched and whole-grain products.
A coenzyme in energy-releasing reactions that helps prepare fatty acids and amino acids for breakdown. Deficiency are rare and include: severe skin problems, cracks at the corners of the mouth, red and swollen tongue, and teary/bloodshot eyes. Sources: milk and dairy products, meat, dark green vegetables, and whole-grain or enriched bread/cereals. Ultraviolet rays of the sun or fluorescent lamps can destroy riboflavin.
A coenzyme vital to energy; without it energy-yielding actions stop. Deficiency: leads to pellagra, dermatitis, and in severe cases dementia. The amino acid tryptophan can be converted to niacin. Sources: proteins-milk, eggs, meat, poultry, and fish. 60 mg of trytophan= 1 mg of niacin. Its been used as a drug to help lower cholesterol; lower LDL and raise HDL. High doses can lead to side effects.
Pantothenic acid and biotin are needed for coenzyme synthesis in a multitude of the body’s systems. Biotin is required in cell growth, DNA synthesis, and maintenance of blood glucose levels. The vitamins are widespread in foods; therefore, a varied diet reduces risk of deficiencies.
Sulfur is present in some amino acids and in all proteins. Its role is to help strands of protein to assume and hold a particular shape, enabling them to do their specific jobs, such as enzyme work. There is no recommended intake for sulfur, and no deficiencies are known
Choline is a vitamin-like substance
1. It is needed to metabolize homocysteine
2. It is also used to make lecithin and other body molecules.
3. Considered a “conditionally” essential nutrient since the body can make it
4. Found in mild, eggs, peanuts and many other foods
5. Deficiencies are rare.
keep in mind:
-Price does not equate with quality.
a. Look for the USP certification on the label. Choose a product with an expiration date.
-Choose supplements that contain no more than 100% of the daily recommended value.
-plant medicines are more dilute or less concentrated. -Popular in the US-“Natural” does not always mean “safe.” bc theres no regulation of the herbal industry. There is no way of knowing that the purchased product contains an “effective” amount of the herb. Theres no government regulation of supplements. They can say: “supports,” “promotes,” or “maintains health” w/ no evidence. Herbal medicines dont have to meet any standards of effectiveness or safety.
Cancer is the second major cause of death. 1 of 3 Americans will get cancer. Certain foods increase cancer risk; others reduce it. Diet is only one factor related to the development of cancer.
Deficiency diseases involving the B vitamins include beriberi (thiamin), pellagra (niacin), and anemia (folate or vitamin B12).
Cycling and swimming are more effective than other activities at building bone mass.
Which statement about phosphorus is incorrect?
a. It is part of DNA and RNA.
Major (macro) and Trace (micro) minerals.
1. The distinction between them is that major minerals occur in the body in relatively large amounts and are needed in the diet in relatively large amounts. 2. Trace minerals occur in the body in minute amounts and are needed in smaller amounts in the diet.
3. Trace minerals only comprise a tiny percentage of the body’s weight but they perform several vital roles for which there are no substitutes.
Bone tissue has two forms:
Trabecular and Cortical bone.
a. Cortical bone, the thick, ivory-like outer portion, provides a covering for the inner trabecular bone.
b. Trabecular bone forms a lacy network of calcium-containing crystals that are sponge-like in appearance.When calcium intakes are low, hormones and vitamin D cause trabecular bone to release calcium into the blood, causing—over time—the bones to become less dense and fragile.
-Total bone mass reaches a peak around age 30
-To obtain peak bone mass, it is necessary to have optimal calcium intakes during the bone growth years. Vitamins D, C, & K. Hormones & the protein collagen. And the minerals—calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, & fluoride
It is the most abundant mineral in the body. 99% is stored in the bones. it supports and protects the body’s soft tissues. It functions to aid in transmission of nerve impulses, muscle contraction, maintaining the integrity of cell membranes, maintenance of normal blood pressure, and blood clotting, and it is a cofactor for several enzymes. Deficiency: osteoporosis.
Sources: milk/milk products; green vegetables; and some fish and shellfish. The higher the diet is in protein, the greater the amount of calcium excreted
Second in abundance in the body. About 85% of phosphorus is found combined with calcium in bones and teeth as calcium phosphate, the chief component that gives them strength and rigidity. It is part of DNA and RNA. It is critical in energy exchange. Source: animal protein, virtually in all foods. The recommended intake of phosphorus is lower than that for calcium, because a higher intake of phosphorus can interfere with absorption of calcium.
Is in all cells of the muscles, heart, liver, and other soft tissues. it forms part of the protein-making machinery and helps in the release of energy. It helps relax muscles after contraction and resists tooth decay by helping to hold calcium in tooth enamel. Bone magnesium is a reservoir. Deficiency (rare): heart failure, high blood pressure, may occur as a result of vomiting, diarrhea, alcohol abuse, or protein malnutrition. Sources: nuts, legumes, cereal grains, dark green vegetables, seafood, chocolate, and cocoa.
small amount occurs in the human body. Fluoride protects teeth from decay and makes the bones of older people resistant to adult bone loss. Drinking water is the usual source of fluoride. when natural fluoride concentration in water is high, children’s teeth develop with spotted enamel (fluorosis). Toxicity can occur but usually only after years of chronic daily intake
All body cells require a continuous supply of water, oxygen, energy, and building materials. The blood transports oxygen and nutrients to cells and removes wastes. Three trace minerals serve vital blood-related functions, especially oxygen carrying: iron, zinc, and copper.
Its the body’s oxygen carrier; binds to protein hemoglobin in red blood cells, which helps carry oxygen from lungs to tissues and permits the release of energy to fuel the cells’ work. Deficiency: anemia occurs, (weakness, tiredness, headaches, cold, and pale) reduction in the number and size of the red blood cells; deficiency is common (75%). women have lower levels of iron. Sources: liver, red meats, poultry, fish, oysters, and whole grains, fruits, vegetables
-heme (iron bound into the iron-carrying proteins such as hemoglobin found in meats, poultry, and fish) Heme iron is better absorbed than nonheme iron.
-nonheme (iron in both plant and animal sources).
Nonheme iron’s absorption is affected by many factors, including the amount of vitamin C consumed with meals. Vitamin C promotes iron absorption and can triple the amount of nonheme iron absorbed from foods eaten at the same meal.
when the body absorbs excessive amounts of iron; more common in men than women. Tissue damage occurs, especially in organs that store iron such as the liver. Infections are more likely to occur. iron can act as a powerful oxidizing agent in reactions that produce free radicals in the body. can be fatal.
found in every cell; cell multiplication and growth, normal metabolism, and the disposal of free radicals. Involved in the use of vitamin A, insulin, and promots a healthy immune system. sources: high-protein foods, such as shellfish, meats, and liver, whole grains. Infants, children, teenagers, and pregnant women have the highest zinc needs
Copper is involved in making red blood cells, manufacturing collagen, healing wounds, and maintaining the sheaths around nerve fibers.
When the body needs energy it uses the nutrients from food—this is called metabolism.
1. It breaks glucose, fatty acids, glycerol, and amino acids into smaller units to make energy.
2. When energy is not required it turns glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids into body compounds.
Chromium works closely with the hormone insulin to help the cells take up glucose and break it down for energy. Good sources of chromium include dark chocolate, nuts, mushrooms, asparagus, and whole grains.
Sulfur is present in some amino acids and in all proteins. Its role is to help strands of protein to assume and hold a particular shape, enabling them to do their specific jobs, such as enzyme work. There is no recommended intake for sulfur, and no deficiencies are known.
Iodine is part of thyroid hormones that regulate body temperature, metabolic rate, reproduction, and growth. The hormones enter every cell of the body to control the rate at which the cells use oxygen and release energy. Deficiencies- sluggishness, weight gain, and cretinism in the children of pregnant women. Sources: fruits and vegetables grown in coastal areas rich in iodine, iodized salt
It is an antioxidant enzyme that helps prevent free radical formation. Selenium can also substitute for vitamin E in some of that vitamin’s antioxidant activities. A selenium deficiency is associated with a form of heart disease seen in areas with selenium-poor soil.
Most needed nutrient by the body. Makes up part of every cell, tissue, and organ in the body; accounts for about 60% of body weight. Functions: 1. Transports the nutrients needed to nourish the cells 2. Carries away waste products formed during the reactions that take place in cells 3. Acts as a shock absorber in joints and spinal cord 4. Lubricates the digestive tract as well as all the tissues moistened with mucus 5. Maintains body temperature
dissolved substances in the blood and body fluids that carry electrical charges: Sodium- positively charged ion outside the cell, Potassium- positively charged ion inside the cell, Chloride- negatively charged ion outside the cell. They keep balance in fluids inside and outside cells, help with nerve-to-nerve communication, heartbeats, and contraction of muscles. loss of fluid= loss of electrolytes. The concentrations of electrolytes are crucial to the life-sustaining activities of the vital organs.
part of sodium chloride (salt) RDI: 1,500 mg for young adults, 1,300 mg for adults, and 1,200 mg for elderly. highly salted foods can contribute to high blood pressure (hypertension). Generally, the more processed a food is, the more sodium it contains, whereas whole, unprocessed foods tend to be high in potassium and low in sodium.
Maintains the heartbeat. Deficiency: heart failure, harms brain cells, makes someone unaware they need water. sources: fruits, vegetables, grains, meats, fish, poultry, and milk. Toxicity from potassium: the kidneys accelerate their excretion, therefore maintaining control. Should that limit be exceeded, a vomiting reflex is triggered.
Chloride can move freely across membranes and so is also found inside the cells in association with potassium. In the blood, chloride helps in maintaining the acid-base balance. In the stomach, the chloride ion is part of the hydrochloric acid that maintains the strong acidity of the stomach needed for protein digestion. Nearly all dietary chloride comes from sodium chloride (table salt).
The most basic distinction is based on the concentrations of 3 minerals: calcium, magnesium, and sodium. Hard water comes from shallow ground and contains calcium and magnesium. Soft water flows from deep in the earth and contains sodium. Soft water helps soap lather better and leaves less of a ring on the bathtub. Hard water is a better for health because soft water adds more sodium to our diets.
1. Juices can add extra calories.
2. Fruit/vegetable flavor does not necessarily mean fruit/vegetable nutrition.
3. The best choices are 100% fruit/vegetable juice.
4. However, juice does not usually have much of the fiber contained in whole fruit/vegetables.
5. Additionally, some juices use concentrated white grape juice as a sweetener, increasing simple sugar and calories but still claiming to be 100% juice.
A chemical compound containing carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. Caffeine is a bitter, water-soluble substance.
Energy drinks promise unrestrained energy in a can, including a pick-me-up, enhanced workouts, energy to study, and more. Health concerns: They arent regulated by the FDA; Levels of caffeine in energy drinks are not suitable for children or caffeine-sensitive people; Caffeine is a diuretic and may be counterproductive for replacing fluids lost during exercise
Sport drinks replace fluids and electrolytes lost through sweat and provide energy. They may help delay fatigue and improve postexercise recovery. Sport drinks should include: 6% carbohydrate (glucose, sucrose, & fructose), Sodium, No carbonation, No caffeine
Sport drinks containing only fructose should be avoided as it slows fluid absorption and causes abdominal cramps, as does carbonation.
“Enhanced water” have added vitamins, minerals, amino acids, herbs, antioxidants, and/or fiber (doesnt help like regular fiber). Water-soluble vitamins taken in excess are excreted and fat-soluble vitamins are not really absorbable without fat present. Antioxidants added to water have not been shown to help prevent disease or “protect your body” as claimed
20% of alcohol absorbed in stomach and 80% absorbed in small intestine. Its measured in breath and urine. Its eliminated through sweat, feces, milk, and saliva. Liver can metabolize a limited amount per hour. Its metabolized slower than absorbed; it takes about 1 hr to metabolize 1 drink. Food slows absorption of alcohol. Women absorbs 30% more alcohol into her bloodstream than men.
the body becomes more effective in removing high levels of alcohol from the blood, which leads to more drinking and can contribute to addiction.
normal chemical and electrical functions of nerve cells increase to counteract inhibitory effect of alcohol exposure, which helps people (chronic alcohol users) function normally with higher BAC but tends to make them irritable when they are not drinking and makes them crave alcohol.
Alcoholism is a dependency on alcohol characterized by craving, loss of control, physical dependence, and withdrawal symptoms and tolerance. Levels: Use- Ingestion of alcohol/drugs without experiencing any negative consequences. Misuse- Experiencing negative consequences from his/her use of alcohol/drugs. Abuse- Continued use despite negative consequences. Dependency/Addiction- Compulsive use of alcohol/drugs regardless of the adverse or negative consequences.
a. Men - no more than 2 drinks per day
b. Women - no more than 1 drink per day
A person suffering from anorexia nervosa usually has a low sense of self-esteem.
Ziti with marinara sauce
The leading causes of overweight and obesity are genetics, excess energy intake, and physical inactivity.
1. Food portion sizes have grown.
2. Vending machines sell high-calorie drinks and snacks.
3. Adults spend more time in sedentary activities.
4. Children spend many hours weekly watching TV and playing video games.
5. Schools offer fewer physical education classes.
6. More people live in communities without recreational spaces that also limit transportation opportunities to cars.
1. The underweight person has minimal body fat stores and will be at a disadvantage in situations where energy reserves might be needed.
2. Other problems include menstrual irregularities, infertility, and osteoporosis.
Excess fat around the middle (apple-shaped or pear-shaped). People who store most of their excess fat around the abdomen (typically men) are at greater risk for developing diabetes, hypertension, elevated levels of blood cholesterol, and heart disease. Excess fat in the abdomen is a greater health risk than excess fat in the hips and thighs. waist circumference of over 35 inches in women and over 40 inches in men.
The first measure is the body mass index (BMI), which is an index of your weight in relation to your height.
a. Overweight is defined as a BMI of 25 to 29.9.
b. Obesity is defined as a BMI of 30 or above.
c. BMI does not account for location of fat in the body.
About 60% or more of the energy the average person spends goes to support the ongoing metabolic work of the body’s cells; this is basal metabolism. The beating of the heart, the inhaling and exhaling of air, the maintenance of body temperature, and the sending of nerve and hormonal messages to direct these activities are the basal processes that maintain life. (1200-1400 cal)- the amount of energy used at rest. Men generally have a faster metabolic rate than women do because men have a greater percentage of lean tissue.
The basal metabolic rate (BMR) is influenced by a number of factors.
a. The younger a person is, the higher the BMR.
b. The BMR is most pronounced during the growth spurts that take place during infancy, puberty, and pregnancy.
c. Body composition also influences metabolic rate.
d. The more lean tissue, the higher the BMR; the more fat tissue, the lower the BMR.
When you eat more calories then you need, the energy nutrients contribute to body stores. Carb is broken down to glucose. Glucose may be built up to glycogen or converted to fat. Protein is broken down to its basic units (amino acids) for absorption. Those amino acids that are not used cannot be stored as protein for later and are converted to fat. fats, carbs, protein are stored for later use in 2 forms: glycogen and fat.
Your body draws on its stored supply of nutrients to keep going when you stop eating. First the body uses the liver’s glycogen. then the fat stores most people carry (this is no use to the nervous system; muscles and other organs use fat as fuel, the nervous system converts protein to glucose). the body turns to its own lean tissues to keep up the supply of glucose. people lose weight quickly on the first 3 days of a fast because they devour their own protein tissues as fuel.
the body’s last resort is to convert fat stores into a form it can use to help feed the nervous system; this is known as ketosis. Instead of breaking down fat molecules all the way to carbon dioxide and water, as it normally does, the body takes partially broken down fat fragments, combines them into ketone bodies, and lets them circulate in the bloodstream; ketone bodies are produced from the incomplete breakdown of fat when glucose is unavailable for the brain and nerve cells
The most common operation involves minimizing stomach pouch size and disconnecting a portion of the small intestine to reduce absorption.
a. After bypass surgery, the person can’t eat as much and will absorb fewer calories and nutrients from what is consumed.
The second most common operation involves placing a silicone band around the stomach to make it smaller, thus forcing the person to eat less.
a. Nausea and vomiting occur if the person continues to overeat following either procedure.
Muscles increase in strength and size—hypertrophy.
Muscles, if not called on to perform, decrease in size—atrophy
Strength is the ability of the muscles to work against resistance. The purpose of strength training is to build well-toned muscles that let you accomplish daily activities at work and during recreation as well as to prevent injury. Our ability to respond to strength training continues to a very old age.
A flexible body can move as it was designed to move and will bend rather than tear or break in response to sudden stress. Flexibility tends to decrease as you age but improves in response to stretching, and it can be maintained in most people by doing frequent stretching exercises.
Muscle endurance—the power of a muscle to keep on going for long periods without becoming fatigued; third component of fitness.
the length of time that you can keep going with an elevated heart rate—how long your heart can endure a given demand, cardiovascular endurance; the ablility of the heart and lungs to keep operating efficiently. Your heart is a muscle can become larger and stronger. The best exercises to develop cardiovascular endurance are those that repetitively use large muscle groups—arms and legs—and that last for a continuous 20 to 60 minutes.
aerobic exercises that improve the endurance of the lungs, heart, blood, blood vessels, and the muscles along the arteries and in the walls of the digestive tract. the total blood volume increases so that the blood can carry more oxygen. The heart muscle becomes stronger and larger. Since each beat of the heart pumps more blood, it needs to pump less often. Circulation improves. Blood moves easily, and blood pressure falls.
Target Heart Rate
This means you must elevate your heart rate (pulse). This heart rate must be considerably faster than the resting rate to push the heart but not so fast as to strain it. To calculate your target heart rate range: Estimate your maximum heart rate (MHR)- subtract your age from 220; Determine your target heart rate range—multiply MHR by 55% and 90% to find your upper and lower limits. you reach your cardiovascular fitness goal when you can work out at your target heart rate for 20 to 60 mins
Glucose and Physical Activity
During exercise, the body supplies glucose to the muscles from the stores of glycogen in the liver and in the muscles themselves. The longer the exercise lasts or the more intense it is, the more glucose a person uses. If exercise continues beyond 20 minutes, glycogen use slows down to conserve the remaining glycogen supply; the body begins to rely more on fat for fuel.
At some point, if exercise continues long enough, glycogen will run out almost completely. People who run out of muscle glycogen during an event “hit the wall”—they have to slow down their pace since muscle glycogen is no longer available to fuel their activity
Fat Use During Physical Activity
When you exercise, the fat your muscles burn comes from the fatty deposits all over the body. the supply of fat is almost unlimited; muscles to use fat for energy is not. If you work out enough to allow your heart to supply ample oxygen to working muscles, the muscles will use fat stores for fuel. fat is broken down for energy during aerobic metabolism. Exercise training improves the body’s ability to deliver fat to working muscles, and trained muscles have an increased ability to use the fat.
If you can’t talk normally, you are incurring oxygen debt and are burning more glucose than fat; if you can sing, you aren’t getting a cardiovascular workout or burning much of anything (so speed up).
muscles are made largely of protein. to become or stay fit one may need more protein. Initial increases in muscle mass, numbers of red blood cells to carry oxygen, and amounts of aerobic enzymes in muscles to use fuel efficiently may elevate an athlete’s protein needs. muscle protein builds up after exercise
The plasma picks up heat generated by the muscles and circulates it to the skin for removal, mostly through sweat. as your body heats up from exercise, you lose water through sweat. if this water isnt replaced, water will be pulled from your muscles and organs, causing cramps and early fatigue. low plasma levels make your heart work harder (faster beating) to supply sufficient oxygen to the muscles. Eventually, since plasma volume is declining, heat builds up and core temperature rises.
The carbohydrate in a sports beverage serves three purposes during exercise:
1. Becomes an energy source
2. Helps maintain blood glucose at an optimum level
3. Helps increase the rate of water absorption from the small intestine, helping to better maintain plasma volume
Vitamins are the links and regulators of energy-producing and muscle-building pathways.
Iron and Physical Activity
Iron is a core component of the body’s oxygen taxi service: hemoglobin and myoglobin. A lack of oxygen compromises the muscles’ ability to perform. Physical activity may cause increased iron losses in sweat, feces, and urine, plus increased destruction of red blood cells that occurs during exercise.
Some women who exercise strenuously cease to menstruate, a condition called amenorrhea.
A diet rich in complex carbohydrates and low in fat not only provides the best balance of nutrients for health but also supports physical activity best.
your body can’t store extra amino acids, whether they come from food you eat or from supplements. Your body converts the excess into fat. This conversion of amino acids to fat generates urea, which increases your body’s need for water. Both diarrhea and increased urination of urea can lead to dehydration, impeding training and performance.
A child may become anemic by drinking too much milk to the exclusion of other foods.
If the mother’s nutrient stores are inadequate early in pregnancy when the placenta (the organ that grows inside the uterus to support life) is developing, the fetus will develop poorly, no matter how well the mother eats later. Infants born of malnourished mothers are more likely to become ill, have birth defects, and suffer retarded mental or physical development. routine supplementation with vitamins during pregnancy is not advised.
nutrient needs during pregnancy are higher than at any other time in their life. nutrient needs are much higher, but energy needs are not. an additional 350-450 cal per day during the 2nd and 3rd trimester.
Protein - the recommended intake for protein is about an additional 20 grams per day over nonpregnant requirements.
a. Many women are already eating enough protein to cover the increased demand of pregnancy.
Iron- the body conserves iron even more than usual during pregnancy. Menstruation ceases, and absorption of iron increases. This drain on the mother’s supply can precipitate a deficiency; as well, the mother loses blood when she gives birth. The recommended intake for iron during pregnancy is 27 mg per day, an increase of 50% above nonpregnant needs.
the recommended folate intake is 50% greater than that of the nonpregnant woman due to the large increase in her blood volume and the rapid growth of the fetus. Folate supplementation around the time of conception reduces the occurrence of neural tube defects such as spina bifida. Women are advised to get the recommended amounts of folate before becoming pregnant and during the first trimester of pregnancy.
the DRI for calcium during pregnancy is 1,300 mg for teens and 1,000 mg for adults over 18 years of age. Intestinal absorption of calcium doubles early in pregnancy, and the mineral is stored in the mother’s bones. During the last trimester of pregnancy, when fetal skeletal growth is maximum and teeth are being formed.
A woman who begins pregnancy at a healthful weight should gain= 25 to 35 pounds. Healthy-weight with twins= 37 to 54 pounds. underweight woman= 28 to 40 pounds; an obese woman= 11 and 20 pounds. Low weight gain =increased risk of delivering a low-birthweight infant. Excessive weight gain = increases the risk of complications during labor.
1. Genetic potential for extended longevity.
2. A continued desire for new knowledge and new experiences.
3. Socialization, intimacy, and family integrity.
4. Avoiding excesses of food energy, fat, cholesterol, and sodium.
5. Avoidance of substance abuse.
6. Acceptable living arrangements.
7. Financial independence.
8. Access to health care
intoxications and infections.
Food intoxications occur when a chemical or toxin transmitted by way of food causes the body to malfunction. An example is Staphylococcus aureus.
Foodborne infections occur as a result of eating a food that contains living microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, or parasites, capable of multiplying and thriving in the body. An example is the Vibrio bacteria.
Lead usually does not poison a person all at once; rather, low levels build up gradually in the soft tissues of the kidneys, bone marrow, liver, and brain. Over time, the accumulated lead can cause such health problems as diminished intelligence and impaired development. Pregnant women and young children are particularly vulnerable to the effects of lead because their bodies absorb high levels of it, misidentifying it as calcium.
– the ability to obtain sufficient food on a day-to-day basis
Food security is defined as access by all people at all times to enough food for an active, healthy life and at a minimum includes the following:
a. The availability of nutritionally adequate and safe foods.
b. The ability to acquire personally acceptable foods in a socially acceptable way.
limited or uncertain availability of safe, nutritious foods, or the ability to acquire them in socially acceptable ways
Food insecurity was once viewed as a problem of overpopulation and inadequate food production, but it is now recognized as a problem of poverty.
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