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If you are caught in a rip current, what shouldyou not do?
What percentage of the population of theindustrialized world lives within 100km of coastline?
The Sea level has risen how many centimeterssince 1850?
Which structure is perpendicular to the coastand is designed to trap sand?
Depression of the thermocline in the easternpacific.
Thevolume of Earth’s moon is ______ the ______ ocean
Namethe 4 types of Plankton covered in class?
Phytoplankton,Meroplankton, Zooplankton, Holoplankton
Organisms that float or weakly swim throughwater
Organisms that spend only their larval stagesas plankton, then either settle to the bed or grow large enough toactively swim against the currents are what type of plankton?
All energy in the ecosystem ultimately comesfrom? (2 things)
Coral Reef Coast
b. Oyster Reef Coast
c. Barrier Coast
d. Mangrove Coast
What is wrecking?
Salvaging goods from wrecked ships.
What does ectothermic mean?
Coralreefs are home to what percentage of the earth’s fish?
Organisms that use sunlight to fix carbon arecalled what?
The complete absence of dissolved oxygen is:
Why are coral reefs important? (3 reasons)
b. Medical research
Whatconditions are optimal for reefs? (2)
What is the correct phyla for sponges?
Why do plankton vertically migrate? (3)
b. Predation avoidance
c. Energy conservation
two organisms living together and helping eachother
Jetties are designed to:
What is a characteristic of Coastal Processes? (3)
a. Rip Current
b. Waves/tides/river deltas
c. Sea level change and sediment supply
La Nina Conditions are trade winds that blow:
west across the Tropical Pacific
Which industry generated the largest amount ofmoney in the year 2000, in terms of Caribbean reef values?
In what zone is reef activity concentrated?
Which of the following is NOT a phyla in theanimal kingdom?
How many phyla are there in the animal kingdom?
An ocean environment that is high in nutrientsis..?
Primarycoasts are formed by:
b. mostly by non-marine agents
The largest type of whale is:
a. blue whale
Rip currents movewater
Away from the beach
Coral reefs make up _____% of the world'soceans.
Mangroves do what? (3 benefits)
a. Protect shorelines
b. shelter fish
c. filter pollution
Lifethat makes its own food is called:
ElNino and La Nina events are _____ and _____water extremes respecively, in the equatorial Pacific.
d. hotand cold
How many miles off shore does UN convention onthe law of the seas allow a countries exclusive economic rights toexist?
In trophic level feeding what approximatepercentage of energy is transferred up tothe next level?
TheComplete absence of dissolved oxygen
Whatenvironmental variations influence organisms? (4)
Phytoplanktononly exists in the ____________ of the water column where lightpenetrates
Whatpercent of the world’s annual primary production comes from theocean?
Whydo phytoplankton exist only in the upper 200 meters of the watercolumn?
Thoughthe compensation depth varies geographically, in general because oflower amounts of light, the plankton’s respiration processes aregreater than its photosynthesis processes at depths lower than 200meters causing a net loss of energy
Fishspend most of their lives as _______________.
Foraminifera produce _____.
80% of all tropical beach sand
Howmany people are estimated to be employed by fisheries andaquaculture?
Thoughthey make only ___ of the ocean, coral reefs are home to ___ of fish.
Whatdoes El Nino mean in Spanish?
Whichof the following influenced Caribbean coral reefs since 1965 peakingin 1983-1987?
Whatis the photic zone?
The part of the ocean that light penetrates
Whatwas a problem for the U.S. during the Battle of Tarawa?
Tide was not as high as expected
Whatis unusual about the Island of Bermeja?
It might not/no longer exists
Theconversion of energy to organic substances by photosynthetic andchemosynthetic organisms is:
Coralreefs need ___ water because their ___ use ____.
c.shallow, algae, photosynthesis
Whichtype of plankton spend their entire life cycles as plankton?
According to the 2ndLaw of Thermodynamics, in any transfer of energy, some energy is_______.
Phytoplankton account for ____ ofphotosynthetic activity on Earth.
Chloroplastsabsorb _________________________ wavelengths, and appear __________.
c.red and violet; green
What is Arthropoda?
c. crabs, shrimp, barnacles
What is a group of seals called?
What percent of fish species are marine?
Whatpercent of reefs are permanently lost?
Whatare Ria coasts?
b.drowned river valleys
Whichof the following set of characteristics describes a stable area forcoral reefs to grow? (4 conditions)
b.shallow water, warm water, normal salinity, low nutrients
Whichof the following is part of the Anthropode kingdom? (2 things)
Whatdo coral eat?
Whichis a type of subaerial deposition coast?
Whichbioclimatic region is 11% of the world’s surface area?
Underwhich of the following phyla do sea anemones fall?
Allof the above is true of “wrecking” except:
c. this was considered illegal
Whatare considered the most venomous animals in the ocean and the world?
Form the base of food chains
Ifyou attended class you would know that a blue whales tongue is thesize of a(n)…..
Heterotrophsare forms of life that
.depend on other life for its food
b.depend on transfer of solar energy
Whichof the following is the primary limiting factor to life in theshallow parts of the ocean?
Why were American soldiers forced to chargeacross approximately one kilometer of open beech while under fire onTarawa?
d. poor prediction of the tides
Whichof the following is a characteristic of Emergent Coasts?
Relativesea level is falling
a.Are bony fish
b.Make up 95% of all fish
d. warm, nutrient-rich waters with phytoplankton blooms
Generallyspeaking, what gives most coral their color?
an association with different types of algae
Asshown in the “Reef Activity / Photic Zone” image from chapter 12lecture, what two measurements follow the same pattern as thenumber of coral species observed with depth?
radiantenergy and oxygen
Wherebeaches occur, shores can be divided into two zones, what are they?
Whatpercentage carbon emitted to the atmosphere by natural oranthropogenic sources is sequestered into the ocean?
Whatcauses coral bleaching on the global scale?
Whichalcohol is named after a British pirate?
Whichof the following is not transported by African dust storms?
Whatis the primary source of protein in the Bahamas?
b.health of humans
a. the animal portion of plankton; herbivorous,carnivorous or mixed.
Small crustaceans found in nearly all parts ofthe sea and freshwater habitats and are the most abundantmulti-cellular organisms on earth.
Whichis not a kind of precipation that Corals produce, as discussed inclass?
Foraminiferais what kind of organism?
Whichnatural disturbance affects corals and coral reefs? (3)
Whatcauses Coral Bleaching? (3)
a. Reduced salinity
b. Increased sedimentation
c. Bacterial infections
Whyis it important to protect coral reefs? (3)
a. many people rely on them for food
b. they can protect land from storms, flooding,and erosion
c. many different species live there
Howmuch could you be fined for a propeller scar in the ocean?
Whatwere the 3 major voyages of explorations we learned about at thebeginning of the semester?
Beagle, Challenger, American ExplorationExpeditions
Sealscan live in bitter cold climates due to their thick fat layer called
Whichof these is not evidence of emerging and submerging shorelines?
Bleaching of Coral Reefs
Whatis the total range of Caribbean reefs values in 2000.
b.water molecules moving from an area of high concentration to an areaof low concentration
Whatdoes Sea grass provide in the oceanic ecosystem? (3)
a.food and shelter
c.helps keep water clear
Whichof the following is NOT a type of Primary Coasts?
Thetotal amount of carbon in the ocean is __________ times greater thanthe amount in the atmosphere.
Kiribaticovers how many square miles of ocean?
roughly2.5 million sq. miles
Harmfulalgal blooms of single celled organisms that discolor seawater arecommonly called
Itis estimated that as many as _________ animal species may livetogether on a single coral reef.
Scientistsare more likely to trust ideas that more closely explain the ________
The_______________ isnon-linear, unpredictable, and ongoing.
Process of Science
Matteris __________ by 1:1 billion...so universe dominated by matter
currently, _________% of the carbon emitted to the atmosphere by natural oranthropogenic sources is sequestered into the ocean.
Concentrationof dissolved oxygen reduced to a point detrimental to aquaticorganisms
Howmany turtles are caught accidentally per year?
Whatis onshore current?
Landwardmotion of water
Large pelagic sharkpopulations are down 75% in the North Atlantic since 1986
Atlantic cod populationsdeclined by more than 99% since early 1960s
They face an uncertain future
Which the one is of types of hard stabilizationthat protecting harbor entrances?
Whatis the precent of coral reefs that has been threatened by humanActivity??
Whatis the precent of coral reefs that have been severely damaged?
Whatis the first law of thermodynamics?
Energycan neither be created nor destroyed
Whatis the second law of thermodynamics?
Inany transfer of energy, some energy is lost
What is a prevalent geological issue alongcoastlines especially in Kiribati?
Tradewinds relax in the central and western pacific because of
Reefsare a food source for
b.350 million people
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