The Self CREATEDATE 10/29/09 1:00 PM The self: Is the self really a topic for Social Psychology? We come to know ourselves through interaction with others The Self in Social Interaction William James ? 1980 Self as knower versus self as object ?I? Versus ?Me? ?Me? - - object of what is known Self as object of cognitive activity ? self-concept SELF-CONCEPT How do people think about themselves? How is the self defined? 3 categories of self-concept (James): the material me the spiritual me the social me We possess multiple social selves - - as many as we have significant others - - distinct classes of people whose opinions we value Suggests a fractured self, but James argues that the essence of personal identity is a sense of continuity among these selves Cooley ? Theory of the looking glass self: 1920?s Self-awareness depends on the capacity to adopt the perspective of others Self-concept is the internalization of what other people think about us REFLECTED APPRAISALS Research on the self-concept Review of literature in 1975 discovered that almost all studies of ?self-concept? actually concerned ?self-esteem? We need to separate questions about How we define ourselves From How we evaluate ourselves Self-esteem - - how we evaluate ourselves Self-concept - - how we define ourselves Most common approach ? have participants rate themselves along a number of dimensions: How friendly are you? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 How curious are you? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Spontaneous self-concept (McGuire) Self-description that a person gives in their own words w/o explicit guidelines from the experimenter Assumption: People will mention things that are most important or salient to them Developmental trends in self-concept? Sixth graders describe themselves on terms of: Habitual activities Significant others Attitudes School status Demographics Self-evaluation (((((((( Physical characteristics College Students describe themselves in terms of: Age Gender Student status Interpersonal style Personality traits Values Body image Ex: My name is Bruce C. I have brown eyes. I have brown hair. I have brown eyebrows. I?m 9 years old. I love sports! I have 7 people in my family. I have GREAT Eyesite. I have of friends. I live on 1923 Pinecrest Drive. I?m going in 10 in Sept. I?m a boy. I have an uncle that is almost 7 feet tall. My school is Pinecrest. My teacher is Mrs. V. I play Hockey! I am almost the smartest boy in class. I LOVE! Food. I love fresh air. I LOVE school.?Sixth graders I am a human being. I am a girl. I am an individual. I don?t know who I am. I am a Pisces. I am a moody person. I am an indecisive person. I am an ambitious person. I am a very curious person. I am not an individual. I am a loner. I am an American (God help me), I am a Democrat. I am a pseudo-liberal. I am an atheist. I am not a classifiable person (i.e., I don?t want to be). ? College student McGuire also shows how features of the social environment influence the self-concept People tend to mention things about themselves that distinguish them from other people?those characteristics that set you apart from others Suburban high school where 82% were Caucasian, 9% African-American, 8% Hispanic Who mentions their ethnicity? Caucasian students: only 1% African-American students: 17% Hispanic students: 18% McGuire?s work? Suggests that salient features of the self-concept depend on the social context Supports William James? notion of multiple selves?i.e, our self concept may vary depending on the situation we find ourselves in, or the people we are surrounded by? Considers the contents of the self-concept ? how people define themselves, what features define them, what things are most important to them?descriptive But, its hard to keep the self-concept value-free? Hard to separate description and evaluation SELF-ESTEEM + On the whole, I am satisfied with myself - At times I think I am no good at all + I feel that I have a number of good qualities - I feel I don?t not have much to be proud of + I feel I am a person of worth, at least on an equal basis with others - All in all, I feel that I am a failure Stable versus transient views of self-esteem? When is the self important to behavior, and what are the consequences of thinking about the self? CSIKSZENTMIHALYI asked what kinds of situations elicit concern about the self, and what are the consequences? Studied 107 people, ages 19-23; recorded their thoughts 45 times at random intervals over one week. (What they were doing, how they felt, whether they?d rather be doing something else) Categories, in order of frequency? Recorded their thoughts 45 times at random intervals over one week (what they were doing, how they felt, whether they?d rather be doing something else) Looked at what they were feeling, And discovered that when people were thinking about themselves, they were less happy, then when they were thinking about anything else? Objective Self-Awareness theory (Duval and Wickland) Theory that predicts when people will focus on themselves, and what happens when they do Self concept ( ( ( (Behavior? They argue that the self-concept will only influence behavior when people are self-aware Self-awareness depends on where our attention is focused Attention can be directed in an inward, self-focused direction, or outward toward the situation Objective self-awareness: focused attention on the self Experimental manipulation?. Presence of a mirror, tape recorder, or video camera or not And the effects of how much seeing themselves interferes with their behaviors Draw Chart out: Objective Self-Awareness theory (Duval & Wickland) Theory examines what happens? Focused attn on the self Mirror, camera, tape recorder No one else is looking but urself And once you start looking at urself you start making observations Flow Chart: on slide When thinking about urself: you look at ur face, evaluate urself based on ur internal standards, values, beliefs And if you?re not up to ur own standards, you feel bad and disappointed in ourselves Then we experience negative-affect The best way to make urself feel better, you escape If there is no escape, then u try to reduce the discrepancy so we don?t feel as bad Research evidence for this concept Carver: Study of cleverness test feedback: Students come into lab and take a cleverness test; learn that they are in the bottom 10%; then go into another room and are asked to wait for another experimenter The room that they are waiting in?.the question is how long do they wait? The room has a mirror or not Results: 1. You have to be self-aware 2. You have to fall short of ur feedback Dependent Variable: How long they wait for the experimenter who never comes (# minutes) w/o a mirror and below Vs. Top; they wait for 8 minutes w/ a mirror and on top = 8 minutes BUT on bottom = 4.9 minutes they left as fast as they cud Diener: College students take a times test w/o experimenter surveillance Testing for the tendency to cheat With the timer DV: & of students who cheat by taking the test longer than the time given In the presences of the mirror or not In the absence of a mirror, 71% students cheat With the mirror in the room, 7% of students cheat Beaman: Trick or treaters come to home of social psychologists; told to take just 2 pieces of candy, but no one is watching DV: How much candy will they take? In the presence of a mirror or not Results: in the absence of the mirror 34% take more candy In the presence of a mirror, 12% of kids take more candy Does everyone think that cheating is wrong? B/c u are only lowering ur standards if u think that cheating is bad Carver: Study of punishment beliefs and behavior Teacher-learner paradigm DV: Shock intensity chosen for punishment (1-10 scale) Personal values, measured at the beginning of the semester: Values either: High (approve punishment) or Low (opposed to punishment) This was done in the presence or absence of a mirror Predict: that in the presence of the mirror, they look at themselves and bring their behavior in line with their beliefs In the absence of a mirror, both give a shock level of 3 In the presence of a mirror, High (approve Punishment) = 6; Low (opposed to punishment) = 1 So the mirror really affects the behavior of the individual and it makes them act on their beliefs, in this case it was either high or low punishment Sample Items from Se;f-Consciousness Scale (Fenigstein?) PRIVATE self-consciousness I?m always trying to figure myself out I reflect about myself a lot PUBLIC self-consciousness I?m self-conscious about the way I look People high in public self-consciousness are concerned about: Public opinion Way they look The impressions they create Study: asked to draw the letter E on their forehead High Publics draw for the audience People high in private self-consciosness: Attend more to private feelings More aware of physical symptoms More tuned unto personal values and opinions More likely to use personal pronouns in their writing Two sides of the self: One for you (public) One for me (Private) THE STUDY OF ATTITUDES Prussian Blue: Singers Lamb and Lynx may look like the Olsen Twins, but they are white nationalists and use their talents to preach a message of hate. ?Eleven and twelve years old,? He said, ?I think that?s the perfect age to start grooming kids and instill in them a strong racial Identity.? What is an attitude? An evaluation - - positive or negative - - of people, objects, or ideas Questions: 6, 7, 7 = 20 5, 6, 5 = 16 5, 5, 5 = 15 Testes the three components of attitude ABC?s of Attitudes A: Affect B: Behavior C: Cognition Try to measure attitudes toward voting: Person?s emotional involvement in the election Do they intend to vote? Do they know where to go to vote? We assume that the three components are interrelated, at least to some degree? Ex: Movies- Mamma Mia How does person feel about Meryl Streep, Colin Firth? Do they intend to see the picture? Do they know who?s in the movie? Ex: Measure attitudes towards political candidates: Do you like the candidate? Do you intend to go to the rallies, vote for them? Do they know what the candidate stands for? Assumption of logical consistency btwn the three components.. But, affect is often the strongest component of attitudes So, we see a strong tendency for social psychologists to measure attitudes in terms of feelings? How much do you like the movie Mamma Mia? Do you like the way McCain is voting in Washington? Questions: 3, 3, 3, 3, -2 = 14 0, 0, 2, 1, 2 = 5 1, 0, 1, some attitudes are affectively based (e.g., Ice Cream) and others are cognitively based (e.g., Calculators) Social psychologists study how attitudes 1. Develop 2. Change Study of persuasion looks at: Communicator, Message and Target 3. Affect behavior Then we saw commercials Attitudes are features of the individual that we measure and use to predict behavior (Similar to personality traits) But, attitudes are different from personality traits in that they are considered transient and malleable (i.e? Can we persuade an individual to change their behavior by music, who is doing the talking, who is listening? Previous slides in lecture 2 The fact that attitudes can and do change is the rationale for advertising?And the assumption that attitudes affect behavior is what drives the advertising industry? Another way to think about this is that we are back to the question of media influence.. Petty, Caccioppo, & Goldman, 1981 Persuasive Communication ( Do people have the ability and motivation to pay attention? ( ( Yes: NO Central route (thinking about Peripheral Route The Pros and Cons) ( ( Persuasion occurs if peripheral cues are compelling (length of communication, features of communication) Persuasion occurs if arguments are compelling ( ( Temporary attitude change Long-lasting attitude change ( ( Susceptible to further change Resistant to change Look at image 7.3 Study: College student listen to a speech arguing that their university should implement comprehensive exams before graduation Personal Relevance: High: Students were told it would be implemented in very near future Low: Implementation in 10 years (not as personally relevant) Strength of arguments: Strong-Students tend to do a lot better in the future, get better jobs, rates of teaching go up?. Vs. Weak-My friend has taken this exam and it seems like a good idea?(Central Route) Prestige of author: Ivy League Vs. High school student (Peripheral Route) Results: when the arguments were strong, then it didn?t matter if it was a professor was speaking or a student?this was if it was going to be implemented soon When it was to be implemented in ten years and there was a strong argument but they weren?t really paying attention, then people took the peripheral route and thought that if it was a smart person then the information was to be true and if it was a student they thought that it wasn?t credible If we changed the attitude?will that change behavior??? Examinations of the Attitude-Behavior connection Wicker, 1969; Reviewed 31 studies Small correlation across studies of about 0.30 (on a 0.0 to 1.0 scale) wasn?t terribly compelling, it was a very small correlation btwn the two Most famous early demonstration: LaPiere, 1934: Measured attitudes toward Asian-Americans, as well as behavior toward them in: 66 motels 185 Restaurants Questionnaires mailed to proprietors: Would they rent a room; serve food to Chinese individuals? 128 Responses: 92% answered NO!! But when they arrived at the restaurants, they served the Chinese individuals. The great Majority of Americans agree that volunteering is important... Fewer than 33% actually volunteer People value honesty But 91% admit lying regularly 92% of Americans think pollution is a problem But fewer than 50% do anything beyond simple recycling Expressed Attitude <-- True Attitude ( Behavior Hypothetical- We don?t really know what they would do in the situation Other Influences: Social Norms, you say what u think people want to hear We study Expressed attitudes and the behavior Other influences: May not do what they really want b/c other people are watching Social Norms: ?Political Correctness? Societal Attitudes Expression Nowadays we repress our attitudes about other people b/c we aren?t suppose to discriminate other racial groups even though we may have other opinions and feelings Other Influences: Behavior b/c of the need for $$, or Presence of others Other Influences ( Expressed attitudes: Measurement Problems: we can?t trust people b/c we don?t know if they are really expressing how they feel or saying what we want to hear Study: Jones and Sigall developed the bogus pipeline to improve attitude assessment Participants grasps a locked wheel Turn left to indicate disagreement; to right to indicate agreement Wheel doesn?t move, but electrodes attached to arms pick up miniature muscle movements reflecting suppressed tendency Experimenter demonstrates that it ?works? with a meter and flashing lights Experimenter then hides meter and asks participants a series of questions about African-Americans Don?t answer the question; just predict what the meter will show Compare these responses with a comparable group of participants answering the same questions on standard scales Bogus pipeline participants give more stereotyped responses (i.e., show stronger agreement with negative attitudes) Study: Implicit Associations Task - - IAT Explicit Vs. Implicit Attitudes? Dostoyesky: Every man has reminiscences which he would not tell to everyone but only to his friends. He has other matters in his mind which he would not even reveal to his friends, but only to himself, and that in secret. But there are other things which a man is afraid to tell even to himself, and every decent man has a number of such things stored away in his mind. This quote captures two themes?. Participants do a computerized categorization task? Fingers on E key and I key Obama or Good Word = E McCain or Bad Word = I Measures Implicit Attitudes Learn about your attitudes about gender difference, racial differences (e.g., Aran-Muslims), age, sexuality, weight, religion, presidents, weapons, and race?Greenwald, and Banaji Implicit Associations Test (IAT) Video People are often surprised at their own stereotypes, b/c they feel that they don?t really have prejudices until they see their results Higher activation of the amygdala when you see a black face versus a white face, show that that is a greater threat Good measure of the implicit attitude But when exposed to the white faces and black faces for a longer period of time, the activation of the amygdala goes down What causes changes in behavior independent of attitudes....$$, Peer Pressure, Candy Placement Is the behavior to be predicted spontaneous (Reactions) or planned (Figure our what ur gonna do)? When behavior is spontaneous, attitudes CAN predict behavior, but only when the attitude is accessible Accessible attitudes come to mind quickly Ex: What you think about Obama, or McCain Ex: some other ppl that u may need to do some research on Attitudes CAN predict behavior when the attitude is accessible: Attitude Accessibility: The strength of he association between and object and a person?s evaluation of that object- - Measured by the speed with which people can report hoe thru feel about an issue or object (Fazio) How much do you like snickers bar? Hate-em 1 ? 2 ? 3 ? 4 ? 5 ? Love ?em Get the rest Fazio, Powell, and Williams (1989) Attitudes towards candy and gum Measured whether people?s attitudes toward different candies and gum were accessible or not Placed candy and gum on table in 2 rows Do the individuals? attitudes about the specific candy affect which one they choose when given the option to choose Yes, for people with accessible attitudes No, for people with inaccessible attitudes (these people picked candy from the first row - - how noticeable and reachable the products were) Carver: Study of punishment beliefs and behavior Teacher-Learner paradigm Dependent variable: Shock intensity chosen for punishment (1-10 scale) Attitudes about punishment, at the beginning of the semester: Values High (Punitive) Low (Punitive) Correlation No Mirror 3 3 .00 Mirror 6 1 .40 Self-awarenes makes our attitudes accessible When behavior is deliberative or planned, We need a different approach... Fishbein & Ajzen - - Theory of Planned Behavior The best predictors of planned behavior are behavioral intentions, which are influenced by attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control There is a chart in the power point....look at that (7.7 in text) Family vacation Decisions Attitudes toward the behavior: I love Tahiti, and the South Sea Islands Subjective Norms: My kids want to go to Disney Land Perceived behavioral control: WE can?t afford four plane tickets- - Wisc dells it is! Davidson & Jaccard Specificity of Attitude Measure Correlation with Behavior In chapter 7 Birth control in general .08 Birth Control Pills .32 Using Birth Control pills .53 Using birth control pills .57 in the next 2 yrs Which is the better predictor of marijuana smoking in high school students? Number of friends who smoke marijuana <-- Attitudes toward marijuana smoking When behavior is deliberative or planned, Know for Exam: William James Cooley McGuire Csikszentmihalyi Duval & Wickland LaPiere Petty & Cacioppo-Elaboration likelihood Model Fishbein & Ajzen Festinger, Brehm, Aronson Fazio-Attitude Accessibility IAT-Banaji Leon Festinger- - Cognitive Dissonance Theory Dissonance: unpleasant tension experienced when 2 thoughts or cognitions are psychologically inconsistent Figure 6.1 Cognitive Dissonance affects information processing?(Jones & Kohler, 1959) Went to Southern town where segregation was widespread; found individuals who were in favor of segregation (PRO), some who were opposed (ANTI) and some who were neutral (NEUTRAL) Gave everyone arguments on each side; some were plausible and sensible, and others were implausible and silly; looked at which arguments people remembered? Where?s the dissonance? Plausible arguments in favor of the other position, and silly arguments in favor of your own position Insufficient Justification: Not having a good enough reason for doing what you?ve done Counterattitudinal Essay: Write an essay in support of a position that you do not believe in Attitude-discrepant behavior: When your behavior contradicts your attitudes Insufficient Justification Festinger and Carlsmith (1959) - $1/$20 study Participants performs a truly dull task Asked participants to tell next participant that it is fun: Counter-attitudinal behavior Offered $1 to $20 to do so; Everyone does it (lies next to participant) $1: doesn?t have a good reason to lie, not sufficient amount of money $20: Has a good justification to lie to the next person, external justification ?Runs into? another experimenter who measures their attitude toward that experimental activity Ratings of enjoyment of the task: $1: MORE interesting (less external justification so they had to believe it more, Internal Justification) $20: NOT interesting (more external justification so they didn?t have to like the experiment and told it like it was) The smaller the external justification for the behavior, the more dissonance is experienced, b/c that person had no reason to like that experiment but has to lie so they kind of convince themselves that it wasn?t that bad FORBIDDEN TOYS Aronson & Carlsmith, 1963 Children rated the attractiveness of toys Children were then forbidden to play with the desirable toy (#2 choice), and threatened with punishment that was MILD or SEVERE All children were told: ?I have to leave now for a few minutes?But why don?t you stay here and play with these toys? You can play with this one, but I don?t want you to play with the Jack-in-the-box? (2nd ranked toy) Mild Threat: ?If you played with it, I would be annoyed . But you can play with all the others while I am gone.? Severe threat: ?If you played with it, I would be very angry. Experimenter leaves the room, and nobody plays with the forbidden toy Dependent variable: Kids either re-rated toys right away, or had an opportunity to play with that toy at a later point in time ? both ? Higher scores mean more positive attitudes toward the toy - -so, mild threat reduces they enjoyment They have justified their behavior and don?t play with it In these 2 studies, inconsistency between behavior (saying a task is fun, not playing with a desirable toy) and Attitude (the task was boring, the toy was really quite desirable) was resolved through attitude change.. Attitude ?get notes Figure 6.5 Dissonance reduction is a process of self-justification Aronson & Mills (1959)- severity of initiation Female participants recruited to participate in ongoing discussion groups about the psychology of sexual behavior To join, they would have to go through a screening procedure 3 conditions: CONTROL: Admitted into group MILD INITIATION: Read a list of sexual words, in front of a male experimenter SEVERE INITATION: Read steamy passages Then, women get to ?listen in? on discussion And rate how interesting it was (DV) Mating rituals of fruit flies And the people that are talking, are mumbling, and not finishing their sentences The women that were in the control group and mild group, admitted that the study was boring and they wished that they didn?t do the experiment But the women in the SEVERE initiation, had to justify their work that they did to get into the discussion and so they felt the group was interesting Figure 6.2-Error Justification Video: Frat hazing Songs about Dissonance: Should I stay Should I go Pearl Jam Lyrics Lemon Spoonful Brehm (1956): Consumer Preference Study Female participants come in and are shown 8 consumer products, and they rate each of them for how desirable they are: New stove, Microwave, toaster, Coffeepot, Stopwatch, Transister Radio?. One group is just given a toaster wrapped up as a gift for doing the study The other group are given a choice of having a toaster or a sponge (EASY Choice) And the final group has a choice of having a toaster or the coffeepot (HARD Choice) Good things about the toaster It will toast bagels too Just what I need Good things about the coffeepot Matched my kitchen décor Will make me a perfect hostess Bad things about the toaster Not the perfect Get the rest of the notes? Self-Concept: The content of the self, that is, our knowledge about who we are Self-Awareness: The act of thinking about ourselves Self-Schemas: Mental structures that people use to organize their knowledge about themselves and that influence what they notice, think about, and remember about themselves. Self-Reference Effect: The tendency for people to remember information better if they relate it to themselves Independent View of the Self: A way of defining oneself in terms of one?s own internal thoughts, feelings, and actions of other people Interdependent View of the Self: A way of defining oneself in terms of one?s relationships to other people; recognizing that one?s behavior is often determined by the thoughts, feelings, and actions of others Introspection: The process whereby people look inward and examine their own thoughts, feelings, and motives Self-Awareness Theory: The idea that when people focus their attention on themselves, they evaluate and compare their behavior to their internal standards and values Causal Theories: Theories about the causes of one?s own feelings and behaviors; often we learn such theories from our culture (e.g., ?absence makes the heart grow fonder?) Reasons-Generated Attitude Change: Attitude change resulting from thinking about the reasons for one?s attitude; people assume their attitudes match the reasons that are plausible and easy to verbalize Self-Perception Theory: The theory that when our attitudes and feelings are uncertain or ambiguous, we infer these states by observing our behavior and the situation in which it occurs Intrinsic Motivation: The desire to engage in an activity because we enjoy it or find it interesting, not because of external rewards and pressures Extrinsic Motivation: The desire to engage in an activity because of external rewards or pressures, not because we enjoy the task or find it interesting Overjustification Effect: The tendency for people to view their behavior as caused by compelling extrinsic reasons, making them underestimate the extent to which it was caused by intrinsic reasons BookIt, $ for reading Task-Contingent Rewards: Rewards that are given for performing a task, regardless of how well the task is done Performance-Contingent Rewards: Rewards that are based on how well we perform a task Two-Factor Theory of Emotion: The idea that emotional experience is the result of a two-step self-perception process in which people first experience physiological arousal and then seek an appropriate explanation for it Misattribution of Arousal: The process whereby people make mistaken inferences about what is causing them to feel the way they do Appraisal Theories if Emotion: Theories holding that emotions result from people?s interpretations and explanations of events, even in the absence of physiological arousal Social Comparison Theory: The idea that we learn about our own abilities and attitudes by comparing ourselves to other people Downward Social Cognition: Comparing ourselves to people who are worse than we on a particular trait or ability Upward Social Cognition: Comparing ourselves to people who are better than we are on a particular trait or ability Social Tuning: The process whereby people adopt another person?s attitudes Impression Management: The attempt by people to get others to see them as they want to be seen Ingratiation: The process whereby people flatter, praise, and generally try to make themselves likable to another person, often of higher status Self-Handicapping: The strategy whereby people create obstacles and excuses for themselves so that if they do poorly on a task. They can avoid blaming themselves Self-Enhancement: Theß tendency to focus on and present positive information about oneself and to minimize negative information Attitude: Evaluations of people, objects, and ideas Cognitively Based Attitude: An Attitude: An attitude based primarily on people?s beliefs about the properties of an attitude object Affectively Based Attitude: An attitude based more on people?s feelings and values than on their beliefs about the nature of an attitude object Classical Conditioning: The phenomenon whereby a stimulus that elicits an emotional response is repeatedly paired with a neutral stimulus that does not, until the neutral stimulus takes on the emotional properties of the first stimulation Operant Conditioning: The phenomenon whereby behaviors that people freely choose to perform increase or decrease in frequency, depending on whether they are followed by positive reinforcement or punishment Behaviorally Based Attitude: An attitude based on observations of how one behaves toward an attitude object Explicit Attitude: Attitudes that we consciously endorse and can easily report Implicit Attitudes: Attitudes that are involuntary, uncontrollable, and at times unconscious Persuasive Communication: Communication (e.g., a speech or television ad) advocating a particular side of an issue Yale Attitude Change Approach: The study of the conditions under which people are most likely to change their attitudes in response to persuasive messages, focusing on ?who said what to when?- the source of the communication, the nature of the communication, and the nature of the audience Elaboration Likelihood Model: An explanation of the two ways in which persuasive communications can cause attitude change: centrally, when people are motivated and have the ability to pay attention to the arguments but are instead swayed by surface characteristics (e.g., who gave the speech) Central Route to Persuasion: The case whereby people elaborate on a persuasive communication, listening carefully to and thinking about the arguments, as occurs when people have both the ability and the motivation to listen carefully to a communication ?Petty and Cacioppo Peripheral Route to Persuasion: The case whereby people do not elaborate on the arguments in a persuasive communication but are instead swayed by peripheral cues Need for Cognition: A personally variable reflecting the extent to which people engage in and enjoy effortful cognitive activities Fear-Arousing Communications: Persuasive messages that attempt to change people?s attitudes by arousing their fears Heuristic-Systematic Model of Persuasion: An explanation of the two ways in which persuasive communications can cause attitude change: either systematically processing the merits of the arguments or using mental shortcuts (heuristics), such as ?Experts are always right? Heuristics: A simple rule people use to decide what their attitude is w/o having to spend a lot of time analyzing every little detail about the matter Attitude Inoculation: Making people immune to attempts to change their attitudes by initially exposing them to small doses of the arguments against their position Reactance Theory: The idea that when people feel their freedom to perform a certain behavior is threatened, an unpleasant state of reactance is aroused, which they can reduce by performing the threatened behavior Attitude Accessibility: The strength of the association between an attitude object and a person?s evaluation of that object, measured by the speed with which people can report how they feel about the object-Fazio Theory of Planned Behavior: The idea that the best predictors of a person?s planned, deliberate behaviors are the person?s attitudes toward specific behaviors, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control-Fishbein and Ajzen Subliminal Messages: Words or pictures that are not consciously perceived but may nevertheless influence people?s judgments, attitudes, and behaviors Stereotype Threat: The apprehension experienced by members of a group that their behavior might confirm a cultural stereotype Acquisition: The process by which people notice and pay attention to information in the environment; because people cannot perceive everything that is happening around them, they acquire only a subset of the information available in the environment Storage: The process by which people store in memory information they have acquired from the environment Retrieval: The process by which people recall information stored in their memories Own-Race Bias: The fact that people are better at recognizing faces of their own race than those of other races Reconstructive Theory: The process whereby memories of an event become distorted by information encountered after the event occurred Source Monitoring: The process whereby people try to identify the source of their memories Polygraph: A machine that measures people?s physiological responses (e.g., their heart rate); polygraph operators attempt to tell if someone is lying by observing that person?s physiological responses while answering questions-Correct 86% of the time Cognitive Interview: A technique whereby a trained interviewer tries to improve eyewitness?s memories by focusing their attention on the details and the context the event Recovered Memories: recollections of a past event, such as sexual abuse, that had been forgotten or repressed False Memory Syndrome: Remembering a past traumatic experience that is objectively false but nevertheless accepted as true Deterrence Theory: The hypothesis that the threat of legal punishment causes people to refrain from criminal activity as long as the punishment is perceived as relatively severe, certain, and swift Procedural Justice: People?s judgments about the fairness of the procedures used to determine outcomes, such as whether they are innocent or guilty of a crime
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